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◈ 윤치호일기 (1896년) ◈

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1. 1월 1일

1
1st. (17th of 11th Moon). Wednesday.
 
2
A new year in! Thick snow―making the whole city a dazzling panorama of solid silver―if silver were ever so white. Part of the day spent in making visits.
3
A great deal of excitement―weeping and gnashing of teeth in and about Seoul on account of hair-cutting. The government has forbidden wearing the hair band or "mangkun." Some fear that the people may rise up in riots. The presence of Japanese troops will prevent such outbreakings. The wretched indifference and apathy with which the people received the murder of the Queen by Japanese have strengthened my conviction that you can do anything to or with Coreans provided you have force enough to make your orders go. I would not give a copper cent for the opinions of Coreans.
4
Some whine about reforming the mind or heart of the people before reforming their hair etc. But it would take a precious amount of time to make the Corean sensible enough to cut off his topknot of his own enlightened mind. I wonder, however, why the Cabinet stir up the people needlessly by compelling them to give up the hair band.
5
Mrs. Underwood thinks a great deal of Coreans. So few people do so that I am really grateful to the sweet little lady for her pro-Corean sentiment.
6
In answer to my note written this morning, Yu Kil Chun, advises me to wait a little longer without going abroad.
 

2. 1월 3일

1
3rd. A lovely day.
 
2
Went home last night―for the 1st time in a month or more. It was good to see my dear ones at home.
3
This morning my dear wife cut my hair for me. Returned to Dr. Underwood's after dark.
 

3. 1월 5일

1
5th. Cloudy-cold.
 
2
Yu Kil Chun and Wo Yun Chung have ever since the 28th of November assured me of their help. But so far no help. They seem to prolong my confinement in order to make me appreciate their kindness all the more when it should ever come. At any rate, I fell exceedingly uncomfortable to tax the hospitality of Dr. and Mrs. Underwood so long. Am puzzled to know what to do.
3
In the day of their power Pak Yong Hio, then again the Palace party seemed immovable. Does Yu or Wo think that his foundation is so strongly laid on the support of Japanese that he fears no reverse? Certainly so far as I can see, the present Cabinet is more likely to stand―and to stand longer than any preceding one.
4
Received a family photo of Mr. McIntosh of Shanghai.
5
The day before yesterday, John, servant of general Greathouse, in company of a few other scamps, went about in police man's uniform and, by force, cut off over, it is said, forty topknots.
 

4. 1월 6일

1
6th. Mild and bright. (TABLE)
 
2
==$300 (each) (col. Ishimori) (major Maya) ==the thing most provoking is that the sum was ostensibly distributed in the name of the king of Corea!==
3
==$200 (each) (col. Murai) (col. Kohito) ====
4
==$100 (each) (Takamatsu) (Makimo) (Fujita) ====
 
5
In a dream last night, I saw the Queen. About 7 or 8 Japs, hearing that she was alive, came to see her, two of whom recognized her, to my great anxiety. At once I sent my mother to the Russian Legation asking for Waeber's help. He at last came to our assistance with a number of the Russian marines. With great relief I awoke. Hoped for the realization all day long!
6
Wo Yun Juk 魚允迪 informed my mother that Yu and Fish wanted me to find protection under them soon after the 28th of November in order to prevent me from going abroad.
7
Her Majesty and Tae Won Kun have been two great sources of political intrigues in Corea. Now that one is dead and the other, down, the present Cabinet ought to be able to get along better than the former governments.
8
Got a note from mother that my house was this afternoon watched by detectives and I was sought for. I feel much put out by this information. I had all along, of late, hoped that everything is O.K. and that I could go and stay home.
9
A late number of a Japanese paper published the significant fact that on the 12th of December 1895 a sum of1, 300 was distributed among the Japanese officials now in the Hiroshima gaol for their participation in the murder of the Queen.
10
In a conversation, Yi Yun Yong told me the other day that it was through the intervention of himself and his com-refugees that the imperial title business was broken up; that they wanted to reserve the measure for their own hands as they then expected to control the government in a day or two; and that they did not interfere with the hair cutting business because they had given up hope for their restoration in any near future. Another fly on the wheel!
11
Of the 4 refugees now in the U.S. Legation, Yi Yun Yong, Yi Wan Yong, Yi Ha Yong and Hiun Hung Taik, I like the last better than any of them. His faithfulness and courage during the attack of the 8th of October 1895 have won my respect. Ignorant as he is, there is more genuine manhood in him than in both of Yi Y.Y. and Yi W.Y.Hiun had once suspected me of being an accomplice in the 8th of October plot, and hence he showed his teeth to me in a meeting. But on the 28th of November he shook hands with me very heartily. I shall always remember Yi Ha Yong with gratitude as it was he who persuaded T.M., especially Her Majesty, to see me and treat me well after Pak's escape.
 

