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◈ 윤치호일기 (1898년) ◈

◇ 3월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권 4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  윤치호

1. 3월 3일

1
3rd. (11th of 2nd Moon). Thursday. Cold-gloomy.
 
2
At 1 p.m. a special meeting was called by the members of the Independence Club to read Min Chong Muk's answer to the Club. The letter said in substance that he intends to grant Russia a coal station on the Dear Island; that the government in a Council of State told him to deal with the question without submitting it to the assembly; and that the conditions for the concession will be like those made to Japanese years ago.
3
A member moved that the Club should recommend to the government the necessity of taking back the coal station granted to Japan in order to prevent Russia and others from making similar claims. I amended the motion by substituting another to the effect that a committee should be appointed to find out clearly all the details connected with the Japanese concession and that the Club should write to the government after hearing the full report of committee.
4
Another motion which I defeated was that the Club should advise His M. to visit the Palace of Tai Won Kun. Such measures will provoke Royal displeasure against us without doing any good to anybody.
 

2. 3월 6일

1
6th. (14th). Sunday. Cold.
 
2
The Club was full to the last window sill.
3
A letter was written to the Minister of F.O. asking him to negotiate with Japan looking toward the retrocession of coal station on Deer Island to Corea. Motions were made to write letters to the Finance Department and also to the Council of State, the former inquiring into the nature of contract between Corea and the Russ-Corean Bank, and the latter begging the Council to search out the fellow who used coercion to H.M. in reappointing Min Chong Muk to the F.O. Both committed.
 

3. 3월 7일

1
7th. (15th). Monday. Pleasant.
 
2
At one a special meeting of the Club:
3
It is reported thro a reliable sources that Kim Hong Niuk hired a band of assassins to do away with the leaders of the Club but that the men wouldn't listen to the proposal.
4
Russianites are trying to scare the King into the Russian legation by telling him that Yi Chun Yong, the grand son of Tai Won Kun is coming back at the head of the Japanese and English forces!
5
I told my Darling the dangers I am in this morning. She calmly said "you can not back out from your position in the Club without damaging your reputation. I shall not let myself influence your actions in this matter one way or another. Only don't be over worried"―What a dear Darling!
6
Saw three of the leaders in the Club, two of them (鄭喬 and 崔廷植) very hot-headerd in the night. They were awfully downcast and talked of skipping to the country! I told them that wouldn't do. We then finally decided to await the future event whatever it may be. The people are so thoroughly rotten that I can not trust any in any class.
 

4. 3월 9일

1
9th. (17th). Wednesday. Milder-windy.
 
2
This morning Dr. Reid told me to get out of the way of dangers by going to Song-do. If I must go I prefer to go abroad; but to leave Seoul just now throws reflection on my honor.
3
Harada, my Japanese friend in the Bank of Japan, tells me, as a message of Mr. Katothe Japanese Minister, that it is not probable that even Speyer would go so far as to arrest the leaders of the Club and that we should not show too much of unreasonable scare.
4
Kim Yong Joon told this evening that he had recommended me to His M. for the Minister of F.O. and that His M. suggested of himself the advisability of appointing me the Vice Minister of F.O. with the design of making me the Acting Minister of the same. Can't believe this.
 

5. 3월 10일

1
10th. (18th). Thursday.
 
