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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 12월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권 윤치호

1. 12월 1일

1
1st. Monday. Gloomy.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Baby Margaret was sick last night. Candler left for A-san.
3
6 p.m. at the invitation of Miss Appenzeller went to Ewha School to dinner and to meet Miss Pendleton, of Wellesley Coll. and her party. Four Ewha girls, among whom Miss Pak In Duk was the centre of attraction, were invited. After dinner a large number of Ewha girls and a few young men who have Ewha wives came in to meet the visitors. There were impromptu songs from the Ewha girls etc. A very pleasant evening. Miss Pak is certainly a fine girl.
 

2. 12월 2일

1
2nd. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Dr. Schoffield says that Japan instead of civilizing the Koreans is syphilizing them. His righteous indignation knows no bounds when he touches the question of the damned prostitutalizing policy of Japan sowing the seeds of venerial diseases far and wide throughout the Peninsula. Compare with this statement of Dr. Haga, the Director of the Govt. Medical School in Seoul, that the Japanese women are "Yerai" because they enrich the country by tens of millions by selling their bodies to foreigners all over the world. Isn't there something in the world that is better than money itself? Is Japan so poor that she must need commercialness of her women and the health her nation into ill gotten hard cash?
 

3. 12월 3일

1
3rd. Wednesday. Gloomy-chilly.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mr. 呂運亨 a prominent member of the Korean Provisional Government, in Shanghai seems to have a good time in Tokyo. He and his suite are put up at the Imperial Hotel. He invited, according the papers, over two hundred people to a banquet and made a lengthy speech on the Independence movement. Now the funny part of all this is that the Japanese authorities are here busy catching, beating and imprisoning anybody who is suspected of independence inclinations, while the Tokyo Government openly invited a member of the Independence Headquarters to make public declarations to all the world! What's the matter with the Japanese? Mr. 山縣五十雄 admits that the whole thing has been a blunder on the part of the Tokyo authorities; that the Koreans are shrewd enough to have converted a secret arrangement into a public propaganda. 7 p.m. Dr. Rawlings preached at 宗橋 Church.
 

4. 12월 4일

1
4th. Thursday. Frosty and misty.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Five p.m. went to Mr. Ryang's new home for supper. Dr. Rawlings, Miss Howell and a few other missionaries were present.
3
Dr. R. asked me to join the Christian Literature Society for literary work. I like to do some literary work; but I don't want to join any association where I may be subject to orders of and to constant conferences with, foreigners. The best work can be done by independent efforts.
4
I have found it a very unsatisfactory thing to be yoked with a foreigner in any work―Christian though it be.
 

5. 12월 5일

1
5th. Friday. Pretty.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Baby 明姬 was very sick last night. Couldn't sleep. Home in the afternoon for rest.
3
7 p.m. went to Dr. Scheifley's home for supper. Mr. Lucas who is living in the same house invited his friends in Y. and the Doctor invited his friends in the hospital.
4
Four of the Severance nurses who had been arrested for shouting Mansei a few nights ago, were released today. Four still kept in prison. Torture is going on in the police stations as bad as ever. The promises and proclamations which the new Gov. General made as to the abolishment of all barbarous practices seem to have been made just for show and not for use.
 

6. 12월 6일

1
6th. Saturday. Bright.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Five p.m. went to Dr. Anderson's home to see Dr. Rawlings. Suppered with him. Went to Station. Saw him off 7:55 p.m.
3
Twenty seven years ago I played croquet with Rawlings on the Wesley Hall ground. How little did I dream of the storms that I had to pass through, then! I can't think of Wesley Hall without thinking fondly of the good Dr. Hoss, the beautiful Mrs. Hoss, the handsome Dr. Dudley who were all good to me. But where are they now? All gone, all gone before me! Change and decay all round I see; Thou changest not, Lord, abide with me!
 

7. 12월 7일

1
7th. Sunday. Pale but mild.
 
2
Worshipped at the 宗橋 Church as usual.
3
Invited 洪秉璇 to supper. He is a teacher in 培花學校. He said among other things: Miss Smith has increased the salaries of the teachers from ¥5 to ¥10 but make the teachers work something like 35 or 38 hours a week. The girl teachers, who are paid ¥20.00 teach from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. straight. The teachers have no time for preparation. They have no interest in the work and are ready to leave it as soon as they find a more agreeable job. Miss Smith seems to work on the principle that any teacher is good enough who is cheap and obedient. The school is a failure as much in not giving a girl a proper education as it is in not instilling a proper kind of faith in her. The so called study of the Bible doesn't go beyond committing memory, certain verses or chapters in the Bible and no Korean opinion is sought after.
 

