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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 6월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권 7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 6월 1일

1
1st. Sunday. Sunshine and cloud. 81°F.
 
2
Stayed at home. My head seems like a watch―spring that is unwound. Have lost zest for reading.
3
Justice, humanity and the rest. No nation or race will ever get a share of these good things unless and until they are able and willing to fight for them. Might alone is not always right. Nor is right alone might. But right supported by might is right.
4
Why did God ordain that fight-struggle-war should be the only means and ways for human improvement and perfection? In a garden party given by Genl. Hasegawa, I saw some Korean ladies had "jobakis" on in spite of the fact the day was rather warm or even hot. I said to Count "Why do they wear "jobakis" on such a warm day like this?" "Don't ask whys" answered Mr. Yi "As for that matter why do you and I wear these hats on? Why is everything what it is? Why are we here? Who can answer us the whys of this life? Don't ask whys."
 

2. 6월 2일

1
2nd. Monday. Cloudy a.m. Welcome rain―from early p.m.
 
2
Stayed at home in the morning. Visited 用翠園 with brother 致昌 after breakfast. By the way, there are half a dozen florists gardens in Seoul―may be more, which are ministering to the beautiful taste for flowers so characteristic of the Japanese. They buy up flowers so quickly that flowers have hardly time to bloom so to speak. As a people, the Koreans haven't reached that stage of civilization where a flower is appreciated to its full value. In fact Korea is a country where flowers and women have no names. For this Confucianism is more responsible than any other simple cause. Japan owes to Buddhism her marvelous development of the esthetic sense.
 

3. 6월 3일

1
3rd. Tuesday. Sunshine.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The papers report that England has opened negotiations with China urging the latter to grant independence to Tibet not only but to concede to Tibet a portion of territory in the provinces of 雲南四川, 新彊, 甘肅―to boot. Was astonished to read this―the generosity of the British! Independence― Protectorate―Annexation―an old trick again. But who told China to be so foolish as to be weak? A nation that hasn't sense enough to organize a sensible, strong and stable government hasn't sense enough to keep her integrity intact.
3
Mary Abbe sick―feverish―dizzy.
4
4:10 p.m. went to the Salvation Army Training School to see boys picked up from the dust bins. Now 31 such boys, clean comfortable. Col. French after a lengthy report on the work said that he was at the end of financial support and asked what was he to do with the poor homeless boys.
5
Nearly twenty Japanese gentlemen present. Only two Koreans present. A Committee composed of judge 渡邊暢, mayor 金谷 and myself was appointed to have a permanent committee who will devise ways and means to continue this good work.
 

4. 6월 4일

1
4th. Wednesday. Sultry in the morning and noon―cooled off in the evening.
 
2
Stayed at home. Early afternoon Mr. 村上唯吉 came to see me. Among what he said: In Tokyo he had confidential talks with Mr. Hara, the Premier, the ministers of War and of Foreign office.
3
2. The Seoul police authorities sent Mr. Okamoto to arrest the Korean agitators in Shanghai but the Japanese Consul anticipating an unpleasant international situation, made the Koreans to flee from the wrath to come. 3. Mr. Hara the Premier requested him(村上) to visit Shanghai to find out the doings of the Koreans. 4. He(村上) had presented to the cabinet ministers a copy each of his written statement as to the causes and cures for the Korean disaffection, embodying most of what I and other Koreans have told him.
4
Mary Abbe still sick.
 

5. 6월 5일

1
5th. Thursday. Cloudy―Showers from 9 a.m. Sunny p.m.
 
2
Went to Y.M.C.A. about 10 a.m. Mr. 村上唯吉 came to the Building. I entertained him and 邊壎 to a luncheon. 村上 said that he had spent over ¥800 in a month in Tokyo. He asked 邊 to go to Shanghai with him. I wonder who is footing the bill for 村上. He himself said that one wouldn't go to such expenses in Tokyo who has to take the money out of his own pocket. I feel uneasy with this man as I am a kind suspicious as to his integrity and rectitude.
3
邊壎 went to Mr. 岡本 in the 鍾路 police station and asked his advice in regard to Mr. 村上's proposal. Mr. Okamoto is reported by 邊 to have warned the latter not to trust 村上. Mr. 岡本 further advised 邊 not to go to Shanghai with 村上 unless the latter paid him in advance enough to defray the travelling expenses both ways.
 