2
Three days ago Speyer wrote to the F.O. saying that the anti-Russian movement led by idle and unemployed Coreans has surprised the Czar; that the Russian government sent military instructors and the finance advisor at the request of His Corean Majesty; that if the Corean government and people dislike the Russian advisors, they should say so; that the Czar desires to know whether the Corean government is determined to rely upon Russia for help or not; and that the answer should be given within 24 hrs.
3
His M. is said to have answered that the question must be referred to the senior Prime Minister金炳始 and 趙秉世.
4
This morning Mr. Yi Wan Yong called on me and said that he and Jaisohn had decided to call a popular meeting near the Bell Tower; that the Club should stay quite behind the scene; that a number of speakers have been introduced to explain to the people the condition of things now in connection with the Russian advisors; that a delegation of the people should be sent to the ministers of state urging them to send away the Russian instructors or else the people would not regard the government as such.
5
I told Yi the grave dangers hidden in a mass meeting of this sort. The people are ignorant of parliamentary rules or any kind of rules. Let a speaker appeal to some plausible but excitable passion of the populace ― such as the killing of Kim Hong Niuk or the return of the King to the Old Palace. The people will at once become a turbulent mob which the authorities may properly punish as law breakers. That will give handle to the Russians to scare the King with and to crush out any further popular demonstrations. Yi took in the situation and asked me to see Jaisohn about it.
6
Called on Jaisohn and told him my apprehensions at which he laughed saying that the Corean people have no courage to rise against the authorities. But he agreed with me when I said the delegation should not threaten the government especially as the people will not be able to carry out their menace.
7
Tried my best to urge those who will take part in the meeting today to control the crowd.
8
The meeting went off all right. None of the Club members spoke, but many of them made themselves useful by keeping the meeting from being prolonged beyond a reasonable limit. The speakers were mostly students from Pai Chai School and the Seoul School. A committee of three was appointed to urge the government to dismiss the Russian instructors in the Military and the Financial Department.
 

6. 3월 12일

1
12th. (20th). Saturday. mild.
 
2
In the afternoon called on An Kiung Soo. There read a copy of the answer which the Corean government sent to the Russian Legation yesterday. The document thanks the Czar and the government for the instructors and the financial advisor, assures the Russian government that it is the desire of the Corean government and people to manage their own affairs by themselves, and most foolishly promises that we shall never again employ any foreign advisors in the War and the Finance Dept. This is a remarkable document. I am at sea to know how a Russianite government could have managed to pen such a bold letter
3
Kim Hong Niuk, the Russian interpreter was appointed the Governor of Seoul yesterday.
 

7. 3월 13일

1
13th. (21st). Sunday. Cold.
 
2
A heavy snow last night.
3
This morning Mr. Yi Wan Yong asked to see me very early. He showed me a letter from Kim Chai Pung, the Commander of Police to the effect that certain Russianites have hired 2 or 3 hundred people for the purpose of smashing up the Club today, and that it is His M.'s desire to discontinue the popular gatherings in the Club. Mr. Yi said that tho we are unable to postpone today's meeting, we (he and I) should absent ourselves since we know H.M.'s attitude toward the meeting. Told him that we could not, with any decency, absent ourselves from the Club in times of trouble and he suggested that he might write to Kim Chai Pung to send a large number of policemen.
4
By the way, Yi was appointed the governor of Northern Chunla-do a few days ago. By no means an ugly way of getting rid of the president of the Club. 11 a.m. our meeting today was a success. The Club Hall was packed to the last corner. A large number of policemen present in uniform and in disguise. A number of soldiers present also. The latter inclined to be unruly. The whole session was spent profitably in correcting and adopting 31 articles of new regulations.
 

8. 3월 16일

1
16th. (24th). Wednesday. Wind, rain, cold.
 
2
It was a lovely day yesterday, but we have a disagreeable turn of it today―windstorm, showers of rain and their concomitants, dust, cold, etc.
3
Eight more or less well known men of Seoul were arrested yesterday, among whom are 池錫永, 李源兢, 呂圭享 etc. For what offences nobody seems to know. An Kiong Soo was appointed the governor of the Soo Won province. He gets out of a difficult situation in Seoul neatly.
 

9. 3월 18일

1
18th. (26th). Friday. Pretty.
 
