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◈ 윤치호일기 (1897년) ◈

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1. 1월 1일

1
1st.(28th of 11th Moon, Byong-sin Year). Friday. Cloudy.
 
2
Came to the hospital at 10 a.m. A happy day with my Darling and the babies.
3
Wrote letters to professor Bonnell and Dr. Reid.
4
"I wish a painter would paint a Chinese Madonna: then his model should be Sieutsung." Thus said Miss Reynolds last night. Most compliments are often overcharged. Yet, to me, Sieutsung is a model of a wife. A sweeter, a more confiding, a braver woman it would be hard to find. I don't know which to admire most, her uncomplaining sweetness with which she bore the loneliness, or her quiet courage with which she stood the dangers of her experience in Corea. How thankful I ought to be for such a precious jewel of a wife!
5
Returned to my room about 6:30. At 7:30 Mr. Tsiu (鄒先生) , my former Chinese teacher called on me. We went out, inspite of the drizzling rain, to have a chat in a teahouse. He told me that, when Li Hong Chang was in Shanghai, he tried to send in an essay on the "Needs of China"; but that as the underlings of Li exacted 50 tales for passing the paper, he had to give up reaching the ex-viceroy. According to Mr. Tsiu, the Shanghai tautai pockets at least 400,000 tales per year, though his stated salary does not go beyond $500.00 a month. The tautaiship of Shanghai is therefore a very much coveted post. The money comes from the custom houses, birthday presents, from mercantile houses, and from selling justice or rather injustice. "I wish Japanese bed taken Pekin. As it is, the Chinese officials have gotten no lesson from the war."
6
The notorious Sung tautai, who charged his government 9 tales for every castaway rifle, whose actual price was 3 tales, the man whose brazen corruption was fully brought to light during the war, is now the head of some of the most important enterprises of the government, such as the Imperial Telegraph, the proposed R.R. between Foochow and Pekin, the Imperial Iron Works etc.
 

2. 1월 5일

1
5th.Tuesday. warm. Shanghai.
 
2
A pretty a.m.-changeful p.m.-beautiful night filling the firmament with stars.
3
This p.m. at 3 my Darling and the baby returned to Trinity Home.
 

3. 1월 6일

1
6th.Wednesday. Cloudy.
 
2
With my Darling the whole p.m. Laura is a "cute" little girl. What her mother tells her to do she does so quietly and sweetly.
3
Dined with Dr. Allen. He told me of the late conspiracy against Mr. L without reserve. In substance said the Doctor;
4
"Bishop Hendrix, through the misrepresentations of Anderson, Parker and Reid, put Loehr down as an incapable and inefficient worker to be sent home as soon as possible. The Bishop filed a letter to that effect in the Mission Room in Nashville. In the plan of work for the year "96-97" he plainly intimates that as Dr. Parker doesn't want Mr. L in the college and as presiding elders don't want him in the field, he should be sent home."
5
"I have been on the field from the earliest stage of the Mission. I know every phase of the work and every man and woman in it have not seen anybody who works harder and more faithfully than Loehr. To call him inefficient! Why he can fill any position that Anderson or Reid has ever filled as well as either of them or better. Reid has never like Loehr."
6
"If the Bishop had asked me candidly whether I approved of sending Reid to Corea, I would have certainly said no. Reid has no head for planning a work or for managing money. Neither he nor Mrs. Reid, as for that matter, has the slightest idea of taking proper care of health. They don't know even how to manage their children who are let grow as wild as wild hawks."
7
"Well, sir, when I had charge of the Mission and of the college, I bore without murmuring all the mean things that jealousy and littleness said about or against me. But when I see another man treated unjustly I can't stand it. I have written a friendly letter to Bishop Hendrix explaining the whole matter and asking him to withdraw the statements filed in the Mission Room. If he does, well and good. If he doesn't, I will put a dynamite under him. If one's character and reputation-the sole capital of a missionary were to be endangered by the malice of a few and the prerogatives of a Bishop, who can be safe?"
8
The Doctor read me the letter he had written to Bishop Hendrix. "I had to," said he, "wait a month to be composed enough to compose this letter."
9
The revelation pained me. My opinion regarding the whole matter is this;
10
Dr. Allen has never been very popular among the younger members of the Mission. His notion of spreading the gospel among the Chinese is different from that of theirs. He preaches the broad and universal principles of Christianity, never concerning himself about the statistical results of his labor. They, on the other hand, are more dogmatic, never thinking that Christianity could set forth in a tabulated report the number of converts made and the amount of contributions collected. Then his long occupation of a large house originally intended as a kind of Mission Home; his more or less worldly family, who take no part in the active mission work; his repeated allusions to the merit and success of his literary enterprises, these may also have had something to do in the fermentation of hard feelings among other members of the Mission.
11
Mr. Loehr, whatever may be his faults, can never be charged with being an inefficient worker. I have never seen him shirk any duty of business laid on him. If any man was ever zealous in preaching the gospel, he is certainly that.
12
Face to face examinations and explanations would have saved the parties concerned all this ill feeling and misunderstanding. O how much easier it is to preach than to practice the teachings of the Lord!
13
I have never seen an angel except in pictures nor a perfect man except in obituaries.
 

