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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 7월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권 8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 7월 1일

1
1st. Tuesday. Sunny-hot.
 
2
Before breakfast took walk with 朴秉瓚 to the 扶山洞 summer resort. Felt very tired.
3
With 朴炅瓚 and 劉高原 visited Mr. 李康浩 who has lately returned from a trip to Moukden and Peking where he went as ginseng merchant. He was enthusiastic about the solidness of the Chinese character, and the wealth of all sorts of products. He further told us that the anti-J. feeling runs very high in every circle, that the Chinese actually worship the Americans, that the political situation is hopeless, that the Chinese themselves expect dismemberment of the country, and that the Chinese are still very friendly to the Koreans. Took lunch at Mr. 李′s.
 

2. 7월 2일

1
2nd. Wednesday. Beautiful-hot.
 
2
Up early. Took a walk to the 白年台 stopping now and then to chat with the village schoolmaster, or with the farmer planting peas, or the little fellows cutting grass on the hilly side. Everything fresh and green after the shower of yesterday evening. The clear streams supply to the surroundings as never ending and a never-to-be-tired-of music.
3
The Peace Treaty was signed at 3 p.m. on the 28th of June.
4
Is Clemanceau hard on Germany? So was Bismark on France in 1870. But then Napoleon had exacted harder terms from Prussia in 1805. Thus war begets war and revenge produces revenge.
 

3. 7월 3일

1
3rd. Thursday. Sunny and hot. Rain night.
 
2
Up early and morning walk as usual.
3
Left Song Do by 11:40 a.m. train. Arrived Seoul home 3:15 p.m. Find 恩姬 sick of 紅疫 or measles. Awfully hot night.
4
"Believe and Ye shall be saved" sounds foolish; but in reality, it is the highest philosophy, religion and commonsense all in one. It saves us from the futile and maddening attempt at solving problems that can never be solved in this world.
5
The very best intellects haven't been able to answer certain "whys" and "hows" during the last six thousand years. Do I expect to solve them in 70 years? Belief gives us peace with God and with men. It saves us from sins which no philosophy or morality can overcome. To believe is life eternal in itself.
 

4. 7월 4일

1
4th. Friday. Sulty. Pale sun. Beautiful moon. 82°F.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Grace still sick. An Osaka paper says: Between March 1 and June 18th, 16,183 men examined by procurators in connection with the agitation in Korea. Of these 8,351 prosecuted and 5,858 set free. 1,778 transferred from one court to another for further examination while 196 not yet tried.
3
The authorities ought to close the chapter by granting a general amnesty to all (except those who are already in the hands of law) so that the country people may feel secure from molestation. If the police and judges try to arrest everybody who is suspected, the case will drag on for years, only deepening the gulf that is separating the two races. Kaiserism has failed. Try kindness now!
 

5. 7월 5일

1
5th. Saturday. Rain―sultry―all day and all night. (TABLE)
 
2
Had no rest last night owing to heat, bugs, and a sick child. Prices of main articles used in Y. Tea Room.
3
==Nov. 1916 July 1919 :==Nov. 1916 July 1919==Cream 1 doz. : ¥2.76 :==¥5 : Postum 1 tin : ¥.70 : ¥1.35==Sugar 1 kin : .10 : .38 :==Ice一貫 : .06 .15==Butter 1 lbs : .75 : 1.10 :==Beef 1 pound : .40 : .55==Coffee 1 kin : .70 : 1.00 :==Chicken : .25 : .70==Cocoa 1/2 kin : .37 1/2 : .80 :==Ham 1 pound : .50 : .65==Lipton Tea 1 tin : .70 : 1.20 :==Eggs (10) : .12 1/2 : .30==Flour 1 bag : 3.00 : 5.10 :==Rice 1 新升 : .25 : .44==Lard 1 kin : .25 : .55 :==Bread 1 loaf : .08 : .16==
 

6. 7월 6일

1
6th. Sunday. Rain all day.
 
