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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 7월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권 8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 7월 1일

1
1st. Thursday. Sunny. Very hot.
 
2
Went to 第一銀行 to get a draft on London for 致旺. Agreeably surprised that a pound stering cost me ¥7,90.
3
Mr. 白南薰 of the Korean Y.M.C.A. in Tokyo called and asked me to advance him ¥2,000.00 or ¥3,000.00 for travelling expenses etc. which he would need when he starts raising ¥150,000.00 for the TokyoY.M.C.A this fall. Of course he didn't know that between now and July 1921 I must have at least ¥30,000(00/100) to redeem my pledges for contributions to various enterprises.
 

2. 7월 2일

1
2nd. Friday. Cloudy and steamy.
 
2
To 致旺-Bill sent.
3
Steamy day―then glorious rain from about 5 p.m.
4
Sent £80 starling to 致旺.
5
Cousin 致旿's creditors are still camping on him as they used to. What became of the ¥300.00 which cousin 致晠 got from me for the specific purpose of getting rid of these creditors? The financial transactions of these cousins of mine are so wonderful that I don't know what is what.
6
Cousin 致旿 used to be a devout student of Buddism then of Confucianism, then of Christianity. Three greatest religious systems of the world have had no power to make him an honest man.
 

3. 7월 3일

1
3rd. Saturday. Sunshine and Could. Hot.
 
2
Had there been no political agitations these would have been a revolt in the churches. Hong Pyong Sun tells me that there was actually a meeting of some of the leading church-workers―preachers etc. of the Meth. Church South―some months before the "mansei" movement broke out with the object of starting an open revolt against missionaries, and the he, Hong, persuaded them not to act rashly on the ground that the Korean preachers would not be able to hold out.
3
Arrogance, personal slights, and autocratic ways of doing the church work―were the principal causes of the discontent.
 

4. 7월 4일

1
4th. Sunday. Steamy.
 
2
Wrote to Allen.
3
Worshipped at 宗橋禮拜堂.
4
A good example of the pride of the foreigner. Sometime ago I rode in a tram car in which Col. Stevens(?) , the new Salvation Army Commander happened to be in. A friend introduced me to him. The Colonel, who had come from India, said: "I want you to come and see me. As I am a stranger here, I like to know something of the situation of Korea." Now, if he wanted to know something about Korea or Koreans why couldn't he call on me first? I feel it is no business of mine to call on him and tell him I know not what about Korea. But this is the attitude of 9 out of ten foreigners―missionaries too―in Korea. Hence the friction between them and the Korean.
 

5. 7월 5일

1
5th. Monday. Steamy and fine. Showers.
 
2
Mailed letter and bill700 to Dr. F. and Helen.
3
Mailed letters to Dr. C.C. Fisher, Millsburg and to Helen sending700.00.
4
From 11:30 a.m. steady and heavy rain―more or less all day.
5
李在甲 called in the evening. As I had expected, he asked me to contribute some money to the lecture fund of the 雄辯會 or Eloquence Society. Irresponsible young fellows have started all sorts of organizations with high sounding names and specious objects during the last few months and are fleecing the few who are supposed to have more money than they need.
 

6. 7월 6일

1
6th. Tuesday. Rain a.m. Cloudy.
 
2
Cloudy and cool. 1 p.m. with children, and a few friends went out to 城北洞. The heat and dust of the walk between the tram car station in front of the zoo and the old small East Gate wall are a little tiresome and unpleasant. But this fatigue was well repaid the moment we entered the valley of 城北洞. The road sides were shaded with trees while clean water ran full and free between the hills. Our children enjoyed the water and fruit very much. Took hearty supper and returned home about 8 p.m. Tired in body but refreshed in mind.
 

7. 7월 7일

1
7th. Wednesday. Rain.
 
