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◈ The Merchant of Venice (베니스의 상인) ◈

◇ Act IV ◇

해설목차  서문  1권  2권  3권  4권 5권  1596
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 1. Act IV, Scene 1
 2. Act IV, Scene 2

1. Act IV, Scene 1

1 Venice. A court of justice.
 
2 [Enter the DUKE, the Magnificoes, ANTONIO, BASSANIO, GRATIANO, SALERIO, and others]
 
3 Duke.
4        What, is Antonio here?
5 Antonio.
6        Ready, so please your grace.
7 Duke.
8        I am sorry for thee: thou art come to answer
9        A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch
10        uncapable of pity, void and empty
11        From any dram of mercy.
12 Antonio.
13        I have heard
14        Your grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify
15        His rigorous course; but since he stands obdurate
16        And that no lawful means can carry me
17        Out of his envy's reach, I do oppose
18        My patience to his fury, and am arm'd
19        To suffer, with a quietness of spirit,
20        The very tyranny and rage of his.
21 Duke.
22        Go one, and call the Jew into the court.
23 Salerio.
24        He is ready at the door: he comes, my lord.
 
25 [Enter SHYLOCK]
 
26 Duke.
27        Make room, and let him stand before our face.
28        Shylock, the world thinks, and I think so too,
29        That thou but lead'st this fashion of thy malice
30        To the last hour of act; and then 'tis thought
31        Thou'lt show thy mercy and remorse more strange
32        Than is thy strange apparent cruelty;
33        And where thou now exact'st the penalty,
34        Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh,
35        Thou wilt not only loose the forfeiture,
36        But, touch'd with human gentleness and love,
37        Forgive a moiety of the principal;
38        Glancing an eye of pity on his losses,
39        That have of late so huddled on his back,
40        Enow to press a royal merchant down
41        And pluck commiseration of his state
42        From brassy bosoms and rough hearts of flint,
43        From stubborn Turks and Tartars, never train'd
44        To offices of tender courtesy.
45        We all expect a gentle answer, Jew.
46 Shylock.
47        I have possess'd your grace of what I purpose;
48        And by our holy Sabbath have I sworn
49        To have the due and forfeit of my bond:
50        If you deny it, let the danger light
51        Upon your charter and your city's freedom.
52        You'll ask me, why I rather choose to have
53        A weight of carrion flesh than to receive
54        Three thousand ducats: I'll not answer that:
55        But, say, it is my humour: is it answer'd?
56        What if my house be troubled with a rat
57        And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats
58        To have it baned? What, are you answer'd yet?
59        Some men there are love not a gaping pig;
60        Some, that are mad if they behold a cat;
61        And others, when the bagpipe sings i' the nose,
62        Cannot contain their urine: for affection,
63        Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood
64        Of what it likes or loathes. Now, for your answer:
65        As there is no firm reason to be render'd,
66        Why he cannot abide a gaping pig;
67        Why he, a harmless necessary cat;
68        Why he, a woollen bagpipe; but of force
69        Must yield to such inevitable shame
70        As to offend, himself being offended;