5. 1월 9일

1
9th. Thursday.
 
2
At 3 p.m. by appointment, met Yu Kil Chun, at Mr. Brown's. He told me how hard he has been working to help. He promised that a Cabinet guarantee for my safety should be given me in a day or two. He said that the Dynasty of Yi was before the 8th of October in a great danger through the thoughtless machinations of Yi Chai Soon 李載純 and Yi Hak Kiun 李學均, who wanted to sell the country to Russia, Yu told me how someone had informed him that I went about insisting that, of all others, Yu Kil Chun should be killed. (!) I have never even thought so. But then Yu tells so many stories.
3
At his request, called on Yi Pom Chin. He asked me if I wanted to go to Russia with Yi H.K. on a private mission of His Majesty. I answered him that I should consider his proposition. However desirous I may be of seeing St. Petersburg, I do not like to go there, or anywhere, on an inglorious mission―such as giving up the autonomy of Corea.
4
Moved to a room I have secured at Mr. Yi Yun Yong's, next to Dr. Underwood's. The room is cold. So far as comforts are concerned my new lodging can not be compared to Dr. Underwood's hospitable home. But I feel at ease―the essence of comfort―in my own room.
5
According to Yu, the Prime Minister Kim asked His Majesty if it was consistent with the Royal wishes to recall Yi Kiu Wan (李奎完) and Shin Ung Hui 申應熙, the two men who ran away with Pak, and to give them positions. His Majesty made all such attempts impossible by saying that Yi and Shin being traitors, like Pak Yong Hio, even their names should not be mentioned in his presence. I do not believe this stuff. Kim and Yu and Company do not go by the King's wishes nowadays. Else they would not have murdered his wife. The fact is Kim and Yu and Company hate Pak like a poison. Hence they invented this story to keep him and his associates from Corea.
 

6. 1월 15일

1
15th. Wednesday. Very mild.
 
2
Feel irritated for the confinement.
3
The government offered to employ Dr. Philip Jaison, (徐載弼) as a General Bureau of the Information on a contract running 20 years. The doctor politely declined the offer.
4
Dr. Jaison told Dr. Underwood that the Cabinet had some days ago intimated their desire to use Yi and Shin. But when Dr. Jaison told them (the Ministers) that he would at once telegraph to Yi and Shin to return, the government, through Yu, requested the Doctor not to do so as the King was very much opposed to recalling the runaways!
5
More than on one occasion, Yu Kil Chun told me that, the night on which Pak was expelled, T.M. desired to have P's residence surrounded by soldiers with orders to kill him on the spot. But, according to Yu, he opposed his whole strength and influence to such a summary measure, thus saving bloodshed etc. etc. However, Hyon Hung Taik 玄興澤 tells me that it was Kim Hong Chip and Yu Kil Chun who wanted him to attack P's house with troops and that it was he (Hyon) who refused to use the palace guard for arresting criminals while there are the police and the Board of Justice.
6
Some of the smartest things Yu Kil Chun boasts himself of are things of deceit. He lies from principle, habits, pride. No wonder that he glories and persists in lying―for he has succeeded more with lying than one who sticks to honesty. After all, it is his brain and not his lies that has made him rise to the position of a Cabinet Minister from the rank of a "Choosa" in the space of one year and a half.
7
Dr. Jaison told Dr. Underwood that my cousin (尹致旿) now in Tokio is not only pro-Japanese but is there in the interest of the present Cabinet.
 

7. 1월 16일

1
16th. Thursday.
 
2
Suffered all day from a bad cold. After dark, went home in a chair. One never knows the full value of the sweet and soft ministry of a loving wife and an affectionate Mother until he returns home after a separation.
3
Yu K. Chun does not want to set Yi Yun Yong (李允用) at large in the country lest he might stir up local disturbance. But Hyon Hung Taik, according to Yu, must go out of the Capital lest his frequent interviews with His Majesty might sadden the king by reminding him of his bereavement. "We do not want to hurt, to the feeling of the King. All this precaution against Hyon is entirely for the happiness of His Majesty." I could hardly keep myself from laughing aloud when Yu Kil Chun Professed such a tender consideration for His Majesty's health and feelings.
4
I can not be a partisan; I look at both sides of a question too much.
 

8. 1월 21일

1
21st. Tuesday. Very cold.
 