2
Tremendous down pouring all the day long.
3
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual.
4
The Chinese delegates in Paris refused to sign the Peace Treaty on acc't of their dissatisfaction with the settlement of the Shan-tung question. Are the Chinese really indignant at the way foreign powers especially Japanese treat them? If so, why don't they hurry up and have a decent centralized government? Why do they keep the whole country torn up and run over by corrupt politicians and self-seeking militarists?
5
As long as China is unable or unwilling to have a sensible, strong patriotic internal administration, she will never get proper treatment at the hands of other nations. And rightly so, too, since nobody will respect a fellow who hasn't got self-respect enough to behave decently. I don't believe the Chinese, as a nation, are really indignant at anything.
 

7. 7월 7일

1
7th. Monday. Clear―beautiful a.m. Cloudy p.m.
 
2
A clear, cool, sunny morning welcome after two days of heavy rain.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual.
4
Understand that cousin Yun Chi-o has contracted debts, since his release, to the account of more than 9 thousand Yen―all on fraudulent pretences. He coaxed Yi Sang Chai, Yu Sung Joon, Han Jin Chang to sign as securities for ¥1300. I blame these men even more than cousin Chi-o. My cousin professes belief in Confucianism, in Buddhism and in Christianity. All these great religions combined seem to have no power whatsoever to break his habit of heartless and thoughtless and senseless profligacy.
 

8. 7월 8일

1
8th. Tuesday. Beautiful―morning and night.
 
2
發信: To S. Montrier Co. for Record.
3
Grace a little better. Y.M.C.A. as usual.
4
Step in any of the porcelain stores in the town, you will find that 9 tenth of the ware are made in Japan; yet that the shape, size and colorings of the bowls, dishes etc. show the marks of a careful study, on the part of the Japanese manufacturers, of the taste, usages, financial standing, of the Koreans. In other words, the porcelain makers of Japan adopt their wares to the taste and sentiment and conditions of the Korean market. The result is "success." The policy makers of Japan in general and the Government General in particular would do well to learn something from the porcelain makers. Had they done so, they would not have literally flooded Korea with rules, regulations, laws, red tapes with such ruthless disregard to the history, tradition, sentiment and prejudices of the people.
 

9. 7월 9일

1
9th. Wednesday. Beautiful morning and cool night.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Yesterday afternoon when I returned home, Mary Abbe(文姬) complained that 善姬 my niece had scratched her arm. I took no notice of it as the mark of the scratch was nothing serious while it can be no wonder for two children to quarrel now and then when civilized and Christian nations fight like demons on the least provocation. But this morning, wife said all manner of hard things against me and everybody else―for not chastising 善姬. This wicked woman is a child of demon if anybody ever was! She is breathing hatred and malice and anger from morning until night almost every day―today worse than other days. I don't want to show my tender children the ugly sight of quarreling with to their mother. For their dear sake I bear with this demon and suffer patiently the penalty.
 

10. 7월 10일

1
10th. Thursday. Beautiful morning.
 
2
After breakfast, went with 致昌 to the 鎌倉保育園支部 outside of the South Gate. The Home For Destitute Children is located on the southern side of Namsan―buildings which were 典牲署 in olden days. The site commands a fine view surrounded by wooded hills. The Home is under the management of the 佐竹權太郞 a fine-looking Japanese Christian. He has about 25 children under his care and some old folks too. His father is the Father of the Kaudenra Home for Destitute Children. They are doing a piece of real good work.
3
2 p.m. I was summoned to the court as a witness by the 預審判事. He asked me if Son Pyong Hui or Kim Won Pyek, or Yi Sang Chai or anybody else had asked me to join the Independentce agitations. I told him truthfully that they told him that after the agitation had begun, on the 1st of March a med. student (鄭華基) asked my advice what he should do and that I had warned him (鄭) not to join the movement.
 

11. 7월 11일

1
11th. Friday. Bright and hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Yesterday morning Mr. 朴 Sung Bin dropped in to see me. He intimated that he, Mr. 李奎瓚 and a few others were going to Tokyo to see some of the leaders in political circles. He said that self-Goverment is what Korea wants, that so callded assimilation is an impossibility and that the Koreans himself included have come to look up on the prison with no fear. Mr. Pak is one of the few men in Seoul whom I have confidence in―as to his honesty and saneness. Yet I doubt seriously the willingness on the part of the Japanese Govern't to grant a self-government and the ability on the part of the Koreans to manage such a trust, if granted. I am too timid to ask for a tool or a situation which I can't manage. Suppose someone were to give me an aeroplane or a submarine on the condition that I should handle and run it all by myself―would I accept it?
 