71        So can I give no reason, nor I will not,
72        More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing
73        I bear Antonio, that I follow thus
74        A losing suit against him. Are you answer'd?
75 Bassanio.
76        This is no answer, thou unfeeling man,
77        To excuse the current of thy cruelty.
78 Shylock.
79        I am not bound to please thee with my answers.
80 Bassanio.
81        Do all men kill the things they do not love?
82 Shylock.
83        Hates any man the thing he would not kill?
84 Bassanio.
85        Every offence is not a hate at first.
86 Shylock.
87        What, wouldst thou have a serpent sting thee twice?
88 Antonio.
89        I pray you, think you question with the Jew:
90        You may as well go stand upon the beach
91        And bid the main flood bate his usual height;
92        You may as well use question with the wolf
93        Why he hath made the ewe bleat for the lamb;
94        You may as well forbid the mountain pines
95        To wag their high tops and to make no noise,
96        When they are fretten with the gusts of heaven;
97        You may as well do anything most hard,
98        As seek to soften that—than which what's harder?—
99        His Jewish heart: therefore, I do beseech you,
100        Make no more offers, use no farther means,
101        But with all brief and plain conveniency
102        Let me have judgment and the Jew his will.
103 Bassanio.
104        For thy three thousand ducats here is six.
105 Shylock.
106        What judgment shall I dread, doing
107        Were in six parts and every part a ducat,
108        I would not draw them; I would have my bond.
109 Duke.
110        How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?
111 Shylock.
112        What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong?
113        You have among you many a purchased slave,
114        Which, like your asses and your dogs and mules,
115        You use in abject and in slavish parts,
116        Because you bought them: shall I say to you,
117        Let them be free, marry them to your heirs?
118        Why sweat they under burthens? let their beds
119        Be made as soft as yours and let their palates
120        Be season'd with such viands? You will answer
121        'The slaves are ours:' so do I answer you:
122        The pound of flesh, which I demand of him,
123        Is dearly bought; 'tis mine and I will have it.
124        If you deny me, fie upon your law!
125        There is no force in the decrees of Venice.
126        I stand for judgment: answer; shall I have it?
127 Duke.
128        Upon my power I may dismiss this court,
129        Unless Bellario, a learned doctor,
130        Whom I have sent for to determine this,
131        Come here to-day.
132 Salerio.
133        My lord, here stays without
134        A messenger with letters from the doctor,
135        New come from Padua.
136 Duke.
137        Bring us the letter; call the messenger.
138 Bassanio.
139        Good cheer, Antonio! What, man, courage yet!
140        The Jew shall have my flesh, blood, bones and all,
141        Ere thou shalt lose for me one drop of blood.
142 Antonio.
143        I am a tainted wether of the flock,
144        Meetest for death: the weakest kind of fruit
145        Drops earliest to the ground; and so let me
146        You cannot better be employ'd, Bassanio,
147        Than to live still and write mine epitaph.
 