4. 1월 7일

1
7th.Thursday. Gloomy.
 
2
Have just returned from Trinity Home 6 p.m. The few hours which I spend every afternoon with my Darling are indescribably sweet. But I never come back to my room without being sick at heart and weary in spirit. Why, there she is in a room whose crazy and dilapidated condition upbraids me for keeping her in a place so comfortless. To this I have no answer except the iron law of necessity. Not a word of complaint she utters.
3
As if the dear, loving woman had not enough to bear, the new born baby worries her constantly with cries and kicking up in general as if he considered his advent a great privilege bestowed on humanity.
 

5. 1월 9일

1
9th.Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
A lovely morning, all the more welcome after so many sunless days and starless nights.
3
At 9:30 called on Mr. Yi Hak Kiun. From him I gathered some news of Corea, not at all encouraging. Kim Hong Nuik, the Russian interpreter, is all powerful now, making and unmaking the highest officials in the government. Kim To Il comes next. The murderer of Kim O. K. and his accomplices, viz. Hong Chong Oo and Yi Yil Chik, now occupy good positions. They contemplated some time ago to send somebody to Japan for the dastardly business of assassinating certain personages. (Coreans, of course)
4
By the way, when Hong was in Paris, he passed himself for a prince dethroned by a revolution! He lived there on the charity of a Catholic missionary society but when he returned he denounced Christianity. It is in him and men like him that His Majesty trusts. The state of affairs in Corea may by imagined.
5
One night, Kim To Il went along the Chongno with "Kisaings" singing. A policeman stopped him remonstrated against such conduct during the season of national mourning. Kim beat the policeman and took him to the police office complaining that a policeman should dare to interfere with the proceedings of the gentleman who had just returned from St. Petersburg with the Embassy etc. The chief officer of police was too scared to do anything to the all powerful Russian interpreter!
6
From my Darling's room went to Mctyeire Home at 6 p.m. Saw Miss Haygood in her study. She was pale from the recent illness but her motherly and sweet and dignified manners remained unchanged as ever. After a few minutes of formal greetings were over she said in her sympathetic tone, full of gentle emotion, "I am glad, Mr. Yun, that you are now out of the office. Contrary to the opinion of some of your Christian friends, I thought you had taken a wrong step when you took an office under the Corean Government. I have no word of reproach for you. Thank God, you have once more the opportunity to return to Corea as the servant of the King of Kings. I know not wherein your path diverged from that of His, but certainly it doesn't seem to me that, in the past two years, you have let Him choose your way for you. There is not a gift in the possession of the King of Corea that may not perish tomorrow; but whatever you may do for Christ lays hold of the eternal. Besides, from what learn I don't think you can do much in the government either; for the King does not seem to be a man of power."
7
"Then consider also that you needn't be a great official to do good in the kingdom of God, Christ Himself, who is equal with God, came to minister and not to be ministered unto. Moses could never have become the leader of the nation had he preferred the riches and honors of the court of Pharo to the reproaches with the people of God."
8
She gently chided me for not having written oftener to my Darling during my absence. Stayed through dinner and the prayer meeting, but I didn't enjoy either to any marked degree.
 

6. 1월 10일

1
10th Sunday. Gloomy-drizzling.
 