2
In the morning spent the time in translating Roberts' Rules of Order. An old friend from 驪州 called on me and said that it is getting harder everyday to live in the country. Tong-haks, Catholics, 裂敎 (Schismites or Protestants(?) ) have been in turn the scourge and terror of the country people. Now robbers are having their full sway. They go into a house and cat up whatever they see in it. The host has to treat them well or lose all. As soon as they go away, policemen from neighboring districts come in and, with menace and torture, eat and drink and then take away what the robbers have left. In the meantime, magistrates sit quietly in their offices pocketing as much cash as he can squeeze from the already over suffering people.
3
Yesterday Speyer wrote to Corean F.O. saying that, in accordance with the wishes of Corea, he had been authorize to withdraw the Russian officers in the Palace and the advisor in the Finance Department. Was told this evening that the Russian officers in retiring from the Palace took away even the glass―windows which H.M. had put in their rooms. Now it is a certain fact that Corea is once more independent―all depends on, what she will and can do. Will the King and His government utilize the opportunity? No doubt he will in one way―that is the wrong way―by plundering the Finance Dept. and by putting His many unworthy favorites in high positions. Is there no possibility of saving Corea?
4
I have never been opposed to Russian instructors and advisors. ―The way in which Speyer bullied H.M. through Kim Hong Niuk and the dishonorable means by which he forced the instructors on Corea turned against him.
 

10. 3월 19일

1
19th. (27th). Saturday. Windy-fair.
 
2
In the p.m. called on Greathouse. He explained the unexpected withdrawal of the Russian instructors as follows―
3
Russia has a job in China which requires her main efforts.
4
She does not want to get into complications with Japan.
5
The present cabinet stands for peace with Russia, but the next parliament will likely clamour for war unless Russia shows moderation in the Corean affairs. Hence to preserve the present Cabinet in Tokio by giving no pretext to a war like parliament for overthrowing the pro-Russian ministry.
6
The Russian government has withdrawn, for the time being at least, her objectionable interference in Corea.
7
An Kui Joong(安沂中) was arrested the other day.
8
It is said that Kim Yong Chun(金永準) is at the bottom of the arresting affair in order to get chances for whispering to H.M. If so, I am sorry for him.
9
Corea has now a golden opportunity. Nobody is interfering with her. A strong and sensible government with the welfare of the nation in its heart may use this chance―the last chance―for establishing a firm and lasting peace in Corea and thro her in the world. But alas! the first thing, the King and his favorites are doing is to arrest innocent people not on any special charges but on general principles―thus going back to the despotic abominations of the anti-reform days. All gone!
10
The intrigues and petty plots which they carry on in the Palace and in the government for absolutely selfish ends are beyond my imagination.
11
Oh for an absolute control of the Corean affairs for say five years beginning now.
 

11. 3월 21일

1
21th. (3rd of 3rd Moon). Thursday. Nasty.
 
2
A raw and disagreeable day. At 9 a.m. went to Mapo to bid farewell to Yi Wan Yong who goes to the Northern Chun-la-do as Governor. Jaisohn and I made short speeches expressing our regret at parting with our friend and our hope that success would crown his gubernatorial work. Nothing remarkable in this: only that this is the first time in the history of Corea when public open-air speeches were in parting with friends.
3
Yesterday H.M. issued an edict sentencing 李源兢, 安沂中 and four men in all to 10 years' banishment. This is a plain violation of the letter and spirit of the law which says that no sentence shall be passed on any criminal without having given him a trial. After consultation with some of the leading club members, we decided to send a protest of H.M.
 

12. 3월 26일

1
26th. (8th). Saturday. Fair.
 
2
A special meeting of the Club was called to send a protest to Mr. Yi Yu In―the Minister of Law to the effect that in his double capacity of the custodian of the law and the advisor of H.M., he should re-examine the 4 offenders according to law.
 

13. 3월 27일

1
27th. (9th). Sunday. Fair.
 
2
At 12 a.m. dined at General Le Gendre's Sim Sang Hoon and Nam Jung Chul were present. The General reminded the two gentlemen of the supreme importance of the present moment to the Corean independence and begged that they should use their best efforts in raising Corea from poverty to prosperity. He asked me to translate certain passages in the memo which he had sent to the Emperor of Japan 30 years ago in the hope of showing the same to the Corean Majesty.
3
Told Sim Sang Hoon to buy up the Independent and make it a government organ by giving it to the charge of a Corean. I asked him to get the plant and let me manage the paper. He took very kindly to the suggestion.
4
Saw Dr. Jaisohn after supper. He said that he would be happy to sell the paper and its belongings under my charge. He asked $5,000.00 for the whole concern.
 