148 [Enter NERISSA, dressed like a lawyer's clerk]
 
149 Duke.
150        Came you from Padua, from Bellario?
151 Nerissa.
152        From both, my lord. Bellario greets your grace.
 
153 [Presenting a letter]
 
154 Bassanio.
155        Why dost thou whet thy knife so earnestly?
156 Shylock.
157        To cut the forfeiture from that bankrupt there.
158 Gratiano.
159        Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew,
160        Thou makest thy knife keen; but no metal can,
161        No, not the hangman's axe, bear half the keenness
162        Of thy sharp envy. Can no prayers pierce thee?
163 Shylock.
164        No, none that thou hast wit enough to make.
165 Gratiano.
166        O, be thou damn'd, inexecrable dog!
167        And for thy life let justice be accused.
168        Thou almost makest me waver in my faith
169        To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
170        That souls of animals infuse themselves
171        Into the trunks of men: thy currish spirit
172        Govern'd a wolf, who, hang'd for human slaughter,
173        Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet,
174        And, whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallow'd dam,
175        Infused itself in thee; for thy desires
176        Are wolvish, bloody, starved and ravenous.
177 Shylock.
178        Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond,
179        Thou but offend'st thy lungs to speak so loud:
180        Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall
181        To cureless ruin. I stand here for law.
182 Duke.
183        This letter from Bellario doth commend
184        A young and learned doctor to our court.
185        Where is he?
186 Nerissa.
187        He attendeth here hard by,
188        To know your answer, whether you'll admit him.
189 Duke.
190        With all my heart. Some three or four of you
191        Go give him courteous conduct to this place.
192        Meantime the court shall hear Bellario's letter.
193 Clerk.
194        [Reads]
195        Your grace shall understand that at the receipt of
196        your letter I am very sick: but in the instant that
197        your messenger came, in loving visitation was with
198        me a young doctor of Rome; his name is Balthasar. I
199        acquainted him with the cause in controversy between
200        the Jew and Antonio the merchant: we turned o'er
201        many books together: he is furnished with my
202        opinion; which, bettered with his own learning, the
203        greatness whereof I cannot enough commend, comes
204        with him, at my importunity, to fill up your grace's
205        request in my stead. I beseech you, let his lack of
206        years be no impediment to let him lack a reverend
207        estimation; for I never knew so young a body with so
208        old a head. I leave him to your gracious
209        acceptance, whose trial shall better publish his
210        commendation.
211 Duke.
212        You hear the learn'd Bellario, what he writes:
213        And here, I take it, is the doctor come.
214        [Enter PORTIA, dressed like a doctor of laws]
215        Give me your hand. Come you from old Bellario?
216 Portia.
217        I did, my lord.
218 Duke.
219        You are welcome: take your place.
220        Are you acquainted with the difference
221        That holds this present question in the court?
222 Portia.
223        I am informed thoroughly of the cause.
224        Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?
225 Duke.
226        Antonio and old Shylock, both stand forth.
227 Portia.
228        Is your name Shylock?
229 Shylock.
230        Shylock is my name.
231 Portia.
232        Of a strange nature is the suit you follow;
233        Yet in such rule that the Venetian law
234        Cannot impugn you as you do proceed.
235        You stand within his danger, do you not?
236 Antonio.
237        Ay, so he says.
238 Portia.
239        Do you confess the bond?
240 Antonio.
241        I do.
242 Portia.
243        Then must the Jew be merciful.
244 Shylock.
245        On what compulsion must I? tell me that.
246 Portia.
247        The quality of mercy is not strain'd,
248        It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
249        Upon the place beneath: it is twice blest;
250        It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:
251        'Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes
252        The throned monarch better than his crown;
253        His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
254        The attribute to awe and majesty,
255        Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings;
256        But mercy is above this sceptred sway;
257        It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,
258        It is an attribute to God himself;
259        And earthly power doth then show likest God's
260        When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew,
261        Though justice be thy plea, consider this,
262        That, in the course of justice, none of us
263        Should see salvation: we do pray for mercy;
264        And that same prayer doth teach us all to render
265        The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much
266        To mitigate the justice of thy plea;
267        Which if thou follow, this strict court of Venice
268        Must needs give sentence 'gainst the merchant there.
269 Shylock.
270        My deeds upon my head! I crave the law,
271        The penalty and forfeit of my bond.
272 Portia.
