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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 5월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 5월 1일

1
1st. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. The Japan Advertiser in a recent editorial had this to Say: "There is an uneasy persistent feeling that while distinguished Japanese individuals enunciate one set of maxisms. The Japanese Government which is not necessarily or always the Cabinet follows another." The writer referred to the high handed and tortuous policies of Japan in China, in Manchuria, in Korea and in Siberia, making enemy of every nation in the Far East.
3
The whole trouble is that the Japanese, as a nation is drunk with success and blinded by pride.
 

2. 5월 2일

1
2nd. Sunday. Warm. Cloudy.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋禮拜堂 as usual. Feel so tired all day long. Had to take a long nap in the afternoon but as refreshment of the body or of the mind.
3
The Korean people, as a people, don't appreciate the value of newspapers. I have tried to introduce a daily paper into four villags in Choong Chung Nam Do by paying part or all of the subscription, but no go. Of course if I pay the entire cost as I did one year to induce the people to read, the villagers will be glad not to get any reading but get the paper to cover their walls with. Yet they wouldn't sacrifice a sen to read a new paper as such. I don't think one in a thousand reads a paper in Korea.
 

3. 5월 3일

1
3rd. Monday. Beautiful. Warm.
 
2
Lunch at Y. A string of visitors in the name of friends, relations, students, stock company promoters come to see me with one and the same object―to beg. A disinterested friend, come to see me for friendship along―I wish I have one or two such a visitor once in a while! The promoters of newspaper companies come under the disguise of patriots demanding that I should take the shares as a matter of sacred duty. Some of them go even so far as to say outright: 돈 두엇다 무엇하시요. "―What will you do with your money? I wonder what did they do with their money? 洪秉璇, 朴廣熙, 梁在璣, 李陽稙, and I met in my Y. study to talk about the plan of starting a 中學講義錄 or Middle School Home Studies.
 

4. 5월 4일

1
4th. Tuesday.尹明燮 returned from 洪川
 
2
This drought is causing much uneasiness.
3
Lunch at Y. A writer in the Review of Reviews: "In Egypt there are some 14 million Egyptians gradually being educated according to English program to some conception of nationalism whilst within the same confines there are only some 24,000 Britishers. A glance at the curious conditions of Egyptian society makes it clear how little competent the Egyptian is to maintain order in his own house. In the first place he has little commercial or industrial ability. He is temperamentally devoid of initiative and is incapable of prompt decision. Certain pleasant qualities he undoubtedly possess, such as patience, stolid industry and the capacity to endure. These are servant and not master qualities. Egypt present the remarkable spectacle of a country practically the whole of whose commercial and industial life is in the hands of men of alien nationality, Greeks, Italians, Syrians, and French."
 

5. 5월 5일

1
5th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. The article on Egypt continued: "How it is conceivable under any theory of antonomy that a race could govern itself when the control of its wealth, its credit and the organization of its daily industrial life is in other hands? Whilst, indeed, the country (Egypt) generally has benefited by the great and sudden war prosperity, the Egyptian has no control over the distribution of this new wealth. He may earn better wages, sell his grain and live stock at higher prices or even make a small profit on a modest deal in property" etc. etc.
3
Had the writer written about the Koreans of today, could he have painted their true conditions any better or rather, any worse? However, has England undertaken the burden of Egyptian protectorate purely out of altruistic motives for the good of the dear Egyptians?
 

6. 5월 6일

1
6th. Thursday. Rain.
 
2
Rain, welcome rain, from about 10:30 a.m. Lunch at Y. Up to late last night, even expert farmers said that no rain was soon to be expected for 4 very good reasons: 1st, the sun is firery red at its rising and setting; 2nd, the moon is red; 3rd, the west wind keep blowing; 4th, the sky is high and the weather is too cool. But this morning inspite of all these signs rain did come. Thank God, He is wiser and mightier than men not only but wiser and mightier than the signs of Heaven. Who can fathom the height and the depth of the riches of His mercy and of His power!
3
Went to 西江 Church through awful mud to keep an engagement to preach for my old friend, Pastor 孫承鍊. The rain and mud kept people away and I was only to glad be hurry home leaving a promise to preach for him on the 23d.
 