8. 12월 8일

1
8th. Monday. Pale-very cold.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 3 p.m. called on Dr. Hahn who has been reported to be leaving Korea for good. He told me that he intends to return to Korea in about seven months to live and work for God, testifying His grace and goodness to him. He asked me to pray for him. The Doctor, who has been more or less ostracized by the missionaries, has always shown sympathy to the Korean people. Yet he is well reputed to be fickle. I pray that his convertion is genuine and permanent this time. 7 p.m. went to the tea party given to the Korean pastors, etc. by the Christian Union Committee in Seoul. Heard from 宋彥用 that Miss P. I. D. had been rearrested and sent to 大邱. The hard measures against these heroic girls―who must be suffering much―diminished in our Korean winds, the value of the professions of love on the part of the Japanese bretheren. Of course they are not the police.
 

9. 12월 9일

1
9th. Tuesday. Very cold. 22°F.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Today being the birth day of my mother-in-law I took breakfast at Mr. Hong Choong Hyen's home. Wife and children spent the day there too.
3
Mr. Cynn H.W. in a chat spoke of the great importance of guiding the Korean movement so as to save young brave boys and girls from hurling themselves into wasteful heroism and that, in order to guide them, one must have the confidence and cooperation of the leaders in S'hai, etc. All very good; but who is to tie the ring on the cat's neck?
4
I wish I could persuade Cynn to take my position in the Central Y.
 

10. 12월 10일

1
10th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mr. 金 came to see me with Genl.
3
Utsunomiya's invitation to lunch next Saturday. 金 has an unenviable record behind him as having betrayed his fellow students during the last years of the Ex-Emperor when His Majesty was killing every one suspected of being pro-Japanese.
4
Among other things which I must take with a deal of salt, Kim said that 呂運亨 is in secret communication with the Japanese authorities; that 呂's public proclamation of Korea's independence in Tokyo was forced on him by 張德秀; that Genl. 宇都宮 is accused by his country men as being too pro-Korean; that the General is in favor of granting the Koreans a kind of home rule.
 

11. 12월 11일

1
11th. Thursday. Bright and mild.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The Government General has granted permission to four Japanese applicants to publish as many papers in Korea. This in the name of giving freedom of press to the Koreans!
3
It is the universal complaint that in cities and country villages the police pay no attention to the suppression of gambling and of petty thefts. The whole machinery of the Japanese regime is busy night and day in hunting after arresting, torturing, imprisoning, trying, convicting the 'Mansei' crowd. Why don't they introduce some positive measures of reform that will redeem the repeated promises and give to the moderate Koreans some hope for a better government?
 

12. 12월 12일

1
12th. Friday. Pale-mild.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mailed a Bill of Exchange for £240 Sterling in a registered letter to 致旺.
3
A number of Koreans in Seoul are talking about establishing an orphanage. I asked Dr. Schoffield what he thought of asking the Salvation Army to take charge of the proposed institution. The Doctor said "No" for reasons: 1. Let the Koreans Learn to do things themselves without relying on foreigners. 2. Who knows how long the Japanese would allow the Salvation Army to carry on the poor boys rescue work. 3. Many Koreans will be able to find positions in the institution if it were under the Korean management. 4. The Korean public will take no active interest in the institution if it were under a foreign management. The Doctor is right.
 

13. 12월 13일

1
13th. Saturday. Gloomy. A little snow in the evening.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. in the morning. At 12 p.m. went to the official residence of the Commander of the Army of Korea for lunch. It was a 披露宴 on the part of Genl. 宇都宮 who had lately been promoted to the rank of 大將. Besides the Gov. General there were a large number of Japanese and Korean guests. Mr. 李商在 and I were two Korean private citizens. I sat next to Baron 韓昌洙. Refering to the magnificent dining room I said to Mr. Han: "This building is said to cost the Govt. ¥4000.00 a year for repair alone. If such a house were offered to me I would have to refuse it." To my surprise Mr. H. said: "Why, what is ¥4000.00 a year for you? Remember life is a dream. No use hoarding." The amusing facts are that Mr. H. thinks I am a very rich man and that the only thing beside hoarding is to pass the time in fine and luxurious living.
 

14. 12월 14일

1
14th. Sunday. Pale sunshine.
 