273        Is he not able to discharge the money?
274 Bassanio.
275        Yes, here I tender it for him in the court;
276        Yea, twice the sum: if that will not suffice,
277        I will be bound to pay it ten times o'er,
278        On forfeit of my hands, my head, my heart:
279        If this will not suffice, it must appear
280        That malice bears down truth. And I beseech you,
281        Wrest once the law to your authority:
282        To do a great right, do a little wrong,
283        And curb this cruel devil of his will.
284 Portia.
285        It must not be; there is no power in Venice
286        Can alter a decree established:
287        'Twill be recorded for a precedent,
288        And many an error by the same example
289        Will rush into the state: it cannot be.
290 Shylock.
291        A Daniel come to judgment! yea, a Daniel!
292        O wise young judge, how I do honour thee!
293 Portia.
294        I pray you, let me look upon the bond.
295 Shylock.
296        Here 'tis, most reverend doctor, here it is.
297 Portia.
298        Shylock, there's thrice thy money offer'd thee.
299 Shylock.
300        An oath, an oath, I have an oath in heaven:
301        Shall I lay perjury upon my soul?
302        No, not for Venice.
303 Portia.
304        Why, this bond is forfeit;
305        And lawfully by this the Jew may claim
306        A pound of flesh, to be by him cut off
307        Nearest the merchant's heart. Be merciful:
308        Take thrice thy money; bid me tear the bond.
309 Shylock.
310        When it is paid according to the tenor.
311        It doth appear you are a worthy judge;
312        You know the law, your exposition
313        Hath been most sound: I charge you by the law,
314        Whereof you are a well-deserving pillar,
315        Proceed to judgment: by my soul I swear
316        There is no power in the tongue of man
317        To alter me: I stay here on my bond.
318 Antonio.
319        Most heartily I do beseech the court
320        To give the judgment.
321 Portia.
322        Why then, thus it is:
323        You must prepare your bosom for his knife.
324 Shylock.
325        O noble judge! O excellent young man!
326 Portia.
327        For the intent and purpose of the law
328        Hath full relation to the penalty,
329        Which here appeareth due upon the bond.
330 Shylock.
331        'Tis very true: O wise and upright judge!
332        How much more elder art thou than thy looks!
333 Portia.
334        Therefore lay bare your bosom.
335 Shylock.
336        Ay, his breast:
337        So says the bond: doth it not, noble judge?
338        'Nearest his heart:' those are the very words.
339 Portia.
340        It is so. Are there balance here to weigh
341        The flesh?
342 Shylock.
343        I have them ready.
344 Portia.
345        Have by some surgeon, Shylock, on your charge,
346        To stop his wounds, lest he do bleed to death.
347 Shylock.
348        Is it so nominated in the bond?
349 Portia.
350        It is not so express'd: but what of that?
351        'Twere good you do so much for charity.
352 Shylock.
353        I cannot find it; 'tis not in the bond.
354 Portia.
355        You, merchant, have you any thing to say?
356 Antonio.
357        But little: I am arm'd and well prepared.
358        Give me your hand, Bassanio: fare you well!
359        Grieve not that I am fallen to this for you;
360        For herein Fortune shows herself more kind
361        Than is her custom: it is still her use
362        To let the wretched man outlive his wealth,
363        To view with hollow eye and wrinkled brow
364        An age of poverty; from which lingering penance
365        Of such misery doth she cut me off.
366        Commend me to your honourable wife:
367        Tell her the process of Antonio's end;
368        Say how I loved you, speak me fair in death;
369        And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge
370        Whether Bassanio had not once a love.
371        Repent but you that you shall lose your friend,
372        And he repents not that he pays your debt;
373        For if the Jew do cut but deep enough,
374        I'll pay it presently with all my heart.
375 Bassanio.
376        Antonio, I am married to a wife
377        Which is as dear to me as life itself;
378        But life itself, my wife, and all the world,
379        Are not with me esteem'd above thy life:
380        I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all
381        Here to this devil, to deliver you.
382 Portia.
383        Your wife would give you little thanks for that,
384        If she were by, to hear you make the offer.
385 Gratiano.
386        I have a wife, whom, I protest, I love:
387        I would she were in heaven, so she could
388        Entreat some power to change this currish Jew.
389 Nerissa.
390        'Tis well you offer it behind her back;
391        The wish would make else an unquiet house.
392 Shylock.
393        These be the Christian husbands. I have a daughter;
394        Would any of the stock of Barrabas
395        Had been her husband rather than a Christian!
396        [Aside]
397        We trifle time: I pray thee, pursue sentence.
398 Portia.
399        A pound of that same merchant's flesh is thine:
400        The court awards it, and the law doth give it.
401 Shylock.
402        Most rightful judge!
403 Portia.
404        And you must cut this flesh from off his breast:
405        The law allows it, and the court awards it.
406 Shylock.
407        Most learned judge! A sentence! Come, prepare!