2
Went home last night. Intended to stay home, but this afternoon Mr. Yi Yun Yong wrote me urging an immediate return to the American compounds saying that detectives had been seen going about near the U.S. Legation inquiring after who are out and who in. Had to return to my exile―thanks to the many assurances of help from Yu Kil Chun and Wo Yun Choong.
3
Insurrections have broken out in two or three places (洪川, 原州, 春川) . The government is alarmed and soldiers are being dispatched to the troubled localities.
4
The practical Coreans say that when England forced Japanese to cut off their topknots, she gave a 1,000 Yang or40 and a suit of clothes!
5
I have a positive dislike to Yi Wan Yong. His caste pride, his low cunning, his shallow underhandedness, his mule―like obstinacy toward his equals and inferiors, but his spanicline submission to the powerful―all this somehow or other has prejudiced me against him inspite of myself. He it was who wanted to establish a separate school for the "Sataipoo" (士大夫) or aristocrats. He it was when His Majesty, after the expulsion of P.Y.H., informed the Cabinet that he (the King) would control the appointing power of officials above the rank of "Chikim" (勅任) ―it was Yi Wan Yong who servilely told the King that in America the President appointed the meanest officeholder in the Republic. He is a littleness personified.
6
The other day, a policeman burned 290 "Mang-kuns," or hairbands, near the Big Bell. They had been bought by a country merchant for the purpose of selling them to his neighbors.
7
Of course nothing could justify the murder of Her Majesty. But those who wanted to get rid of her influence in Corean politics could not do anything short of the deed, for the purpose. I had often told my uncle (李健爀) that should any attack be ever again directed to the Min faction, she would not be able to escape. Her enemies, one and all, knew by a long experience, what it was to deal with her. The remedy was a desperate one; but then my lady was a desperate malady.
8
Mr. Kim No Wan 金魯莞 professes unbounded friendship for me. He declares that he has no other interest in the things and affairs of the world (Corean) except so far as my welfare is concerned. I would trust him better if he professed less. He is undoubtedly a clever man. Mr. Fish 魚允中 consults him as an oracle.
 

9. 1월 23일

1
23rd. Beautiful and cold.
 
2
This morning Mr. Kim N.W. called on me and showed me a letter Yu Kil Chun had written him yesterday informing him that a written guarantee for my safety had been issued and that the same would be handed to me by the President of Foreign Affairs.
3
Replied Drs. Candler, Reid, Allen and my father.
 

10. 1월 24일

1
24th. Friday. Beautiful-mild.
 
2
This p.m. at 1, Mr. Brown of the Customs brought me the Cabinet Guarantee of my safety. It reads thus:
3
"Honorable T.H. Yun!"
4
"Keeping yourself in hiding is a matter of regret. But by special (favor) you will not be held answerable (for any past event) . Therefore we guarantee your safety on the condition that you return home and be at ease.
5
Moon 1st day 21st Year 1st of Kun Yang."
6
Cabinet Seal
7
For the first time in two months I walked home this p.m. in broad daylight without fear and trembling.
8
Last Spring, my father and I were standing together on the upper deck of the Shirakawa Maru (白川丸) . Hearing me mourning over the wretched condition of Corea just out of the grasp of China only to be a prey to Japan, my father said: "Do not worry yourself about what you can not help. The days of political Corea are being numbered. Japan, like a snake, is tightening its fatal coil around its victim, poor Corea, every day. I see nothing in the people or the government of Corea of this day that gives me much hope. Be contented with climbing up the ladder of office as fast as you may and get as much salary as you can." I was shocked at this worldly advice. Yet, after all, during my tenure of office, last year, I practiced the substance of father's counsel. I did nothing in any month that deserved a cent of the134 which I received. As I was walking home and thinking about the destitute condition of tens of thousands of my countrymen. I felt relieved in my conscience that I have no office to draw salary for doing nothing.
9
The indifference of a mechanic or a store keeper to his customer is one of the sure causes and effects of Corea's poverty. A lady steps into the silk store. The keeper looks on her with perfect indifference. If she should ask him to show the goods, the answer is: "Oh, no use seeing them. You will not like them!" This afternoon about 3, I sent out a servant to call a carpenter to fix the bookcase. The mechanic would not come, saying that the day was too far gone for him to begin any work! There is some truth in the seemingly cruel remarks of Mr. Mok Yu Sin 睦裕信 who told me once that the best thing which may happen in Corea for reforming the people would be a famine for ten successive years. When one thinks what a dire calamity such a failure in the bread of life would be to the country, he involuntarily prays Heaven to deliver him from it. However as years go by the struggle for life will grow fierce enough for people to work better than they now do.
 

11. 1월 25일

1
25th. Saturday. Mild.
 