2
Rain all night last night. Rain all the morning. Rain steady all day and all night.
3
The Japanese in Japan and in Korea are holding memorial services 追悼 for the sufferers of the Nicholaivsk atrocities. All proper. But it shows a singlar want of thoughtfulness or even of commonsense on the part of the Japanese to invite Koreans to these services. The Korean can never forget the Suwon atrocities nor the painful fact that the Korean public was not allowed to mention the subject even in a public address. Besides the Japanese soldiers had poorer excuse for butchering unarmed farmers and burning over 200 houses than the partisans who had reasons to suppose or mistake the Japanese as the invaders of their native land.
 

8. 7월 8일

1
8th. Thursday. Cloudy.
 
2
Gloomy weather.
3
"The most of the Russian peasants are poor and very few save money," says a book. "They do not seem to care for the future and live from hand to mouth... If you tell them they should save for bad times may come, they will say, 'Oh God and the Czar will provide!' Precisely the something can be said of the Korean people. Ignorance, improvidence go hand in hand. Most of the small farmers, especially in the South, eat up all their rice before the winter is over and then live on borrowed rice until next harvest.
 

9. 7월 9일

1
9th. Friday. Rain.
 
2
Fine showers on and off all day. Steady down pour all night.
3
The electric power house in Ryong San being partly submerged in flood, lights were stopped last night. No tram car runs this a.m. It is reported that nearly 5,000 houses, Korean and Japanese, have wholly or partly submerged in the flood along the Han River banks.
4
4 p.m. the tram cars began to move. Went to New Ryong San to see the flood. The Japanese houses between the river and the Post Office had water from 2 to 3 feet deep standing in their ground floors.
 

10. 7월 10일

1
10th. Saturday. Cloudy. Intermittent down pour.
 
2
Mr. 中村正直, a celebrated scholar of the Meji era, had once profound admiration and respect for a missionary. He rented his house or part of his house to a missionary. One morning he went into his garden to cut down a tree. He was peremptorily told by the missionary not to touch the tree as the house and the ground belonged to him as long as they were rented to him. Then and there Mr. Nakamura lost all admiration and respect for missionaries and would have nothing to do with them the rest of his life. Thus the Christian missions in Japan lost the sympathy and cooperation of a most distinguished man of modern Japan. Many a missionary repels people by arrogance more than he attracts them by his sermons.
 

11. 7월 11일

1
11th. Sunday. Sunshine. (TABLE)
 
2
==乙丑六月 漢江增水高―58 ft.==Houses submerged 6,000戶==
3
==辛未六月 漢江增水高―42 ft.==Houses damaged 2,000戶==
4
==乙丑七月 漢江增水高―39 1/2 ft.==Houses damaged 2,000戶==
5
==甲午五月 漢江增水高―37 ft.==Houses damaged 200戶==
6
==乙巳八月 漢江增水高―27 ft.==Houses damaged 2,000戶==
7
==癸丑六月 漢江增水高―34 ft.==Houses damaged 2,000戶==
8
==庚申七月 漢江增水高―35 1/2 ft.==Houses damaged 2,000戶==
 
9
The flood this year is said to be the greatest―in its damages―in past 60 years. There are some comparative figures given in a paper:
10
This year the rise of the flood took place so suddenly and in the depth of night caused more damage and suffering than in past years.
 

12. 7월 12일

1
12th. Monday. Steamy. Sunshine.
 
2
Today began the public trial of the forty seven leaders of the Independence Movement.
3
5 p.m. the Fifteen Committee met at Y.M.C.A. to hear reports from the delegates from Pyong Yang and Peking. Mr. 李大錫 from the capital of China presented the claims of Peking for a Korean Y.M.C.A. and from what he said it is evident that Peking needs an organization of this kind for the Koreans worse than Tokyo. The financial aid demanded is much more modest than that of Tokyo.
 

13. 7월 13일

1
13th. Tuesday. Cloudy an steamy.
 
2
Mr. 洪熹 called yesterday p.m. He is a walking cyclopedia for Chinese and Korean literature and history. He is a writer in 中樞院. I was surprised to learn from him that from the 1st April this year the Japanese authorities have held a monthly conference with the members of the 中樞院. However it is not for consultation but simply for notifying the councilors that the Gov. General has adopted such and such a plan or measure. No opinion is asked, Mr. Hong thinks this is a piece of trickery sure and simple.
 