408 Portia.
409        Tarry a little; there is something else.
410        This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood;
411        The words expressly are 'a pound of flesh:'
412        Take then thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh;
413        But, in the cutting it, if thou dost shed
414        One drop of Christian blood, thy lands and goods
415        Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate
416        Unto the state of Venice.
417 Gratiano.
418        O upright judge! Mark, Jew: O learned judge!
419 Shylock.
420        Is that the law?
421 Portia.
422        Thyself shalt see the act:
423        For, as thou urgest justice, be assured
424        Thou shalt have justice, more than thou desirest.
425 Gratiano.
426        O learned judge! Mark, Jew: a learned judge!
427 Shylock.
428        I take this offer, then; pay the bond thrice
429        And let the Christian go.
430 Bassanio.
431        Here is the money.
432 Portia.
433        Soft!
434        The Jew shall have all justice; soft! no haste:
435        He shall have nothing but the penalty.
436 Gratiano.
437        O Jew! an upright judge, a learned judge!
438 Portia.
439        Therefore prepare thee to cut off the flesh.
440        Shed thou no blood, nor cut thou less nor more
441        But just a pound of flesh: if thou cut'st more
442        Or less than a just pound, be it but so much
443        As makes it light or heavy in the substance,
444        Or the division of the twentieth part
445        Of one poor scruple, nay, if the scale do turn
446        But in the estimation of a hair,
447        Thou diest and all thy goods are confiscate.
448 Gratiano.
449        A second Daniel, a Daniel, Jew!
450        Now, infidel, I have you on the hip.
451 Portia.
452        Why doth the Jew pause? take thy forfeiture.
453 Shylock.
454        Give me my principal, and let me go.
455 Bassanio.
456        I have it ready for thee; here it is.
457 Portia.
458        He hath refused it in the open court:
459        He shall have merely justice and his bond.
460 Gratiano.
461        A Daniel, still say I, a second Daniel!
462        I thank thee, Jew, for teaching me that word.
463 Shylock.
464        Shall I not have barely my principal?
465 Portia.
466        Thou shalt have nothing but the forfeiture,
467        To be so taken at thy peril, Jew.
468 Shylock.
469        Why, then the devil give him good of it!
470        I'll stay no longer question.
471 Portia.
472        Tarry, Jew:
473        The law hath yet another hold on you.
474        It is enacted in the laws of Venice,
475        If it be proved against an alien
476        That by direct or indirect attempts
477        He seek the life of any citizen,
478        The party 'gainst the which he doth contrive
479        Shall seize one half his goods; the other half
480        Comes to the privy coffer of the state;
481        And the offender's life lies in the mercy
482        Of the duke only, 'gainst all other voice.
483        In which predicament, I say, thou stand'st;
484        For it appears, by manifest proceeding,
485        That indirectly and directly too
486        Thou hast contrived against the very life
487        Of the defendant; and thou hast incurr'd
488        The danger formerly by me rehearsed.
489        Down therefore and beg mercy of the duke.
490 Gratiano.
491        Beg that thou mayst have leave to hang thyself:
492        And yet, thy wealth being forfeit to the state,
493        Thou hast not left the value of a cord;
494        Therefore thou must be hang'd at the state's charge.
495 Duke.
496        That thou shalt see the difference of our spirits,
497        I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it:
498        For half thy wealth, it is Antonio's;
499        The other half comes to the general state,
500        Which humbleness may drive unto a fine.
501 Portia.
502        Ay, for the state, not for Antonio.
503 Shylock.
504        Nay, take my life and all; pardon not that:
505        You take my house when you do take the prop
506        That doth sustain my house; you take my life
507        When you do take the means whereby I live.
508 Portia.
509        What mercy can you render him, Antonio?
510 Gratiano.
511        A halter gratis; nothing else, for God's sake.
512 Antonio.
513        So please my lord the duke and all the court
514        To quit the fine for one half of his goods,
515        I am content; so he will let me have
516        The other half in use, to render it,
517        Upon his death, unto the gentleman
518        That lately stole his daughter:
519        Two things provided more, that, for this favour,
520        He presently become a Christian;
521        The other, that he do record a gift,
522        Here in the court, of all he dies possess'd,
523        Unto his son Lorenzo and his daughter.
524 Duke.
525        He shall do this, or else I do recant
526        The pardon that I late pronounced here.
527 Portia.
528        Art thou contented, Jew? what dost thou say?
529 Shylock.
530        I am content.
531 Portia.
532        Clerk, draw a deed of gift.
533 Shylock.
534        I pray you, give me leave to go from hence;
535        I am not well: send the deed after me,
536        And I will sign it.
537 Duke.
538        Get thee gone, but do it.
539 Gratiano.
540        In christening shalt thou have two god-fathers:
541        Had I been judge, thou shouldst have had ten more,
542        To bring thee to the gallows, not the font.
 