2
At 12:30 Yi Hak Kiun called. He told me the following incidents illustrative of the hopeless condition of political Corea.
3
1. Yi Pom Chin fell out with Kim Hong Niuk. The latter slandered Mr. Yi to the Waebers so much that Waeber one day asked Yi to return to his home as the time had become quiet. Yi, it is said, begged with tears to be let stay in the Legation, saying that to go out of its gates might cost him his life. The matter hung fire. But a few days later, Yi, in one of his drunken fits, spoke rather rudely to the Waebers, pounding the table with his fist etc. They had to put him out of the back gate of the Legation by main force.
4
2. Kim Hong Niuk sold a magistracy to a man for 1,200 yen. The Cabinet, desiring to set an example, sent a secret instruction to the Law Department to arrest the office buyer. Kim heard of this before the warrant was out and begged His Majesty to get the new magistrate out of the hot water. Of course the King did so by telling the prime Minister and then the minister of police not to prosecute the guilty person because that would bring the Royal dignity into contempt! ;
5
3. The good King has lost all confidence in Philip Jaisohn because the Russian interpreters put the notion into the royal head that the editor of the "Independent" would slander any person in the paper for the magnificent consideration of 200 cash (8 cents) !
6
4. His Majesty made his bounties flow as water at the expense of the already starving treasury. He gave 5,000 yen to Miss Sontag who is a great friend of Lady Um(嚴妃) , the favorite mistress of the king. Every time the Russian guard changes, that is every ten or twenty days, H.M. spends thousands of yen to be distributed among the sailors. At the least estimation, according to Yi Hak K. no less than 5,000 people have been admitted to the Household Department under all sorts of pretexts in all offices, punctuality and discipline are mere words.
 
7
In talking about the hard-to-please disposition which characterizes the members of the Min clan, Yi H.K. said: "Even in the late Queen, I noticed that she would often give me ten different things to do a day. If I did all of them well, she was displeased. But if I did only 7 things well and the other three negligently, he was pleased and favored me with kindnesses."
8
If Yi's information be true, the Crown Prince, from childhood up to the last day of the Queen, slept under the same cover with his royal parents. What little Chinese that the Prince knows was taught him by Her Majesty. The first part of the story is simply incredible, but Yi Hak Kiun has no reason for fabricating it. He used to be one of the most privileged favorites of the late Queen and he, as such, had the opportunity of seeing something of the private life of the Royal Family.
 

7. 1월 12일

1
12th. (8th of 12th Moon). Tuesday. Chilly-rainy!
 
2
Accepting the invitation of Mr. Tsiu(鄒) , my former Chinese teacher, went, at 6 p.m., to Chinese restaurant, Tai Hua(泰和) . Besides myself there were nine other guests. Seated at a round table, all seemed to enjoy the twelve or thirteen courses of the Chinese dinner. Went there hungry and got up quite full. Indeed to an uninitiated hunger alone enables a man to sit thro a Chinese feast, as the dirty tablecloth, the smell of the opium, the spitting and expectoration in which the guests indulge, the officious hospitality of the friends who help you to pieces of meat with their chopsticks just out of their mouths, all this is very trying to the stomach.
3
Some of the guests called singing girls to bear them company. When a girl comes in she is followed by a maid carrying a pocket toilet box and a "water pipe". The singer sits behind the guest who sent for her and after a few pipes, graces the company with songs―either a monotonous shrieking or a monotonous howling exceedingly unpleasant to an un-Celestial ear. This done, the girl goes away and for pains or the hearer's pains-she gets $300.
 

8. 1월 16일

1
16th Saturday. Cold-sunny.
 
2
After weeks of cloud and rain, the appearance of the sun is very cheering.
3
Sent a letter to Mr. Arcambeau yesterday. "Helen Murrdock" is the title of a story book written by Mrs. Alice J. Muirhead of Shanghai. The author gave me the book as an acknowledgment of a trifling service which I had rendered her in the shape of information matters Corean. The story is pretty put in near English. It is as moral as a missionary's wife could write.
4
But what is it that makes the little book flat and tame in spite of its many charms? I think it is the Bible verses which mar the fair pages. In the Pilgrim's Progress or in sermons, Bible verses are at home, but nothing can make a story more stale than copious quotations from psalms and Gospels for the reasons that:
5
1. One does not take up a story or a novel to study Bible verses. For that he goes to the Bible.
6
2. Frequent quotations, especially in a story, are objectionable, be they from the scriptures or Shakespeare.
7
3. A clean white shirt need not have soap smeared all over it to show that it has been made clean and white by the grace of soap. I prefer a Christian who never quotes a single verse of the Bible in talk or writing but whose conversation and conduct breathe the very essence of Christiainty to another who always hurls psalms and spiritual songs at one's face. A book in which the sprit of Christianity reigns does me more good, even if it has'nt a single quotation from the Bible, than one which pelts me with holy verses at every turn of the page.
 