14. 7월 14일

1
14th. Wednesday. Very hot. 3 p.m. 90℉. in shade.
 
2
Took 4:30 p.m. train for Suwon to fulfill an engagement to speak in the Methodist Church of the town. Arrived at the Suwon Station at 6:30-then to Church which is located at the Bell Street. By the way this is the first time in 22 years that I have entered the 八達門 or the South Gate of Suwon. I was forcibly reminded of the couplet 漢國(韓國) 山河 泰陵(莊陵) 學樹深暮雲千里色無處不傷心, Like all other towns in Korea all the important points are occupied by the Japanese.
3
8 to 9 spoke to a full house. Returned to Seoul by 9:20 a.m. express.
 

15. 7월 15일

1
15th. Thursday. Very hot. Thunder storm 9:10 a.m.
 
2
Only warlike peoples have done great things in history. But the American Indian have not made any record in the world, warlike though they are. It would be therefore more correct to say that all warlike peoples are not necessarily great, though all great peoples are necessarily warlike.
3
No virtue is virtue without being controlled and guided by commonsense. Charity, patience, filial piety, loyalty, faith are all great virtues. But divorce any of these from commonsense and you have eccentricy or hypocricy or superstition.
 

16. 7월 16일

1
16th. Friday. Very hot. 92℉.
 
2
The Seoul Press says: "The U.S.A. has been and is paying great attention to the Americanization of aliens immigrants. Japan has done and will do the something with the Korean people. We will not waver in our determination to Japanize the Korean people for we believe that our intention is right and just and by Japanizing them we are promoting their welfare." It is strange that even intelligent Japanese seems to ignore the fact that when an alien immigrant goes to America he volntarily accepts the condition of being Americanized as the price he must pay for the larger liberties and greater opportunities of the American citizenship. He is not compelled to live in America a day longer than he thinks best. But the Koreans didn't want to be annexed. Injustice and oppression can never make Japanization a pleasant compensation for the loss of independence.
 

17. 7월 17일

1
17th. Saturday. Very hot. 92℉.
 
2
From early morning pain in the stomach and diarrhea. Stayed in bed―very weak.
3
The public trial of the Independence leaders was suspended today. The hatch arose from the objection of a Korean counsel for the defendant that the Seoul Local Court has no authorization to try the case as the Supreme Court to which the case had been referred in dismissing the case, did not designate the Local Court to try the case. The whole question hangs on certain legal technicalities; but I don't think this will change the result as the authorities must have made up their mine already about the decision to be pronounced.
 

18. 7월 18일

1
18th. Sunday. Cloudy. Big rain all night.
 
2
Stayed at home. Diarrhea a little better. Big rain from 4 p.m.
3
The travelling lecture band, composed of the Korean students in Tokyo, held a big meeting at the Tan Sung Theatre.
4
The police authorities ordered the band to be dissolved owing to utterances containing "dangerous thoughts" so called.
5
After a long and severe drought, a torrential rain does great damage to fields and houses. The rain, to be beneficial, must begin with fine and gentle showers. So it is with speeches and newspaper articles after years of suppression.
 

19. 7월 19일

1
19th. Monday. Rain on and off all day.
 
2
Our Japanese friends talk about Japanizing the Korean people and that for the good of the latter. Has England succeeded in Anglicizing the Irish during last 5 centuries? Has Austria succeeded in Austrianizing the Czecho-Slovaks during the last 3 centuries of absolute possession of Bohemia? Aren't the Poles the bitterest enemies of Russia and of Prussia after more than a century of annexation to these brutal powers? Justice, kindness, honor and square dealing will make the Korean love and respect Japan. That is the best plan of assimilation―if assimilation can ever be done. But injustice and oppression and meanness will make Korea Japan's island, sure as the sun shines.
 