543 [Exit SHYLOCK]
 
544 Duke.
545        Sir, I entreat you home with me to dinner.
546 Portia.
547        I humbly do desire your grace of pardon:
548        I must away this night toward Padua,
549        And it is meet I presently set forth.
550 Duke.
551        I am sorry that your leisure serves you not.
552        Antonio, gratify this gentleman,
553        For, in my mind, you are much bound to him.
 
554 [Exeunt Duke and his train]
 
555 Bassanio.
556        Most worthy gentleman, I and my friend
557        Have by your wisdom been this day acquitted
558        Of grievous penalties; in lieu whereof,
559        Three thousand ducats, due unto the Jew,
560        We freely cope your courteous pains withal.
561 Antonio.
562        And stand indebted, over and above,
563        In love and service to you evermore.
564 Portia.
565        He is well paid that is well satisfied;
566        And I, delivering you, am satisfied
567        And therein do account myself well paid:
568        My mind was never yet more mercenary.
569        I pray you, know me when we meet again:
570        I wish you well, and so I take my leave.
571 Bassanio.
572        Dear sir, of force I must attempt you further:
573        Take some remembrance of us, as a tribute,
574        Not as a fee: grant me two things, I pray you,
575        Not to deny me, and to pardon me.
576 Portia.
577        You press me far, and therefore I will yield.
578        [To ANTONIO]
579        Give me your gloves, I'll wear them for your sake;
580        [To BASSANIO]
581        And, for your love, I'll take this ring from you:
582        Do not draw back your hand; I'll take no more;
583        And you in love shall not deny me this.
584 Bassanio.
585        This ring, good sir, alas, it is a trifle!
586        I will not shame myself to give you this.
587 Portia.
588        I will have nothing else but only this;
589        And now methinks I have a mind to it.
590 Bassanio.
591        There's more depends on this than on the value.
592        The dearest ring in Venice will I give you,
593        And find it out by proclamation:
594        Only for this, I pray you, pardon me.
595 Portia.
596        I see, sir, you are liberal in offers
597        You taught me first to beg; and now methinks
598        You teach me how a beggar should be answer'd.
599 Bassanio.
600        Good sir, this ring was given me by my wife;
601        And when she put it on, she made me vow
602        That I should neither sell nor give nor lose it.
603 Portia.
604        That 'scuse serves many men to save their gifts.
605        An if your wife be not a mad-woman,
606        And know how well I have deserved the ring,
607        She would not hold out enemy for ever,
608        For giving it to me. Well, peace be with you!
 
609 [Exeunt Portia and Nerissa]
 
610 Antonio.
611        My Lord Bassanio, let him have the ring:
612        Let his deservings and my love withal
613        Be valued against your wife's commandment.
614 Bassanio.
615        Go, Gratiano, run and overtake him;
616        Give him the ring, and bring him, if thou canst,
617        Unto Antonio's house: away! make haste.
618        [Exit Gratiano]
619        Come, you and I will thither presently;
620        And in the morning early will we both
621        Fly toward Belmont: come, Antonio.
 
622 [Exeunt]
 

2. Act IV, Scene 2

1 The same. A street.
 
2 [Enter PORTIA and NERISSA]
 
3 Portia.
4        Inquire the Jew's house out, give him this deed
5        And let him sign it: we'll away to-night
6        And be a day before our husbands home:
7        This deed will be well welcome to Lorenzo.
 
8 [Enter GRATIANO]
 
9 Gratiano.
10        Fair sir, you are well o'erta'en
11        My Lord Bassanio upon more advice
12        Hath sent you here this ring, and doth entreat
13        Your company at dinner.
14 Portia.
15        That cannot be:
16        His ring I do accept most thankfully:
17        And so, I pray you, tell him: furthermore,
18        I pray you, show my youth old Shylock's house.
19 Gratiano.
20        That will I do.
21 Nerissa.
22        Sir, I would speak with you.
23        [Aside to PORTIA]
24        I'll see if I can get my husband's ring,
25        Which I did make him swear to keep for ever.
26 Portia.
27        [Aside to NERISSA] Thou mayst, I warrant.
28        We shall have old swearing
29        That they did give the rings away to men;
30        But we'll outface them, and outswear them too.
31        [Aloud]
32        Away! make haste: thou knowist where I will tarry.
33 Nerissa.
34        Come, good sir, will you show me to this house?
 
35 [Exeunt]
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◈ The Merchant of Venice (베니스의 상인) ◈

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