7. 5월 7일

1
7th. Friday. Cloudy.
 
2
Lunch at Y. No rain―but cloudy.
3
Quite a little duel has been going on the Seoul Press between pro-British and pro-Japanese partisans. The former throwing stone (the Suwon atrocities) at the Japanese regime in Korea while the latter returning the compliment by hurling the Armitsar bombs at the British rule in India. The naked truth is that the parties who deserve the stones are the Indians who, with a population of 300 millions plus several millions of gods, haven't the sense or spirit enough to organize a decent government and the Koreans who did not know what to do with independence when they got it.
 

8. 5월 8일

1
8th. Saturday. Rain.
 
2
Lunch at Y. Rain from early morning until about 2 p.m.
3
尹明燮 who returned from a visit to our property in 洪川 tells me that the ignorant people are selling aways their valuable hills covered with trees to the Japanese at the rate of less than 5 rin 五厘 per tsubo(!) ; and that, when he remonstrated with them, they replied, "What's use of those hills?"
4
Who is more criminal, the Japanese, official and private, who buys up every inch of land in Korea as fast as they can, or the Koreans who actually throwing away their lands at the rate of 5 rin per tsubo?
 

9. 5월 9일

1
9th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshipped at the 勝洞 Presbyterian Church. I spoke on "the stones of the temple".
3
The young people who crowd churches don't think it worthwhile to listen to anything that has no politics in it. To cater to this appetite speakers mix up their religious addresses with so much politics that the church audiences are being badley spoiled rendering the way of a faithful pastor all the more difficult. No, indeed what the Korean needs and needs imperatively more than political independence, is the wholesome knowledge of God and of their inefficiency. To talk about gaining political independence with a mass of people who are selling away their lands at the rate of 5 rin per tsubo is pure nonsense. Wait and learn and or disciplined first.
 

10. 5월 10일

1
10th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Took the 12 : 50 train for 安養 Station with 兪主事 as traveling companion. Reaching the station about 2 p.m. was met by 劉高原 whom I had sent early this morning. Three of us, with 梁雲植 as our guide started out at once for 三幕 said to be about 15 li from the station. Part of the way very fine with a large and clear stream to the left and hills on the right. Here and there, lies of valley in their chaste beauty and fragrance, blushed in quiet nooks not only unappreciated but positively despised to the extent of having not a name, by the Koreans. The ascent to the 三幕 temples was found rocky and tiresome. Once on the temple ground the scenery is commanding. Hungry and tired enjoyed the supper. 池雲永, the celebrated crazy painter lives in a nest like cottage hard by the temple.
 

11. 5월 11일

1
11th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
No sleep half of the night on acc't of bed burgs.
3
After breakfast called on 池雲英 at his pretty nest. He firmly believes that he is the reincarnation of the famous monk 四山大師 whose name was 崔雲鰐 and whose 別號 was 休靜. When the celebrated monk was alive more than 300 years ago a girl fell in love with him but the monk refused to gratify her passion. The soul of that girl has been following the soul of 西山大師 in every reincarnation. That explains why 池雲英 has been tormented by the soul of the injured girl during the last 30 years. Inspired by a divine revelation Mr. 池 married a girl of 18 years of age two years ago―when he was 67. A son was born to this strange couple about 3 months ago. From starvation the young woman lost her mind. What a pity! Left at 三幕 2 p.m. Returned to Seoul by 6 p.m. train.
 

12. 5월 12일

1
12th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. 池雲英 with crazy superstitions would have been perfectly negligible quantity but for his skill as a painter. His pictures are now sought after more than those of any Korean today. His brother, 池錫永 has more common sense and worldly shrewdness. Yet he, 池錫永, believes in the absurd story of the reincarnation story of his artistic brother. By the way Mr. 池錫永 has the credit of being the first Korean who introduced vaccination into Korea. He deserves our respect also as the maker of the first Korean Dictionary with each Chinese character{translated rendered}in Korean language.
 