6. 6월 6일

1
6th. Friday. Rain in showers―sandwiched with sunshine.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual from 1 p.m.
3
Believe and Ye shall be saved. Foolish as it sounds, this is the highest philosophy. What's the use of trying to solve problems in three score and ten years, which the wisest men all over the world have tried in vain during the last sixty centuries? Yet these perplexing and often maddening problems have wreched the faith of many a bright young man. Doubt, scepticism, pessimism,―all for nothing. Therefore the grand and superb wisdom in the formula-Believe and Ye shall be saved. A simple, childish and unwavering "Belief" is certainly a talisman against many ills. It really saves a man from the torments of doubts and pessimism from despair, from sins, from the world of the devil. Oh for such a Faith! How I envy those who have such a firm Faith―like Mr. 內村鑑三.
 

7. 6월 7일

1
7th. Saturday. Sultry.
 
2
About 10 a.m. a 警部 Mr.(下村) came and informed me that the Chief Procurator (檢事正) wanted to see me. I went to the Procurator's office at once. To my great relief, he said that the Court had decided to release Mr. 李商在 on bail of ¥200 on acc't of his age and sickness and that Mr. 李 had mentioned me as the only friend he has who could help him in the matter. The Procurator asked me if I were willing to bail him. Of course I consented to do so and he simplified and facilitated the red tape so as to release him today. I sent Mr. 具濟玉 to the Bank of Chosen to deposit the money and get the receipt. When the receipt was presented to the Court everything was ready for the release.
3
Went to the West Gate Prison with Mr. 具 to receive Mr. 李. Quite a number of his home folks were out there also. About 3:30 p.m. we got Mr. 李 and sent him home. Found him safe and strong―considering the confirment. Called on him about 5 p.m. with 邊壎 and advised him to be careful in language and in receiving visitors. Mr. 李 told me that it was the Court that first mentioned me as the possible bailor.
 

8. 6월 8일

1
8th. Sunday. Cloudy and sultry.
 
2
Stayed at home. When Joshua took Jericho he "utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and women, both young and old, and ox and sheep and ass with the edge of the sword." "He burnt the city with fire and all that was therein; only the silver and the gold and the vessels of brass and of iron. They put into the treasury of the house of Jehovah." All this way done in the name―way as the direct command of Johovah, "Jehovah said unto Joshua…Thou shalt do to Ai and her King as thou didst unto Jericho and her King." Thus Jehova is made the direct author of the cruel deeds of those days. As men's acts they can be explained as being no better and no worse than the brutal acts of their nations of the time. But I can't stomach the belief or theory that the God almighty as Christ has revealed could have commanded Joshua to do such things. The ancient Kings of China―as recorded in 書傳 were more civilized than the leaders of Israelites.
 

9. 6월 9일

1
9th. Monday. Tremendous rain from 10 a.m. all day and night.
 
2
發信: 白雲◉ to 牙山
3
Laid up with a swollen foot.
4
One of my cousins, Mrs. Yi Byong Im, is one of the prettiest and above all, sweetest women I have ever seen. She lives in one of the poorest little straw-thatched houses in Seoul. Some months ago, she was sick almost unto death of some trouble in her udder. Seeing her so ill in a little room where one could hardly turn about, her mother, brother and friends begged her for days to go to her brother's beautiful home. She absolutely refused to do so saying that she would die―if she was to die, in her humble house than in a palace of somebody else, even if that somebody was her own brother. Fortunately she got well; but the fact illustrates that it is the deep seated instinct of the human heart to prefer the independence of a humble home to the slavery in a gilded palace. Those who insist that the Koreans should be happy in the improved administration of Japan ought to remember this strange instance in a human being.
 

10. 6월 10일

1
10th. Tuesday. Rain in the morning.
 
2
Stayed at home―nursing the sore foot.
3
I wonder if Paul had the paper subsidiary "coins" (50, 20, 10―sen pieces) of the Bank of Chosen in his prophetic view when he talked about the beggarly elements of the world. These pieces, which are in terrific demand, should have been made of the finest and toughest paper imaginable―instead of being pieces of their ordinary paper that they are. Changing a few hands, they become nothing but rags torn and pasted all out of shape. "Anything is good enough for Koreans" seems to be the policy of Japan in Korea.
4
Some Koreans complain that Japan is buying up Korea with scraps of paper. But as long as the Korean buys everything of necessity and of luxury from the Japanese; and as long as the Japanese sells anything for those same rag money the complaint is senseless. If all the coins were of pure gold, will the Korean be any better off!
 

11. 6월 11일

1
11th. Wednesday. Cloudy.
 