12. 7월 12일

1
12th. Saturday. Bright and hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mr. Uchimura's Sunday lectures on the Second Coming of Christ and other Gospel themes, attracting, as did, a large and intelligent audience, Sunday after Sunday, was one of the saving features of the TokyoY.M.C.A. for many a month past, because he is anti-ecclesiastic and anti-missionary or because of something else which I don't know―he was politely asked by the Y. Directors not to preach in the Y. Auditorium a month ago. Most strange―most inconceivable! Whatever Mr. U. is or is not, he is a thorough and conscientious and consistent orthodox Christian. His able pen and eloquent tongue have created for himself an audience larger than the Church in Japan. No wise man would, for mere sectarian considerations have shown him the Y. Directors commit such a blunder!
 

13. 7월 13일

1
13th. Sunday. Bright and hot.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual. 洪秉璇 led the morning service. He preached on the equality of men because the all have physical organs, same in kind and office! Pigs also have 耳目口鼻―ears, eyes, mouths and noses as for that matter. He deprecated the practice of serving different kind of foods to masters and servants. He was indignant that a missionary traveling 1st class would give him 3rd class ticket. His idea seemed to be "Let us practice the Golden Rule to the letter." I wonder if he will ride "Rikshaw"―for the rikshaw coolie has all the senses as he―and therefore he (the coolie) must enjoy the comforts equally with Hong.
3
Crude as Hong's ideas are those socialistic sentiments are rapidly gaining ground among the young men of Korea.
 

14. 7월 14일

1
14th. Monday. Bright and hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mr. Brockman entertained at 12:30 Mr. and Mrs. Boyd of the Saturday Evening Post at the 太和館 restaurant. Some of our Y.M.C.A. Directors were present―also a Mr. Shoemaker from the Indian Y.M.C.A. worked. Mrs. Boyd was a typical American woman―in her manly bearing. What a pity that woman has to give up her distinctive, heavenly graces in order to become as man! As well might a Nightingale give up her songs to become as an eagle, or a blushing rose, the perfume to imitate the oak.
3
5:30 went to Family Hotel to meet Mr. 竹內 and 金貞植 at a supper to which I had invited them. Mr. 竹內 has some very fair ideas about what Japanese policy should be in Korea. He insists that the words 植民地 should not be applied to Korea.
 

15. 7월 15일

1
15th. Tuesday. Bight-hot. 90°F.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The Koreans, as a race, seem to have an inborn enmity against trees. They form the evaluation of forests on the basis firewood. When they see fine trees, they get itchy to injure it, cut it, destroy it. Where the forests are too big to be cut down, they burn them down. There are some fine old 槐木 in Song Do, but most of them are scarred by their barks being cut out from top to botom. You tell a country man to plant trees. The first thing he says is that the soil is not good for such and such a tree or that such a tree is injurious to the crops or such a tree―like 銀行 or 木瓜―are harmful to the man who plants it. The little children when they sing about the cinnamon tree in the moon love to cut it and chop it. I say, Koreans will never be ready for independence until they learned to admire and love trees.
 

16. 7월 16일

1
16th. Wednesday. Cloudy-sultry a.m. Bright-hot p.m.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. So hot and thirsty―long for a cooling stream. About 5 p.m. with 邊壎 went to 洪陵 and found some satisfaction in the cold stream which we discovered among the woods. The little well gave refreshing cold water―but too many people and no arrangement for rest. Took supper at 淸凉寺―Paid 50 sen per person―only 20 yen per meal three years ago.
3
The rich lands which are covered with trees around 洪陵 about 20 years ago are rice fields of rare fertility. In the rain of the Queen's Grave, all these rich fields were seized by the then Emperor and turned into wilderness. The Japanese abuse of the Right of Eminent Domain is only a civilized edition of the Ex-Emperor's way of His peoples.
 