13. 5월 13일

1
13th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. 5 p.m. went to 太和館 restaurant to entertain Mr. 柳宗悅 and his wife 柳兼子 a celebrated Japanese singer, to a Korean supper. Inspite of all efforts made by Mr. 具玆玉 and 李一 not a single Korean lady was present. Mrs. Yanagi left before the supper. There is not a single Korean woman in all Seoul who may be counted on to grace a social function with her presence and conversation.
3
Mr. 柳宗悅 whose name is more Korean than Japanese is said to be very sympathetic with the sufferings and aspirations of the Korean people.
 

14. 5월 14일

1
14th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left Seoul by 4:20 train for Song Do with 恩姬 and 兪主事. After a tedious ride arrived at Song Do home about 8:30 p.m.
3
The good roads advocate, Mr. S. Hill said in Tokyo. I have often asked the question: What is the best material of which to build roads? The only answer ever given satisfactory to me was the one given by Mr. Takonami: he answered: The best material with which to build road is brains.
4
That was a smart answer and a true one. One of the material benefits of the Japanese rule in Korea is the good roads. They show they have brains. Yet most Koreans haven't brains enough to appreciate good roads, when they see them.
 

15. 5월 15일

1
15th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. 10 a.m. went to Holston Girls' School to attend its celebration of the anniversary of its foundation. I made a short talk. The children had races, etc.
3
Returned home very tired. My health seems to have suffered much. I wish I could stay in this beautiful home for a month to recuperate my run-down contitution.
4
The girls of Holston School had a theatrical performance in the chapel from 8 p.m. The crowd was so great that they had to shut the doors. That made some of the fools mad and they, the fools, threw rocks and broke the window panes. A crowd fit for independence!
 

16. 5월 16일

1
16th. Sunday. Beautiful. (TABLE)
 
2
Song Do home. Worshipped at North-ward Church. I spoke on John 8-36.
 
3
At the end of 1918
4
==Restaurants Jap. 711 Kor. 563==Geishas Jap. 1,210 K. 931==
5
==Eating House Jap. 1,197 Kor. 67,565 For. 462==Waitresses J. 926 K. 913==
6
==House Ill Fame J. 330 K. 303 F. 2==Prostitutes Jap. 1,945 Kor. 987 For. 2==
 
7
Keepers of Geisha Jap. 151 The Seoul Press thinks these Kor. 97 numbers nearly trebled lately.
 

17. 5월 17일

1
17th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. At the invitation of Mr. Wasson, I spoke to the High School boys in the Chapel. I told them that a man has four great problems to look after. 1st, the welfare of his soul; 2nd, the education of his brain; 3rd, the health of his body; 4th, the comfort of his clothes. With the first three problems satisfactorily solved the last one will take care of itself. In the same way, religion and morality are the soul of a race; knowledge, its brain; wealth, its body while political status is only its clothes. Is a race morally sound? Is it intellectually advanced? Is it economically indpendent? When whatever its politeical status may be that race is safe. Otherwise mere political independence doesn't amount to anything.
3
Supper at Mr. Wasson's home. 韓道洙, 金俊玉, 金鍾萬, 禹 present.
 

18. 5월 18일

1
18th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Last night after supper Mr. Wasson requested me to give some advice to the four young men who are expecting to go to America with him. In substance I said: I congratulate you for three reasons: 1st. Because you are going to complete your education in America. That doesn't need explanation. 2nd. Because you didn't go when you were 10 or 15 years old but waited until you are nearly 30. You are grounded in things Korean. You will know how and what to learn in America to fit you for your service in Korea when you return. 3rd. Because you are going to America just at the time when everything is being reconstructed. I can give you no better advice than the one which Dr. Nishima gave to me 30 years ago: viz.: 'You will find many evil things in America. But let them alone. We have enough of them at home. Learn only what is best.'
 