14. 3월 28일

1
28th. (10th). Monday. Fair.
 
2
The Minister of Law answered the letter of the Club saying that he could not re-examining the case of the 4 men as the sentence had already been pronounced by H.M. He concluded the letter thus: "Rain and dews, frost and snow are the dispensation of the supreme heaven. Therefore it is not necessary for you gentleman to inquire into the affair." What a nauseous blasphemy!
3
Called on Kim Yong Chun after 6 p.m. We had a chat to the following effect.
 
4
Kim: "In spite of all I can do, H.M. is deeply offended at you. Some folks informed him that you go about with the Club badge and in foreign costume. I denied the charges before H.M. The letter to the Minister of Law has made H.M. very angry with you. He said to me last night 'I didn't know Yun Tchi Ho would go against me like that.' I tried my best to persuade H.M. that you had nothing to do with the letter. Can't you absent yourself from the Club on some pretex―such as sickness?"
5
T.H.Y. "I thank you very much, but take care not to show too much zeal in my defence. You can't say that I had nothing to do with the letter because hundreds know that I had a deal to do with it. I can't go back on the Club."
6
Kim: "What is done is gone. Only take care not to write any more letters on the same subject. I can assure you that H.M. will not violate the law again."
7
T.H.Y: "As the President of the Club, I can't stop any protest which the members may see, fit to make, as long as they are right. Our country is in a critical condition. H.M. must do right or the nation will suffer."
8
Kim: "If I were the Commander of Police I would arrest all the fellows who talk in the Club and chop their heads off. Why, the king is supreme in our land. To question his acts would be introducing democracy here."
9
T.H.Y: "If Corea were to go back to her old seclusion, absolute monarchism might do. But with all her doors open and foreigners watching her actions, Corea can't go back to the old time practices."
10
Kim: "What do you depend on to defy the displeasure of H.M.?"
11
T.H.Y: "I have nothing to depend on, as you very well know. The righteousness of the cause I advocate is my only defence."
12
Kim: "Righteousness! Shucks! Liste to me. I will tell H.M. that you will do your best to prevent any further protest sent to the Law Department. May I tell him that Yi Sang Chai and not you is responsible for the letter?"
13
T.H.Y: "I shall do all I can to prevent the Club from any more letter writing on the subject, but as to making Yi Sang Chai the escape goat for my sake I positively object."
14
Kim promised me that he wouldn't implicate Yi Sang Chai. Then he told me that he would try to keep Jaisohn here. I said "Keep him if you can. It will be a good work for the country as well as for yourself. Whenever things take another turn in Seoul, Jaisohn will prove to you an invaluable help."
15
Kim: "Will he not join Yi Yun Yong and Co.?"
16
T.H.Y: "No fear. I will take care of that. As long as you do right Jaisohn will be your friend."
 
17
Kim told me that he did influence H.M. to turn Yi Chai Yon out of the office of the Governor of Seoul.
18
When, in '94, the Chinese Minister at Seoul was leaving Seoul, he and other Chinese placed under the care of King gold and silver to the value of $240,000. H.M. gave them his receipt for the same. When the Chinese, last year, asked H.M. to give them the treasure, he replied that the gold and silver had been lost. The Chinese demanding then its equivalent value in money, H.M. asked Brown to lend $200,000. Brown required some security for the sum. H.M. sent to Brown packages of silver and gold which Brown found to be the lost treasure of the Chinese. Brown, however, had the packages put in the storeroom of the Finance Dept. That very night the same deposit was stolen away―no doubt by the order of H.M. (Jaisohn) .
19
H.M. has no friend now. His treachery, cowardice and selfishness are all found out.
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