17. 7월 17일

1
17th. Thursday. Bright and hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 2 p.m. went to the Mayor's Office to attend the meeting of the Committee of Organization to aid the Poor Boys Rescue Work which the Salvation Army has been carrying on. Judge Watanabe was the leading spirit. A simple constitution was drawn up under the name of 京城貧兒養育後援會.
3
Every time I visit Mr. Mayor's Office I am reminded of the prophecy of Dr. Reid. It was in the summer of 1901 that I met Dr. Reid in Seoul, on my way to Wonsan. We had a chat in a small rustic pavillion of the hill back of his house―now the site of the Bank of Chosen. We could see the Japanese Consulate on the other side of the street. The Doctor said: "Yun, mark my word, inside of ten years from now that building there,"―the Dr. pointing the Consulate―"will become the Gen Cho (縣廳) of Japan." Protectorate 1905. Annexation 1910.
 

18. 7월 18일

1
18th. Friday. Bright and hot. 94°F.
 
2
Baby 明姬 very ill last night―looks like measles.
3
Tigers are cruel and vipers are poisonous; but what are they compared to the inhumanity of man! History of mankind is the record of the wrongs and injuries of men, as individuals and nations, have done each other. Presbyterians under Cromwell who massacred the Irish Catholics in the name of God, thought or insisted that the aborigines of Ireland should be exterminated. When I was in Alabama in 1910, Rev. Jenkins a Methodist presiding elder, shocked me by saying that the Negroes will someday have to be exterminated. I myself have heard the Japanese express the hope, the desire, the intention with an undisguised joy that in a few years, the remnant of the Korean race will only be found in some way out corners of Siberia. The most hateful feature in human nature is that it commits all kinds and degrees of wickedness in the name of patriotism, liberty, loyalty and religions.
 

19. 7월 19일

1
19th. Saturday. Bright and hot, perhaps the hottest day so far. 95'F.
 
2
Baby Magaret still sick―the fretfulness of the sick child, awful heat day and night seem to have raised the wicked temper of wife to white heat. Her tongue shoots off sulphurous words of curse, hatred in all direction against everybody―especially against our elder daughter-in-law. For the sake of my dear children I bear with this hell-hearted, hell-tempered and hell-tongued woman whom I have the misfortune of calling wife―but often she is simply unbearable. God help me to know what to do with this demon of a woman.
3
Took Grace to the Kindergarten in the morning and was charmed with the sweet behavior of the precious child. Heaven save her from the evil influence of her bad mother!
 

20. 7월 20일

1
20th. Sunday. Cloudy-sultry a.m.
 
2
Sultry from the earliest morning. 1 p.m. went to 京城府廳 at the invitation of Mayor Kanaya. About 30 Koreans representing various vacations were present. Cool drinks and “susi" and sandwitch served. Mr. 金重煥 proposed to organize a 矯風會 the constitution for which had already been prepared and distributed before the refreshment. The object was four fold 1. To promote the friendly relations between the members. 2. To aid each other in time of need. 3. To preserve order. 4. To reform (evil) customs. I was disagree ably surprised at being elected President. An association organized at the instigation of the authorities, managed by men like Choi Rang, Yoi Song Suk, Min Won Sik can't hope to be very hopeful or popular.
3
Accepting the invitation of Mr. 劉文煥 took supper at the Family Hotel. Mr. 張燾 present. The food the worst I have tasted in the way of foreign cooking.
 