19. 5월 19일

1
19th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
About 10 a.m. left Song Do home for Seoul. Took 11:50 train and arrived home a little over 3 p.m.
3
Some fellow in an article in Dong-A-Il-Po attacking or rather critioizing the Pharisaic Confucianists had the bad taste of saying something irreverent about Confucius. More properly speaking he quoted a Japanese Confucianist who said that if Confucius himself were to invade Japan at the head of an army he wouldn't hesitate to fight against the sage cutting off his head if needs be (先斬孔丘) . The followers of the Chinese Sage are in a perfect furor. The subscription to the paper has fallen off 3,000 copies while the office has been bombarded with numerous articles denouncing the paper.
 

20. 5월 20일

1
20th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. When I asked Mr. 李商在 to give me some material of his life to write an article on him, he said: "Life is a dream. When I pass away the short dream will be all over. Is it worth while to put a dream in record? I once kept a diary but I burnt even that." "If everybody thought and acted like you in this matter there would be no history or biography in this world" said I. "But" replied he, "I have had nothing in my personal history that the world needs keep in memory."
3
Went to 泳登浦 by 7:20 p.m. train to speak in the church. After service took tea at the home of the Pastor Rev. 車載明. Very good coffee. Cakes and fruits. The rooms clean. Mr. 車 seems to have a fine wife―an Ewha girl. Met 金允福 who used to be the chief engineer on board of the Korean gunboat 楊武號. He is the police sergent.
 

21. 5월 21일

1
21st. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Stayed home. Went to my room in Y. to meet with Messrs. 朴光熙, 洪秉璇, 朱. 梁在璣 and 李 to talk about the middle―grade correspondence school scheme. All agreed that we should not start the work until we have secured a fund that will keep the work in going at least for 6 months.
3
The thirst for learning which is the fashion of the day has its humorous as well as its pathetic side. The other day, an elderly woman came to the night school for women now held in the 宗橋 Church, said to Mrs. 金: “I have never learned the Korean alphabet. Now I am too old to learn it. Please teach me some English."
 

22. 5월 22일

1
22nd. Saturday. Beautiful. Mailed letter to 致旺
 
2
The 靑林敎 celebrates the 61st Anniversary of the day on which 崔濟愚 received the divine revelation to save mankind from sufferings. The program announced that three great systems of religion viz.: Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are to be united in the celebration. The representatives of these systems are to appear in their respective peculiar costumes etc. I took children with me to show them the singular sight. But on arriving at the scene of celebration about 2 p.m. I was disgusted with the kisaing dances, beer drinking, the dust, the heat and the crowd. There was not even a pretense at religion or decency.
 

23. 5월 23일

1
23rd. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
10 a.m. went to 西江 to speak in the Methodist Church. About two thirds of the audience were little children. Suhkang is a naturally beautiful place; but the village is a collection of wretched straw thatched houses with no decent roads, the whole atmosphere being heavily charged with ill smells of many kinds. The villagers have the superstitious belief that the Japanese doesn't thrive in Suhkang. Wait until the Japs have devoured the surrounding districts: they will soon enough thrive in Suhkang.
3
Spoke at the 宗橋 Church in the evening.
 

24. 5월 24일

1
24th. Monday. A little shower in the morning. Beautiful.
 
2
A little sprinkling of rain in the morning―then cleared up into a beautiful day.
3
Invited Pastor 劉漢翼 to lunch at Y. He has been just released from prison on bail. He had been arrested on charge of having planned an independence agitation. He said that, during police examinations in Chulwon, he was beaten on the back, neck with a stick besides being boxed on both cheeks breaking a few of his false tooth. Some of the prisoners were tied up, beaten to insensibility made to lie flat on their back after pumping water into their stomachs. Then a policeman would stamp on the full stomach forcing water out through the mouth and the nose, causing excruciating pains―yet leaving no trace of torture afterward. The Government General and Pro Jap. papers deny categorically that no torture is being practiced on the Korean prisoners!
 

25. 5월 25일

1
25th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. 4:30 p.m. attended the B. of D's Meeting at Mr. Gregg's.
3
The new policy of Britain in Ireland, as reported in the papers, is of the greatest importance to both Japan and Korea. The policy is to suppress by military force any signs or acts of violence on the part of the Irish. "If troops at present in Ireland are insufficient, more will be sent and the only limits will be the extent and degree of the crisis." A policy of conciliation simultaniously accompanied by relentless war against terrorists is to be carried out by the cooperation of the Chief Secretary and the Commander of Forces. The outcome of the policy will be full of lessons to the Japanese statesmen and Korean patriots.
 