2
Stayed at home all day long. Just before noon, Mr. Brockman came to see me with a lady from N.Y. She is a member of the Y.M.C.A. work in that city and has been making a tour of inspection to find out which city needed a Y.M.C.A. I told her that Seoul is ready for such an institution but that, owing to certain circumstances, the Koreans are not able to support it financially as yet.
3
8 p.m. went to the Mayor's home to attend the committee meeting called by Judge Watanabe to select a Means and Ways Committee for the Poor Boys' Rescue Work, which the Salvation Army has been carrying on during the past 5 months.
4
Returned home about 10 p.m.
 

12. 6월 12일

1
12th. Thursday. Extra-cool―East wind. Cloudy all day long. 60° 68°F.
 
2
12 p.m. with 邊壎, 劉高原, 致昌弟, 文姬 and 善姬 went to 淸凉寺 for an outing. Took a hearty lunch in one of the cottages. There are a number of nuns in the temple, but none of them seems to have the least idea of what Buddhism is. The picture of the 觀音菩薩 or Bodhisattwa in the cottage where we took lunch is a female figure―looking coarse and sensual. Before this picture incense is burned and rice and fruits are offered.
3
As men progress in intellect, they retrogress in religion―as witness the German culture, Buddhism in Korea is nothing more than a history―a ritual―an empty shell out of which the life is gone.
 

13. 6월 13일

1
13th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
A little past 12 p.m. went to Y.M.C.A. with children to have a luncheon. The walk and the fresh air seemed to do me good yesterday. I wish I could spend a week or two in my Song Do home―only I want to take at least, one of my pets with me, but 明姬 can't leave her mamma, while 文姬 has to go to her school. 恩姬 also doesn't like to sleep away from her mother. Girls seem to love their mother even more than boys. Hence the great necessity (not luxury) for having a good mother―sensible and sweet.
3
The Seoul Press announced today the death of Dr. H.G. Jones which occurred on May, 11th. The list of my friends on the other side of the veil is growing longer at an accelerated rate.
 

14. 6월 16일

1
16th. Monday. Rain-sultry.
 
2
Felt ill and tired. Went into a barber shop―said to be one of the best―as best goes among the Koreans. Was disgusted with the dirty aprons, dirty napkins, lazy appearance and unattractiveness of the whole. The faults of Korean merchants and shopkeepers. 1. They don't think any investment is profitable that doesn't give 100% gain on the money invested. 2. No business is worth while unless it pays the next day. 3. Sow sparingly but reap abundantly is their motto―if not in so many words at least in their acts.
3
4. No ambition to learn new method and to introduce improvements.
 

15. 6월 17일

1
17th. Tuesday. Cloud and sunshine. Rain in evening.
 
2
Went to Y. for lunch and bath. 8:30 p.m. went to 宗橋 Church to attend the farewell meeting held in honor of Miss Myers who is to leave for America next Friday. If anybody deserved a farewell meeting, Miss M. certainly does. She has been an indefatigable worker both in and out of the church. There is no activity in the church that doesn't have her busy in and for it. Her sympathetic treatment of the young men and her deep and sincere interest in them have endeared her to all. I heard with pain that a year or so ago, the other missionaries objected to Miss M.'s plan of giving a picnic to the young people of the church on the compound of Sadies' home. If the missionaries were more social and sociable to the Koreans their work will meet with greater success than they imagine.
 

16. 6월 18일

1
18th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mr. 柳一宣 came to see me and proposed to start a movement with the object of correcting the erroneous views which the Korean students have about work and conduct. He said that the students in the high schools (高等學校) are behaving very badly. He saw one of them smoking cigarettes in the classroom. In the name of patriotism the students wouldn't attend schools which they squander their allowances in wineshops and houses of ill fame. "We may not be able to help any―nobody may heed us―but isn't it our duty to throw a cup of water when we see a house on fire?"
 

17. 6월 19일

1
19th. Thursday. Cloudy-hot. Sunny p.m.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 李, the son of Mr. Yi S.H. tells me that the Gendarmes burnt the 五星學校 and the church in 完州.
3
Mr. 福田 called on me. I knew him when I was in 鎭南浦. He was then an interpreter in the Japanese Consulate. He said, among other things: Self-determination of the people! Why the annexation was brought about by the self-determination of the Korean people. What more self-determination do they want now. On the other hand it is the turn of the mongolians and the Chinese to exercise this self-determination and join the Japanese for our great empire." What naivety!
4
Mr. 梁柱三 dropped in to see me. He said that he has been surprised at the perseverance and unity of the Koreans and the genuine sympathy of the foreigners.
 

18. 6월 20일

1
20th. Friday. Beautiful-hot.
 