8
A gloomy evening. Enjoyed the prayer meeting in Mctyeire Home. Received a letter from Dr. Scranton, Seoul.
 

9. 1월 18일

1
18th. Monday. Bitter cold. Bright.
 
2
Tiffin at Mr. Hendry's. He now has charge of the central church. His wife is a little woman with looks exceedingly cold and unattractive.
3
With my Darling in the afternoon as usual.
4
At 7 a.m. when I got to Mctyeire home, whom did I see in the parlor? why, Mr. Collyer and his wife just arrived. Dined at the Home.
5
Mr. Collyer and his wife with their baby expect to leave Shanghai per the S.S. Sendai Maru, for Chemulpo. I am afraid thay are not physically strong enough for the hardships in Corea.
 

10. 1월 20일

1
20th. Wednesday. Cold-gloomy.
 
2
The past two or three days have been very cold. Gloomy and cheerless sky again this afternoon.
3
My Darling looked rather pale and tired this p.m. Poor girl! The children worry her very much. Returned to my room sad and depressed.
4
In a few days I must leave here and be once more separated from my precious Darling-I don't know how long! I am experiencing the trials of a married life without enjoying its pleasures. Oh! the sky looks so dark!
5
This morning borrowed $100.00 from Mr. Yi H.K.
 

11. 1월 21일

1
21st. Thursday. Cold-cloudy.
 
2
A gloomy day ending in a starry night.
 
3
Had a quiet chat with Dr. Allen from 7:30 to 9 p.m. Among other things, he said:
4
1. Dishonesty, in other word, lying is the root of all the political and social evils in China. Take, for example, the proposed R.R. between Foochow and Pekin. The Chinese promoters try to cheat their countrymen into subscription by telling them that so many millions have been gotten up among foreigners; and then turn round to play the same trick on foreigners. Thus millions of tales are being collected in empty words but not a cent in reality.
5
2. Nobody wants China to be weak. Dismemberment of this great empire would not improve commerce or missions.
6
3. The "favored nation clause" doesn't mean that China or Corea should lose its right of buying things anywhere it wants to. But now, under this clause falsely interpreted, the Chinese government is scared to do anything with any foreign country in the way of contracts, simply because China imagines that whatever business favor she may confer on one country, she must do the same to all."
 
7
As I walked "Home", the brilliant stars forcibly called to my mind the beatiful saying of Victor Hugo that, in representing stars, where we put dots God puts suns.
 

12. 1월 22일

1
22nd. Friday. Beautiful. A Lovely day all through.
 
2
At 8 a.m. went to Mr. L's to attend an evening party given in honor of Miss Dora Rankin who had come from Nanzing to spend her birthday with her friends here. My Darling was out. For the first time met Miss Coffey, of whom I heard so much from Miss Early. The young missionary is a very fine looking woman with a genuine lady-likeness which becomes her so well.
3
The company dispersed between 9:30 and 10.
 

13. 1월 23일

1
23rd. Saturday. Changeable.
 
2
Up early to get things ready for the voyage.
3
Called on Miss Haygood at 10 a.m. and told her that I would make Mission services my principal work, and others only collateral.
4
Took tiffin with my sweet Love at Mctyeire Home. Misses Coffey and Rankin were among the guests.
5
Left the Home about 1 p.m. Felt sick at heart to leave my Darling once more. Merciful God give us a home soon where we may be together.
6
Came on board of the S.S. Sendai Maru at 1:30. Mr. Collyer, Mr. Tong, the once Chinese consul at Seoul, Col. Yi H.K. are among the Cabin passengers, the last named is my cabinmate mate. Weighed anchor at 1:45 p.m. Mr. G. Loehr came to see us off.
 

14. 1월 25일

1
25th.Monday. Cold-fair.
 