21. 7월 21일

1
21st. Monday. Very hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 朴奎遠 one of the clerks in the office has resigned. He is one of the nicest young men I know of. He is a good typist. He is dissatisfied with the discourteous treatment of Mr. Brockman. Mr. B.pays him ¥10 from the Union Committee Fund―to be his typist and memory. Brockman often loads him with works which don't belong to the Y. or to himself―recently the works of the Foreign Childrens' School. And all this with such dictatorial air that Pak, quiet and gentleman as he is, can hardly stand. When Pak notified Brockman his intention of leaving the Y. work for a position which promises to pay ¥50 at the start, Mr. B. had the bad grace of exorting him not to run after high wages and of asking him to pray for light. Pak is said to have refused to pray saying that he didn't need any devine light to know that he couldn't support a family of nine with ¥35 per month. The blunt and impolite behavior of the foreign Missionary is doing more harm than anything else to their work
 

22. 7월 22일

1
22nd. Tuesday. Very hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 3 p.m. the 京城矯風會 held its 幹事會 or Officer's Meeting in the small lecture room of Y.M.C.A. Just before the meeting adjourned, I presented my resignation as its president―for two good reasons―1. my being the Genl. Secretary of the Y.M.C.A. 2. I have suffered so much for having been 會長 of different organizations that I am sick of the very name of it.
3
Mr. 李秉輝 came and took supper with me. He is one of the oldest friends of our family. In 1882, Mr. Yi risked his life by following my father when the latter had to flee from Seoul on acc't of the coupdetat of Tai Won Koon. He is all of interesting reminiscences. One of them is the wonderful prophetic power of the physiognomist, on 許焌. Mr. 許 prophecied in the years of 戊辰 and 己巳 that my father (who was then only 中軍) would 出將入相; that Mr. 李秉輝 wouldn't make money but that he would never be without office,―both fulfilled. 劉庇仁 tells me that Mr. 許 prophecied when Mr. 劉 was only 15 years old, that he would never be rich but that he would hold two magistrial offices―all came to pass.
 

23. 7월 23일

1
23rd. Wednesday. Bright and hot.
 
2
發信: Candl. to 白雲◉
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The Seoul Press published a letter purported to have been written by an Indian Gentleman on the Humanism of the English in India during the recent disturbances in that huge country. The charges are: 1. Bombs and machine-guns from aeroplanes attacked unarmed men and women. 2. News papers rigorously suppressed and many people beaten in public. 3. Number of people shot dead 400. 4. Prisoners not allowed to appeal. 5. Between the end of Apr. and the beginning of Jun, 1614 prisoners tried. Of these 58 sentenced to death; 155 including some women to exile for life; 1,401 major imprisonment, confiscation of property, fires and flogging. 6. No counsel for the accused was allowed except those appointed by the Government. Such reports will have very bad effect on the Japanese administration in Korea. Japan will imitate the British method with improvements, and will have something to silence the public criticism with.
 

24. 7월 24일

1
24th. Thursday. Very hot-breezy.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. When brother Chi Wang was only 9 or 10 he was engaged to a girl of like age―a daughter of Yi Hui Dok(g?) , a notorious drunkard and bully. They were married when Chi Wang was only about 14. She has turned out an―unspeakable scold―indolent, insolent, vicious. She rises late winter and summer, never doing―a stroke of work to help her mother-in-law. If she doesn't change for the better, brother will have no happy home. As to be expected, there is no love lost between, my wife and my sister-in-law. Their constant quarrel is poisoning the atmosphere of the whole house. If prizes were offered for vile-tempered women these two will beat any female in Korea, for the first prize.
 

25. 7월 25일

1
25th. Friday. Very hot.
 
2
Left Seoul 9:50 (10:10 late) train in the morning for Song Do with wife and children. Arrived about 12 p.m. Delighted with the green surroundings of this beautiful home.
3
Felt ill in the evening.
4
Everybody talks about peace, but everywhere war rages. This state of things will not mend until the Golden Rule is internationalized. Every nation wants to remain a wolf itself while it wishes its neighbors to become lambs. Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. You want to love your country but you don't want others to love theirs. You want to be treated justly and fairly but you treat others unjustly. You want to be loved but you hate others.
 

26. 7월 26일

1
26th. Saturday. Very hot.
 
2
Song Do home. A touch of malaria(몸살) last night. A little better this morning but not natural yet.
3
Mr. Nohimura in his July issue of the "Bible Study" says America has money; but little or no true Gospel…Next to German militarism, nothing, I believe, does more harm to the cause of true religion than American money. This I take to be a reflection of the anti-American spirit now so fashionable in Japan. If America has no true Gospel with its money, what country has it without the money? America, so far, has come by her wealth through legitimate efforts; and has been using her money as generously and wisely as any nation I know of. But for the American Gospel and the American money who would have given Korea its hospitals, schools―such as they are―when nobody dreamt of them American Gospel and American money have been rather helpful, on the whole, rather than otherwise to Japan herself.
 