2
In the afternoon, called on the Prime Minister. He received me with his accustomed politeness and mildness. He asked me why I had not returned home sooner. This reminded me of the question which Her Majesty put to me last Autumn when I first saw her after 10 years absence. She said: "Why did you stay away from Korea so long?"!
3
Paid my visit to Yu K.C. treated me with usual familiarity and good will. He said that he was so hard to find suitable persons for magistrates that he longed to resign his post(!) A pretty task. Yu Kil Chun will as soon give up his post and power thereof as Her (dead) Majesty will return to the Palace.
 

12. 1월 26일

1
26th. Sunday. Beautiful-mild.
 
2
After tiffin, called on Kim Yun Sik, the President of Foreign Office. He told me that Dr. Underwood had a great many charges against him for revolutionary schemes, but that for the sake of smoothing down ill feelings, he was let go unmolested.
3
Met Mr. Fish in his office in the War Department. He received me with something like a genuine gladness and friendship. When I asked him to send me to Russia, he advised me not to mention it to anybody as even Yu K.C. would suspect my intentions if I were to go there just at this time. Told me to wait quietly as he intended to help me to my best advantage.
4
Worshipped in the Union Chapel.
 

13. 1월 27일

1
27th. Monday. Windy and cold.
 
2
Han Sei Chin 韓世鎭 called on me and refreshed me with his rare sense and guileless friendship. He informed me that Mr. Kim No Wan (金魯莞) is trying to get me appointed to the post of the Corea Minister at Tokio. I doubt seriously the probability of Mr. Kim No Wan's success, and fortunately I do not care a cent for that position.
3
"Observe," said Han. "How different nationals walk, and you may judge what characterizes each. The Japan walks rapidly with his head down. Hence he does not see far. He ruins things by his littleness. The Chinaman walks with his eyes surveying the empty space. Hence he is big but bombastic and showy. The occidental walks straight and looks ahead, right into the face of things and men. Hence his dignity, breadth and strength. But a Corean walks with his eyes on all sides. Give him a large area, elevating education and great ideal, and he will make a find show in the world. He has elements of greatness in him―undeveloped as yet."
4
Kim Ha Yong called on me in the night. He said, "You and your father won a good reputation. But be glad that the 28th of November affair fell through. A new government could no more succeed in saving the country than the present one."
 

14. 1월 28일

1
28th. Tuesday. Very cold.
 
2
Met Dr. Jaison, the "General Bureau of Informations" to the august members of the Privy Council (中樞院) . He asked to associate with him in starting and running a paper partly English and partly Corean. When I told him that I know no more about running a paper than about running a locomotive, the Doctor confidently assured me that he would do the running all O.K. and that I should look after the translation department. He expects to start it by the 1st of March. He thinks we were fools not to start one sooner.
 

15. 1월 30일

1
30th. Beautiful and cold.
 
2
This morning's "Seoul News" gave it to Yu Kil Chun for pardoning such traitors as myself, Hyon Heung Taik and others.
3
The governnor of Chun Chon (春川府) is reported to have been murdered by the "pro-topknotian" insurgents. I hope not. Japanese, seeing that the people curse them for having advised the Cabinet to cut the topknot, are trying to shift the blame on Yu Kil Chun. Japanese are a fine lot to work with!
 

16. 1월 31일

1
31st. Beautiful, cold.
 
2
Our mind was made uneasy this morning by the information, that our house is again under police surveillance.
3
Cho Hui Yon(趙羲淵) was made the Minister of War the other day.
4
Called on Dr. Jaison at 4 p.m. at his request. He surprised me by informing me that the newspaper scheme had to be given up! Said he "The Japanese would not tolorate it. They say, as Korea is not advanced enough to support two papers and as their 'News' must exist, that they are determined to break up any attempt at starting a rival paper. They darkly intimated that they would assassinate any one who does anything contrary to the sweet will of the Japanese. They hate me like a poison, because, the other day, I told some Corean mechanics that direct importation of kerosene from America would cheapen its price to the benefit of the consumers. I am here alone. The U.S. government would not support me. Nor can or will the Corean government and people protect me from the Japanese assassins. Am alone, unguarded. I can not do anything!"
5
I was dumbfounded at this sudden spell of fear the Doctor was in. Am almost in doubt whether the reasons he gave for abandoning his paper scheme is true or not. However, if the paper was to be started under the patronage of the Cabinet, it is likely that the Japanese broke up the plan by scaring the Ministers lest the journal might be anti- Japanese. I would like to find out more about this.
6
Dr. Jaison, when told that the Japanese are picking a quarrel with Yu Kil Chun, said "O, well, the quarrel between Yu and Japanese is like that between wife and husband." A fit illustration of the close affirmity between the parties!
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