26. 5월 26일

1
26th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Stayed at home. p.m. 5 went to the 京城 Hotel to attend a supper given in honor of Messrs. 韓相龍 and 大城 who had just returned from Tokyo where they went as representatives of the citizens of Seoul to the wedding celebrations of Prince Yi and Princess Nashimoto. After some formal speeches, Mr. Kato the Editor-in-chief of 京城日報 said that if the Koreans were ready for independence he would be one of the first to advocated it; that since an independence would bring calamities to Korea and Japan, it would be best for the two races to live together like brothers; that, the Japanese should be more generous, while the Korean more unprejudiced etc. To my surprise Mr. 白完爀 took exception to what 加藤 had said as unnecessary. Many of the Koreans seemed to have been offended by 加藤's remarks. A significant sign of the change of the Koreans' attitude and psychology.
 

27. 5월 27일

1
27th. Thursday. Sunshine and rain.
 
2
Lunch at Y. About 4 p.m. called on 橋本 淸 at his new home. 5:30 p.m. big rain drops closely followed by a hail storm which lasted nearly half an hour. The ground covered white with hail stones as big as Korean cheries. The leaves of trees and flowers batteted as by a storm of rifle shots. The hail storm succeeded by a vigorous down pour of rain. Of course the rain was welcome enough, but the hail worke havoc on gardens and barley crops.
3
Mr. 橋本 told me that the 京城日報 Co, the Govt. organ, sold a worn-out good for nothing press to the 朝鮮日報 Co. Shame on 京城日報, Paid in full the price of the vacant lot joining my 藥峴 property on the West.
 

28. 5월 28일

1
28th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
1 p.m. went to cousin Chiso's home to attend a meeting of some thirty or so men called to consider the advisibily or organizing educational association for arousing the interest of the country folks in the new education and for encouraging and inaugurating movements for building hostels, sending worthy students abroad and rasing scholarships etc.
3
All these schemes are good and proper. But they have so far failed for lack of fund and lack of capable and honest managers. No harm in making the attempts though.
 

29. 5월 29일

1
29th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Lunch at Y. If freedom from worldly cares and worries is of "fairy life", I thought 池雲英, the artist had it in his mountain nest. Last time I saw his brother 池錫永, I siad: "You two brothers are living 神仙 here." The answer was characteristic "Yes." said he, "In outward appearance we look like 神仙 all right, but reality we are very far from being 神仙(外樣으로는 神仙이지마난 內容은 大不神仙이오) ." When I was told that Mr. 池雲英's young wife went crazy from sheer starvation after giving birth to a child and that the child had to be fed on condensed milk I could easily see what 池錫永 meant. "The Kingdom of load is within you" is an eternal truth. We carry paradize in our heart or nowhere.
 

30. 5월 30일

1
30th. Sunday. Beautiful. 明燮 left for 溫陽
 
2
Worshipped at 石橋 Church, Mr. 洪秉璇 gave a good talk on the importance of Sunday School.
3
8 p.m. went to 水口門內 Church. I spoke on Church and Education.
4
The people in this section of the city have lived from sire to son, the makers of silk or cotton thread cords etc. They are poor but independent. But the machine made cords from Japan are gradually driving out the handcraft. While conditions of trade and of life are changing the people themselves don't seem to change. They cling to topknots, "Makkuli" and ignorance with all their might. The Church is the only spot of light among them. Yet they refuse to come to the light.
 

31. 5월 31일

1
31st. Monday. Beautiful
 
2
Up at 5 a.m. Left Seoul by 7:20 a.m. train for Song Do to attend a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Song Do High School. Mr. Wasson and others seem to desire very much to have me take charge of the school again. Well there is only one condition under which I might consent to accept the position; viz.: I should have absolute power and authority in the management of the institution. To be a principal in name while someone else has the real power of running the school is a degrading proposition. I am done with that kind of arrangement.
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