2
After a most agreeable voyage arrived at Chefoo about 3 p.m. Not much to see in Chefoo. The people seem to be poorer than in the South. The sedan chairs carried by two ponies are a novel sight to me.
3
Mr. Yi H. K. tells me that some years ago, their Corean Majesties had a house bought in Shanghai prepared as a place of refuge. Could anything more unkingly or unqueenly be imagined! Instead of trying to establish their throne in the love of their people they spent ill gotten riches in preparing refuges in which they hoped to find safety from dangers all of their own making. What a pity that so clever a woman as the Queen should have been so blinded by selfishness!
4
In Chefoo the singing girls go about, baby fashion, on the backs of coolie.
 

15. 1월 27일

1
27th. Wednesday. Bright, cold.
 
2
Arrived at Chemulpo 12:30. Came on shore about 3:30 p.m. Went to the customs, then coming to Mr. Son Sang Chip's house, he wouldn't listen to my going anywhere else. He is exceptionally kind, as he has always been. Dr. Reid came down to meet Mr. Collyer. Am happy to see him well.
 

16. 1월 28일

1
28th. Thursday. Brights, cold.
 
2
Left Chemulpo in a box-chair at 8 a.m. The road in the most disheartening state-the mud being ankle deep and as sticky as slippery. After a toilsome and bitterly cold journey, reached Seoul about 6. Came straight to Dr. Reid's. He and Mr. Collyer, who came on horses, had gotten here 2 hours before me. Mrs. R. as sweet as ever. Her character so sweet, so loving, so devoted to her husband and children-strongly reminds me of that of my Darling.
3
I remember well that about 10 years ago, at a dinner table in Soochow, Dr. R. repeated a sarcastic remark on Corea which had then appeared in a paper. Inspite, rather, on account, of the justness of the remark, the sarcasm stamped itself on my memory. Had anybody then told me that Dr. Reid would be the first southern Methodist missionary to Corea, I would have thought it the last thing in the world to happen. But he who moves in mysterious ways has ordered things wonderful to our little minds. Dr. Reid is here, and is here the first representative of the Southern Methodist Mission. If to be loved by the people for whom a missionary works be a cause, as well as an effect, of a successful ministry, Dr. Reid must be a good man for I have never seen a Chinese Christian of either sex or any age who does not love him dearly.
4
After supper went to our old house. Was happy to see there my aunt and cousins all well.
 

17. 1월 30일

1
30th. Saturday. Bright.
 
2
My Corean costume being unfinished, I have not been able to go about much. Called on Messrs. Appenzeller and Underwood. The former told me that the Waebers suspect my having said certain things in Petersburg injurious to their interest.
3
At about 9 p.m. called on Mr. and Mrs. Waeber. The latter who could hardly conceal her coolness, tried to "fish out" in round about ways, my Petersburg relations with the Embassy. I broke down all reserve and told her and Mr. Waeber, in the plainest terms, to the fullest extent the unpleasant experiences I had in Petersburg. However I cleared Mr. Min from any charge of being unkind to me personally. I praised his blameless conduct all through the embassy and said, I am persuaded that Mr. Min's "official" coolness to me was a part of the instructions he received from "the Seoul Court". The Waebers denied that anybody in the "court" had the least to do in producing the official frictions between Mr. Min and myself.
4
Then I also told them how utterly groundless the rumors were as to my having said anything against them. In fact during my whole stay in Russia I never said a word about or concerning the Waebers unless to commend them. I remember well how I ever guarded my tongue on the subject, even to Stein, though, or rather because he was not particularly in favor with the Waebers. Of course, I didn't say anything tonight to Waeber that may in the smallest degree affect Stein. "You and Mr. Stein were good friends, were you not?" asked Mr. W. To which I gave no hesitating answer, but said roundly "Yes, we were good friends."
5
Waebers, when they heard through my explanations, what my reasons were to go to Paris-partly to study French and partly to avoid a long voyage with people who distrusted me-how I dealt with the offer of position in Petersburg etc then seemed pleased and expressed their gladness that I had so plainly cleared away the cloud of doubts which hung for some time over their views in these matters.
6
Once more in her cordial way, Mrs. Waeber told me what reforms have been carried through during my absence, under the advice of her husband. Among these she mentioned the prosperity of the "English" "American" "Russian," "French" schools; the railroad contracts with America and France; the extension of the telegraph lines; the drilling of Corean soldiers by Russian officers; the improvement of the Seoul streets; the widening of the Pekin Pass; the usefulness of the Independent; the concession made to a Russian to cut down the woods in Northern Corea!
7
Returned to my room about 12:30
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