20. 7월 20일

1
20th. Tuesday. Rain on and off. (TABLE)
 
2
==An Alien(European) in America gets:―==A Korean in his own country under Japan gets:-==
3
==1. Freedom of Speech, of Press, of movement.==1. No freedom of Speech, nor of Press. Nor freedom of movement.==
4
==2. He may compete on equal terms with any and everybody in commerce, education, enterprise of every kind.==2. Inferior standard of education: discrimination by R.R. Custom Houses, Communication, Banks. No chance of fair competition with the Japanese.==
5
==3. He is eligible to all offices from the lowest to the Presidency.==3. He is gradually ousted from every office even that of 面長. Discrimination in salaries to the extent of 1 to==
6
==4. Provided he behaves himself, he gets the best treatment from everybody everywhere.==4. A Korean gentleman, irrespective of his age and dignity is looked down and treated as Yobos by the vilest Japanese coolies and no redress.==
7
==5. He has opportunities and all the encouragements to become a Carneigie or Rockfeller.==5. The Koreans are being as rapidly as possible dispossessed of their farms to make room for the Jap. farmers who are brought over by the thousands with all kinds of inducements.==
8
==Result: A loyal American.==Result: A rabid Anti Japanese.==
 
9
Our Japanese friends seem to be very fond of comparing the American policy of assimilation with the Japanese assimilation efforts in Korea. Let us see:______
 

21. 7월 21일

1
21st. Wednesday. Cloud and sunshine. Steamy.
 
2
Sent500(00/100) (¥997.50) to Dr. C.C. Fisher for Helen.
 

22. 7월 22일

1
22nd. Thursday. Very hot. 91℉.
 
2
For last three nights have suffered from hives. Such insatiable itching.
3
A bar of pig iron has all the possibilities of a Damascus blade or of the finest watch spring. But nobody would think of making a damascus blade or a watch spring straight of a bar of pig iron.
4
The Chinese people have no doubt all the possibilities of a splendid republican system of government. Yet it was the mistake of the dreamers to have thought it possible to make China a democratic nation by simply changing the names of the officials. The Korean people must pass years of training and discipline before they become qualified to run an independent democratic state of their own.
 

23. 7월 23일

1
23rd. Friday. Sunny and hot. 12-4 p.m. 95℉. in shade.
 
2
Hives a little better today.
3
Hateful weeds grow and multiply without anybody sowing or caring for them while beautiful flowers and fruits take infinite care and trouble in their growth and improvement. Nobody is ever in need of teachers and sermons to learn to do evil while saints and sermons, churches and temples, books and police have proved all utterly inefficient to make men ever passably good. Is it because fighting, everlasting fighting, unceasing fighting, is the only condition of improvement and perfection, and that man would quit fighting if it were easy to be good?
 

24. 7월 24일

1
24th. Saturday. Sunny hot.
 
2
p.m. 2:30 went to Severance Hospital to rendezvous with 申興雨, 宋彦用, 陸完洙, 洪錫厚, 梁柱三, 白象奎, for the purpose of having a picnic reception on the river in honor of Messrs. 金浩然, 李□□, 張□□, 金春基, who have more or recently returned from America. Took a houseboat at Old Ryong San and was towed up the river to the foot bridge. The river was muddy while the little straw huts scattered along the bank was a picture of dirt and discomfort. Weighing anchor at the foot of the hill on which Mr. 宋秉俊's villa stands or stood. Cold meats, musk melons washed down with champaign cider of doubtful taste and quality―did we enjoy the outing? I hope the guests did. Returned home about 10 p.m.
 

25. 7월 25일

1
25th. Sunday. Sunny. Very hot.
 
2
Worhipped at 宗橋 Church. Pastor 朴容來 preached a sermon. Sensible because it was hot.
3
It would have been very amusing, if it were not serious, to hear and see the Korean still regards the Japanese with a deal of contempt. What right have we to do so? Don't compare the Han Kang railroad bridges with the Brooklyn Bridge but ask: Have we built a bridge during the last 5 centries that's worth the name? What's the use of comparing the speed of the American express trains with the 3 mile an hour schedule of the Japanese R.R? The more profitable question for us would be but for the Japanese enterprise and energy how many feet R.R. could we have had by this time?
 