2
發信: Letter to Dr. Rawlings. Worshipped at the 宗橋 Church as usual.
3
By 4:20 p.m. train left Seoul for a trip to Song Do with 恩姬. The train was provokingly slow and the cigarette smoke in the crowded car was simply abominable. Precious 恩姬 behaved beautifully. It was 9:30 p.m. when we reached Song Do station. It was intensely cold and there was neither a "rickshaw“ nor a "jiggy" boy! Fortunately a shop boy offered to take the bag for me while 바위 carried 恩姬 in his arms. In side of the old West gate we met a "rickshaw.” It was some time after 10 when we got to our mountain home―all safe and sound.
 

15. 12월 15일

1
15th. Monday. Pale. Very cold. Beautiful p.m.
 
2
Song Do home. Felt tired and dizzy. After breakfast took a long and refreshing nap.
3
I knew what the Peace Conference would or wouldn't do in regard to the Korean question. I knew what President Wilson could or couldn't do for Korea; I knew what the so called League of Nations would or wouldn't do as to Japan's relation to Korea. But I never knew or realized what the Koreans would and could endure in their devotion to the cause. Yet I knew in March, that the Korean demand for independence was premature and still I think so.
 

16. 12월 16일

1
16th. Tuesday. Pale.
 
2
Left Song Do by the 11:50 a.m. train. Arrived Seoul home about 3:30 p.m.
3
During the last decade of the Ex-Emperor's misgovernment, Korea had no other coin but nickel 5 sen pieces of which a large proportion was spurious―thanks to the honesty of the Japanese! One of the first acts of reformation as soon as Japan took hold of Korea, was to collect these debased nickel coins and to replace them with Japanese money―of the gold standard in theory, at least. Today the whole country is flooded with dirty rags of 10,20,50 sen paper "coins" compared with which the Korean nickel pieces were "gentlemen and scholars". The latter had some metal therefore some value in it while the rags which we are compelled to use as money have absolutely no intrinsic value at all. What an improvement!
 

17. 12월 17일

1
17th. Wednesday. Pale a.m. Beautiful p.m.
 
2
發信: 東坧申込.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. This morning at 10 a.m. attended the funeral service of Dr. 金允鎭 at 慶南敎會. This young man was a picture of health only about 10 days ago. His third wife died two days ago to be followed by him almost immediately. All looks like a dream! The paper says that between the 10th and the 14th inst. 303 deaths in the city of Seoul from influenza.
4
The Japanese Shinto temple or 大神宮 in Seoul costs the people of the city ¥7000.00. Of this the Japanese are responsible for ¥5500.00 while ¥1500.00 are to be extorted from the Koreans.
5
Shintoism is so intensely Japanese that it can have no possible meaning outside of Japan. To force the Koreans to pay for the support of a religion in which they could have no earthly interest can't be said to be the freedom of conscience.
 

18. 12월 18일

1
18th. Thursday. Pale a.m. Bright p.m Very cold.
 
2
來信 : 朴德化, 白南璇
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Read the History of Ireland! There is hardly a crime or blunder with which the Japanese regime in Korea is charged that doesn't find its precedence or example in the crimes and blunders of England in her Irish policy. However Japan should never imitate England in this respect for reasons following: 1. Korea was annexed to Japan not as a conquered country while England took Ireland by a series of conquests. 2. England had no Ireland to act as a warning or lesson while Japan has. 3. Ireland had no neighbor nearer than England, while Korea is nearer to China and Russia than to Japan.
 

19. 12월 19일

1
19th. Friday. Pale sun.
 
2
Received a letter from my little brother 致昌 and also from Allen. So glad to know that they were well. About noon, called on Mr. Cynn and asked him to take the Genl. Secretaryship of Central Y. He promised to think over it. He seems undecided as to whether he should go abroad or to stay. I told him that it is a mistake to think (as so many seem to think) that men like Cynn or me, can serve the nation, better in America than in Korea; that if we are of some acc't to serve Korea by going outside of the country we should be of some acc't by staying inside of her. Lord Nelson's immortal saying in regard to the British Navy was: "Let your battle ground be your drill ground". Let us not forget that Korea is the Korean's battle ground.
 

20. 12월 20일

1
20th. Saturday. Very cold and pretty.
 
2
Left Seoul by 11 a.m. train for Sai Mal. Reached 平澤 station at 3 p.m. The walk from 平澤 to 新村 was on the whole enjoyable, my 3rd cousin 致晠 being the companion. It was dark when we arrived at our country home.
3
Some Koreans think that Prof. Masaryk brought about the independence of Czecho-Slovakia through his wonderful propaganda in America. These people seem to ignore the fact that had there been no great war that turned upside down the European politics, Masaryk or no Masaryk, no independence would have been possible to the Czecho-Slavics. Remember also that the Czecho-Slavics were prepared intellectually and otherwise to take full advantage of the situation. Are the Koreans prepared for efficient self-government?
 