2
Nam Tai Moon Station 10 a.m. to see Myers off. Mrs. Hardie told me that the passport for Baik Nam Suk hadn't come yet so that he is not likely to leave next Tuesday when she does. A few years ago Paik applied for a passport to America―After all kinds of pretexts and excuses―the application was finally dejected. This time Dr. Hardie first got the promise of Mr. 宇佐美 before he sent in the application―so that Paik had the reasonable assurance that he could go with the Hardies―yet this delay. Now why can't the authorities issue passports to Korean students without all this vexations, delays and refusals. What harm may one Paik Nam Suk do―or hundred Paiks, as for that matter.
3
Mr. 金貞植 came to see me at Y. He advised me not to resign my position yet. Urged me to visit the Gotemba meeting in July in order to meet some Japanese leaders to whom I might impart some useful information concerning the situation in Korea.
 

19. 6월 21일

1
21st. Saturday. Cloudy a.m. Rain from 3:30 p.m. on.
 
2
Mr. 川上勇 told 金貞植 this following story: In a Church in 郭山 Mr. 川上 and party met a few Korean Christians. One of them came to the station to see him off and gave him (川上) a few apples as a present. Next day when Mr. 川上 inspected the Hospital in 宣川, he, found his friend from 郭山 laid up with serious sabre wounds. To his utter surprise and disgust Mr. (川上) learned that after he had left 郭山 and Japanese gendarme and a Korean 補助員 called on the Korean who had given him 川上 the apples, and asked him what he has told the Japanese visitor. The Korean replied that he couldn't say anything as he didn't speak either English or Japanese. Upon which the gendarmes beat and stabbed him with sabres. When Mr. 川上 reported this outrage to Genl. 小島, the latter gave him an official report denying the fact. Mr. 川上 is said to have told 金貞植 that he could not believe anything that the officers say.
3
3:30 Y.M.C.A. Annual meeting. About 80 persons out.
 

20. 6월 22일

1
22nd. Sunday. Sunshine and could in turns.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. Lunched at Mr. Brockman's Chat with Mr. Boland. He is a Californian lawyer who has been engaged in the War Y. Work in Siberia. Was surprized to hear him say that the Russians hate the Japanese like poison; that the inhumane acts perpetrated by the Bolsheviky and the Anti-B's on each other beggars description; and that the Japanese have a thorough sywtem of propaganda in the States, through the Press and the Auction rooms―where cheap articles are sold.
3
It is often said that the Japanese is a Japanese first and then a Christian or something else. It is just as true to say that an American first and then a Christian or something else. The truth is that a man is beast first and then whatever else his education or religion makes him to be.
 

21. 6월 23일

1
23rd. Monday. Pretty and warm.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The boys of high schools have again struck. Even the day English classes in the Y.M.C.A. school are deserted. On the other hand the evening classes are crowded two or three times more than they were last year this time.
3
Taikuk, the national emblem of Korea is not allowed even as an ornament on finger rings or fans. The pettiness of the bureaucrats or autocrats in Korea is simply incredible. They are copying the Germans in colonial adminstration. I heard Mr. Oisen say hat the German police would not allow the Danes in Schleswick to paint their homes red and white as they are national colors of Denmark. If any man ever deserved hell, Kaiser and his devils do.
 

22. 6월 24일

1
24th. Tuesday. Bright and hot.
 
2
10 a.m. went to South Gate Station to see Dr. and Mrs. Hardie off for America. Sent 2 silver spoons to Helen.
3
In today's issue of the Seoul Press, Dr. Schofield has an article on the West Gate Prison, thoroughly repudiating the official fib that it is a sanitorium. The Doctor―a Scotchman―is burning with indignation at the brutalism and hypocracy of the militaristic autocrats.
4
Dr. Uchimura(內村鑑三) who packed the Tokyo Y.M.C.A. Auditorium every Sunday with his thoroughly evangelistic sermons was on the 27th of May shown the door by the directors because of the opposition of the churches to the non-Churchism of this great man! What a pity! Uchimura who I regard to be the greatest Christian in Japan, is denied the use of the Y.M.C.A. hall because of the littleness of the preachers of the Church of Christ in Tokyo!
 

23. 6월 25일

1
25th. Wednesday. Pale and sultry.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. At the invitation of Mr. 井上角五郞 went to Chosen Hotel at 6:30. A large number of Korean peers and a few businessmen were the guests. I first met 井上 at Mr. 福澤's home in 1881 when he was a student there. Forty years have come and gone and he is rich and well-known. In spite of his ugliness due to pox marks he is one of the ablest and shrewdest Japanese I have met with. Remarkable, he remembers Korean well enough to carry on a simple conversation.
3
After supper he presented the scheme of establishing a Agricultural Protection Co. The object to improve the system of irrigation and to recliam waste lands etc. The benefit of the Koreans first consideration. The scheme heartily approved by premier Hara and the Governor General. The Koreans present all endorsed the plan and consented to sign the petition.
 