27. 7월 27일

1
27th. Sunday. Burning hot.
 
2
Song Do home. The heat and drought cause much suffering. Mr. Ryang came to see me in the morning. He is growing more and more hopeless of a wise and conciliatory policy on the part of Japan.
3
Worshipped at Northward Church. On the way home, went with Dr. Reid to his dispensary to have my itchy hand treated. He told me that the local police has been rather hostile to his work annoying him with all kinds of petty persecutions―in the shape of new regulations.
4
金鉉俊 came down from Seoul to see me. He is on a holiday trip. Was sorry to hear from him that the poor farmers in the Suwon District where the "Germanic" brutalities had been perpetrated are being arrested afresh. Many had to free from the villages. What is the use of prosecuting these poor men who have lost so much through the burning of their houses? Why this uncausing terrorism!
 

28. 7월 28일

1
28th. Monday. Cloudy now and then and sultry.
 
2
Song Do home. No rain in spite of the thunder and lightening yesterday evening. Farmers here say if no rain within five days, crops will suffer hopelessly.
3
I have been reading Mr. Gerard's "Face to Face with Kaiserism" for the second time. Some passages, nay even some chapters, read as if they were written in and on Japan. No wonder, for, besides the fact that Japan has minutely and successfully copied German system and methods and policy, the sub-soil, the back ground, of the civilization of the two countries are same in nature―viz.: the feudal system under which the best and worst qualities of human heart had been nurtured to perfection. "Live, perish who may" is the motto of Germany and its disciples.
 

29. 7월 29일

1
29th. Tuesday. Bright and hot.
 
2
Song Do home. My old friend, Mr. Yu Bi In has what he regards to be the positive proof against the immortality of the soul. He said: "When my mother was dying, she promised us, her children, that she would pray to Gods in the other world to give us more comfortable means of living than she was able to bequeath to us. But once, she has never appeared to us to report the result of her appeal. Now if her soul lives―if the human soul is immortal will she have deserted us so completely? No, I can't believe that the soul lives after death. Again I haven't, known or heard, an instance in which the departed soul has ever appeared to the surviving ones in aspect any other than sad or solemn or indifferent."
 

30. 7월 30일

1
30th. Wednesday. Foggy in the morning―Sultry.
 
2
Song Do home. 5 p.m. called on Mr. 森脇, the Police inspector. Sometime age, the Hindu poet, Tagore addressed a letter to the Viceroy of India protesting against the British brutality in the suppression of the disturbance in Punjab. A nation of 300 millions, so divided in language, in politics, worst of all, in religion―so given up to philosophical vaporings that they haven't been able to devise a strong united government for themselves. They whine at the brutality of the handful of aliens―under whom the mass of the people have enjoyed comparatively more security of life and property than they did under the corrupt native rulers. First learn to unite and to pull together. No use whining and writing fine poetry.
3
The Chinese are cutting each other's throat, having neither a strong government nor a united people. Yet they whine about the aggressive policies of other nations!
 

31. 7월 31일

1
31st. Thursday. Burning hot.
 
2
Song Do home. Mr. Ryang told me that he had heard they "Independents" in Shanghai are 辱 ing me for not joining them believing, at the same time, that I would strengthen their cause very materially. Well, every public movement that I identified myself with proved a failure. Not only failure but brought me personal sufferings which I haven't the courage to face again. I have an aged mother and tender children whose welfare is precious to me. To risk all for, to me, almost a hopeless enterprise―I am not heroic enough to attempt. I don't believe the Koreans, as a nation, are yet politically intelligent enough to manage and maintain an independent state in a world of turmoil like this. The pessimists say, however, that Japan will never allow the Korean people to attain that degree of intelligence. But no nation has ever succeeded in keeping down the intellectual growth of another race.
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