21. 12월 21일

1
21st. Sunday. Pretty.
 
2
Sai Mal home. Maybe I was too tired or maybe this room was a little uncomfortably chilly. I had a poor sleep. My uncle predicted last winter that the crops would be bad this year; that the unpulled rice would fetch over20.00 this winter. The most remarkable thing is that his prophecies in regard to the price of rice have come true during last 4 or 5 years. He now predicts that the crops will pass the ¥30.00 per bag limit next spring. My uncle believes that man can do nothing without the help of God, that the time is not ripe for Korean independence that it is useless and harmful to try to pluck fruit until it is ripe and that when a fruit is ripe it will fall of its own accord.
 

22. 12월 22일

1
22nd. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Sai Ma! home. A comparatively refreshing sleep last night. Mr. 成煥文 from 新南里 tells me that in his village, ten houses have already been vacated by their owners who have gone away seeking food where they might and that of the 60 or more which kept hired workmen, 머섬, only 3 find it possible to keep them.
3
About 2 p.m. erected a small marble tablet(念修堂) on the spot on which my grandparents prayed for sons. May God give another son to me who will be like my father in body and mind! My good uncle affects perfect indifference to the affairs of this world. But is it indifference or indolence? He says: "These trees are mine, though your man planted them, because they stand on my land". In the same breath, he insist, "Those fruit trees belong to me, though they stand on your land because the man who planted them sold them to me". Now, if the first proposition is true what right had the man to sell the fruit trees to him? This is "Mine is mine and yours is mine" kind of argument.
 

23. 12월 23일

1
23rd. Tuesday. Gloomy and chilly.
 
2
發信: To mother and wife.
3
Sai Mal home. A refreshing bath about 1 p.m. Went to 屯浦 and called on 致口兄. Fifty years ago he and his wife began housekeeping with a little pan 징가비 for all purposes. By economy and hard work he is one of the rich men of this district. Called on the Chief of Police who has charge of this district. He is reported to be sensible and kind. During the Mansei disturbances, he saved our village and other villages from panic and calamity by his coolness and gentleness. I asked him to use his official influence in disuading the poor tenants of 屯浦 who are reported to be raising a subscription of ¥300.00 to erect a stone tablet commemorating my generosity!
 

24. 12월 24일

1
24th. Wednesday. Pale. Beautiful-sunshine a.m.
 
2
Sai Mal home. Uncle has been writing a novel which he has named 尹氏昌盛記. He is the hero of the story while the scene is laid in China! Eight fairies, 八仙女, are woven into the story and the goody-goody moralities of Confucian type are exalted―which is the object of the book. The profuse quantity of quotations with which uncle has embellished his pages surprise everyone who knows that he has never had the chance or inclination to read the Chinese classics and other literary works. Yet whatever may be the merits of this strange novel I can't help believing that uncle would have done a far better piece of work for his family and the future had he written down the events and reminiscences of the last 50 years as faithfully as he could. The story of his brave fights with the bands of robbers, among the Korean hills is certainly far more interesting and instructive than the story of his imaginary exploits in China.
 

25. 12월 25일

1
25th. Thursday. Gloomy and chilly.
 
2
Sai Mal home. Old farmers say this is the worst famine year since 丙子年 or 1875. They even remember the exact date on which the fatal frost made that year's crops so hopeless―the 11th day of the 8th moon. The dry spell which is still continuing causes much anxiety.
3
Four years ago a farm laborer of the best type was paid ¥15.00 a year plus 3 suits of clothes and board. Now he demands ¥40.00 plus the other conditions. "There have been prosecutions" says a writer on Ireland for whistling 'Harvey Duff', for an agressive wink, for a humbugging sort of smile. Margaret Moran and John Moran, evicted tenants, were arrested for blowing them noses in a contemptuous manner and 'sentensed to a two months' imprisonment. The Korean sangnom or common fellow used to see whipped for wearing a pair high wooden shoes before a yangban. Man, white or yellow will do any amount of mean things if they have nothing to fear.
 

26. 12월 26일

1
26th. Friday. Gloomy and chilly.
 