24. 6월 26일

1
26th. Thursday. Sunny and hot.
 
2
Went to Y.M.C.A. about 12 p.m. Papers report that Germany has consented to sign the Peace Treaty unconditionally. "I hope" said I to some Korean friends "that the conclusion of the Peace Treaty will quiet down the agitations in Korea." "Not necessarily" answered my friend to my astonishment, "it was not the Treaty but the independence of Korea that the patriots worked at," I fear there will be no peace for Korea.
 

25. 6월 27일

1
27th. Friday. Sunny and hot.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. About 5 p.m. called on the Yamagata brothers. Took Grace (恩姬) with me and the darling no sooner was she placed in the chair than she fell to sleeping. The absolute abandonment to nature― in perfect indifference to ceremonies and conventionalities―which so universally characterizes children is as charming as it is beautiful―though sometimes embarrassing.
3
Mr. Yamagata thinks Mr. 井上角五郞 being a politician may have something more than the pure interest of the Koreans in the irrigation company scheme.
 

26. 6월 28일

1
28th. Saturday. Bright-sultry.
 
2
At 11 went to Y.M.C.A. to meet Rev. 木村, the "Billy Sunday" of Japan. He said: "I believe the Bible from cover to cover. So did Moody, Genl. Booth, Mr. 內村 and Mr. Kanamori of Japan. If I am (or have) to be cheated by anybody I prefer to be cheated by God to being cheated by men. Mr. Kanamori was once a burning light in the Japanese Church. As soon as he began to doubt and criticize the Bible down he went till he went to the dog. His wife's death arrested his slide and brought him back to his first belief. Now he preaches on three subjects. God, Sin, and Salvation and is a mighty power. He has only one sermon which he preaches year in and year out. The hope of Korea is Christ."
3
By 1:40 p.m. Train came to Song Do home with 劉高原 for companion. Found 龍求 ill.
 

27. 6월 29일

1
29th. Sunday. Sunny and hot.
 
2
Up early to enjoy the beauties of nature. Koikori sings all the morning. The pure air seems to intoxicate me.
3
Worshipped at 北部 Church.
4
Might without sense is Russia; might without heart is Prussia; might with sense and heart is what America claims to be. Indeed, of all the nations in the world, the U.S.A. can afford to be sensible, good and great. She can be just because she is under no necessity for grabbing the other fellow's land; she can be fair because she has no old grudges to square up; she can be magnanimous because she has enough gold to spare. Will she live up to the great expectations which the whole world entertain of her?
 

28. 6월 30일

1
30th. Monday. Sunny and hot.
 
2
Up early. After Breakfast tried to brush up my knowledge in the history of Ireland by reading some articles in my Cyclopaedia. Some striking facts: 1. In 1172 King Henry visited Ireland and granted to the Norman leaders charters authorizing them to take posession of the portions of the island in virtue of the grant made to him by the Pope. 2. The descendants of the powerful settlers gradually became identified with the natives to so great an extent that in 1366, the Anglo-Irish Parliament decreed excommunication and heavy penalties against all those who followed the customs of or allied…, the native Irish―this law confirmed in 1494. 3. Queen Mary, though a Catholic, began the colonization of Ireland by English settlers. The Irish people of Kings and Queens County were driven out and their lands given to English colonists. 4. Q. Elizabeth made all Ireland shireland (subject to shire jurisdiction) and the commisioners of justice were invested with military powers. They ignored Irish right altogether. The Anglican Church was invested with the establishment belonging to the Catholic Church. The land in six counties of Ulster was confiscated. 5. In 1641 an attempt was made to expell the English. 6. in 1649 Cromwell and his successors confiscated a great part of the best lands of Minister, Leinster and Ulster and divided them among the Parliamentary soldiers. At least 2/3 of the land in Irland remained in the hands of the Protestants. 7. Under Willam Ⅲ the peasants were annoyed by cruel and vexatious restrictions on religion and amusements. 8. Under George Ⅰ the Irish commerce and industries were deliberately crushed. 9. Under Willam Ⅲ and Queen Anne it was a penal offence for Catholics to teach or to send their children abroad for education. 10. The provision of textbooks by the State follows from the desire to prevent the fostering of any sentiment against imperialism. The omission of Irish partriotic songs and of Irish history is most remarkable.
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