26. 7월 26일

1
26th. Monday. Beautiful. Hot.
 
2
Left Seoul by 10 a.m. train for Song Do.
3
Find our lily dale home beautifully cool.
4
Have we any right to despise the Japanese? Let us see. The Japanese are proverbially clean; we are proverbially dirty. They are noted for industry; we are noted for laziness. The Japanese have, by wonderful development of the esthetic sense and taste transformed their sterile country into a beautiful park; we have disfigured a beautiful land and the naked hills everywhere a shameful protest against our barbarism ignorance and folly. By virtue of constant fighting during 20 centuries, the Japanese have acquired and developed the warlike spirit―the basic principle of all religion, morality and of governments human or divine. But during the last five inglorious centuries of the Yi Dynasty, all our warlike spirit has been crushed out by every possible device that a cruel and selfish autocracy could invent.
5
In other words, what right have we to despise the Japanese whom the most proud races in the world vie with each other to make alliances with?
6
The best thing for us is to learn and imitate the salient qualities of the Japanese as best as we may; their cleanliness; their industriousness; their power of co-operation; their capacity of discipline; their ability of union.
 

27. 7월 27일

1
27th. Tuesday. Beautiful. Very hot.
 
2
Song Do home. A beautiful moon light night.
 

28. 7월 28일

1
28th. Wednesday. Cloudy. Steamy.
 
2
Song Do home a.m. Poor sleep last night.
3
Left Song Do per 2:30 p.m. train for Seoul.
4
The history of the national vicissitudes of Norway is an exceedingly interesting illustration of the indestructible tenacity of the racial instinct for independent national life. As the result of the Treaty of Kalmiar, Norway was annexed 1394 to Denmark and remaind so until 1814. Then she was ceded to Sweden. Not contented with the very liberal treatment of Sweden, Norway set up an independent state in 1905 or thereabout. The favorite arguments of the Japanese for annexing Korean are that the Japanese and the Koreans are of same race; yet we are less so than the Norwegians and the Swedes and the Danes. Does Korean use the same literary language as the Japanese? Then the languages of the 3 Scandinavian nations are only different dialects of the same tongue. Korea is such a close neighbor of Japan. Just look at the map of the Scandinavian peninsula and sea how close Norway, Sweden and Denmark are huddled together. The customs, manners and dresses of the Korean are by far more distinct from those of the Japanese than the customs, manners and dresses that prevail in the three Scandinavian states. If Norway could not and would not live annexed to Denmark or Sweden―if 400 years or more failed to Danify the Norwegians, it's useless to expect the Koreans to be Japanized.
 

29. 7월 29일

1
29th. Thursday. Very hot.
 
 

30. 7월 30일

1
30th. Friday. Very hot.
 
2
11:50 a.m. left Seoul with wife and children for Song Do home. Arrived home nearly p.m. Our 璋善 a little feverish.
3
The rocky stream which I might name the Chang Yu Dai stream, is one of the attractions of Song Do. The valley through which it rushes on and on to join the Hai Woon Dai stream is naturally very picturesque. Every summer for about 40 days picnic or bathing parties of men and women enliven the other wise lonely valley with music, songs and jollifications in general. It is estimated that at least 100 persons visit the valley in a day on an average―each spending at least ¥300 to ¥500 a day. That makes 40×100×¥300=¥1,200.00 a Summer. In ten years the figure would reach ¥12,000.00. During the last Five hundred years say about ¥600,000(00/100) more or less have been spent by the Song Do people in this valley of Summer picnics. Yet not an inch of good road, not a trace of improvement of any kind―unless it be cutting useless names in the useful rocks. Contrast with this the wonderful fact that a handful of poorly paid missionaries, in a few years, have transformed the barren sand beach of Wonsan into a pretty village with smiling gardens, having actually created an auto road from Wonsan town to the resort, through swamps and sands. The trouble with the Koreans is that they never unite for a common cause. Yet they think they can run an independence ticket.
 

31. 7월 31일

1
31st. Saturday. Very hot.
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

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