2
Sai Mal home. There is a simple-hearted farmer, named 李堊寬 in this village. One of our relatives, 尹敬夫, persued Yi to gamble with him and loaded him with a "debt" of some 30 Yen the interest of which Yi had to pay for 13 years running in 3 bags of unhulled rice, per annum. Everybody in the village saw the injustice of it but none dared to say anything. But 敬夫 dying some years ago left a son(弘求) who in the space of three or four years wrecked his fortune completely in riotous living and would have been a penniless and homeless beggar had I not bought his lands in order to keep them from going into the hands of usurers and to charge myself with the thankless task of supplying his means of living. Yi's son in gambling won 3 to 4 thousand Yen from 弘求 and 鴻善 lately, and built last Spring a nice house, with the money. The villagers regard this as a just restitution of 敬夫's ill-gotten money to the poor simple-hearted Yi.
 

27. 12월 27일

1
27th. Saturday. Gloomy.
 
2
About 11 a.m. left Sai Mal. In Toon Po, I visited the Church to see the Bible woman in charge. The handful of women and boys who make up the membership of the feeble church have decorated the straw-thatched house of worship with green pine branches at the gate and flags with red cross painted on them. Homely as these decorations are, they showed that the Christian women and children have done what they could to celebrate in this heathen village, the birth of the "Light of the World". Gave the Bible woman ¥20.00 for rethatching the building.
3
Walked 30 li to 平澤 station. Just before we boarded the train snow flakes began to fly about 3 : 45 p.m. Arrived Seoul 7:30 p.m. All well at home. Heavy snow in Seoul.
 

28. 12월 28일

1
28th. Sunday. Gloomy.
 
2
Had a poor rest last night. When darling 恩姬 awoke this morning, she manifested real joy to see me and hugged me in her little arms. She is a sweet darling. Hear she missed me very much when she was sick of constipation during my absence.
3
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual.
4
Last night's snow must have been unusually heavy as the telegraph and telephone wires in the city are down in many places.
5
3 p.m. Mr. Cynn gave a lecture on the "New Year" to a fairly good crowd in Y.M.C.A. auditorium. He said, when he left my room almost in a soliloquy "Next year I must do something no matter where".
 

29. 12월 29일

1
29th. Monday. Bright-very cold. 14°F.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. This magnificent snow has converted the surrounding mountains as well as trees etc. into veritable silver world. Hopes are expressed by people that the influenza germs are killed by the snow storm which must have purified the air. If the snow has fallen in the country districts as thick as it has in Seoul farmers must rejoice. Yet the poor people in the city well suffer more from the scarcity of fuel and the rise of its price.
3
4 p.m. went to the meeting of the Board of Trustees at the home of Dr. Avison. The Doctor says he has seen such a snow in Seoul for the first time and he has been in Korea over 30 years!
4
Glad to know that Miss Pak In Duk has been released. How I wish to see her and greet her in person!
 

30. 12월 30일

1
30th. Tuesday. Pale. 6°F. 高聖運 來信.
 
2
發信: 李鍾元. Sent 高 letter.
3
Very cold. Stayed at home. A Japanese ex-convict 南里 with whom I roomed in Taiku in 1913 came to see me. He had 3 scrolls of Chinese painting for which he claimed ¥500. Along he showed me a scroll of writing said to be that of a Japanese princess. "I can get ten thousand Yen for this at any bank" said he. He wound up his tedious visit by asking me to lend him ¥70.00 just for a few days―as the heavy snow has interrupted communications with his home. I gave him ¥5.00 as I did ¥20.00 a year or so ago. I feel a sort grateful to this man for he was very considerate to me when we were together in prison.
4
Strange to say that the four Japanese ex-convicts whom I met after my return home have proved cheats thus proving the powerlessness of prison to reform a fallen man.
 

31. 12월 31일

1
31st. Wednesday. Gloomy―A little snow in the evening.
 
2
發信: To Allen.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Learned for the first time that Dr. Tim Rechard had passed away some time last Spring. One of the few pleasurable events that live ever fresh in my memory is the pleasant evenings I had at his home in Shanghai, in 1893-4. The last time I saw him was on the occasion of the dedication of the Central Y.M.C.A. His pronounced pro-Japanese attitude was expressed in his address. I have forgotten every word he said on the occasion except the sentence: "Prince Ito is not a church member because no church is big enough for him". A Salvation Army man shouted "Halleluja" to the disgust of some and the surprise of all. Mailed a registered letter containing a Bill of Exchange on N.Y. for750.00 to my boy Allen. God bless him in the coming year as He has done during the past.
4
Praise God from whom all blessings flow!
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