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◈ 윤치호일기 (1921년) ◈

◇ 1월 ◇

해설목차  1권 2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 1월 1일

1
1st. Saturday. Cloudy. Thawing. 40°F.
 
2
Praise God from Whom All Blessing Flow!
3
New Year calls at the residences of Baron Saito, Dr. Mizume, Mr. Kunitomo, Judge Watanable and Mayor Saito. Dropped cards only. Paid my annual visit to Mrs. Underwood, Senior. Her oldest Grandson, Horace, looked an exact copy of his father when I first saw the latter in 1895 or 26 years ago.
4
Mrs. Underwood Sr., is devoting her time, energy to missionary work while her son Horace is one of the most sympathetic active Christian workers for the Koreans. Dr. Underwood still speaks and works through his good wife and worthy son, though he himself is no more. God bless them.
 

2. 1월 2일

1
2nd. Sunday. Cloudy. Thawing.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church.
3
The great financial famine which devastates every corner of this unhappy land seems to have a depressing effect on even the church audiences. No sign of financial revival in sight, with the certainty of constant rising rates of taxes―the Korean populations in towns and villages are full of despair.
 

3. 1월 3일

1
3rd. Monday. Pretty. 22°F.
 
 

4. 1월 4일

1
4th. Tuesday. 14°F. 9 a.m.
 
 

5. 1월 5일

1
5th. Wednesday. Cloud.
 
2
Snow in the p.m. About 3 p.m. met Miss Jenkins at Y. She gave me a letter from Mr. R.S.M. He wants money.
 

6. 1월 6일

1
6th. Thursday. Cloudy. Cold.
 
2
9 a.m. called on Miss Jenkins. Asked her to deliver to Mr. R. my oral message. 1. We are in great financial stress so that we couldn't give what we haven't got. 2. We are in constant terror of being caught in any communication with outsider. 3. The P.G. of Shanghai ought to quit foolish attempts at violence for they hurt nobody but Koreans.
3
It is said that it costs at least ¥40,000.00 per year to keep up the P.G. That amount should be spent in giving solid education to a number of bright young fellows―instead of being wasted in keeping up the show of a government that has nothing to govern.
 

7. 1월 7일

1
7th. Friday. Sun p.m. Cold.
 
 

8. 1월 12일

1
12th. Wednesday. Sunny.
 
2
10 a.m. went to Chosen Hotel to attend a meeting of the Promoters of the Agriculture Improvement Company(朝鮮農業改良會) . The objects of the Company are the improvement of irrigation and the reclamation of waste lands either by lending money to individuals or associations or by company itself. The lands so reclaimed by the Company are to be sold to small farmers on 25 years' easy instalments.
3
Quite a number of the Korean peers were present. Also most of the managers of the leading Korean banks, besides scores of other business and more or less well-to-do men. Mr. 井上角五 the Japanese M.P. is originator of the scheme. He tried to get a Government subsidy for the Company and has so far failed. The capital is to be ¥20,000,000.00. The aim is to keep the Company in the hands of the Koreans. All very fine on paper; but can the Koreans put up at least half of the capital? If not the Japanese will own most of the shares and where will be the Korean? The new company will become another Oriental Development Co. or another 殖産銀行―which swallowed up the Korean 農工銀行.
4
Except Messrs. 韓相龍, 李完用, 李充用, 宋秉畯, 嚴柱益, all the Koreans present were of this opinion and hence showed no interest in the movement.
 

9. 1월 13일

1
13th. Thursday. Cold. 22.°F.
 
2
Begin translating the Superiority of the Anglo Saxon.
 

10. 1월 14일

1
14th. Friday. Bright and Cold.
 
2
The Chun Do Kyo people has built a magnificent temple right opposite to the residence of the great grandson of Tai Won Koon. When the old Tai Won Koon killed 崔 to stamp out evil doctrines, did he even dream that a temple far more magnificent than his palace, would proudly look down on his "sarang," in so near a future?
3
The money which has built the temple―perhaps more than 500 thousand yen―has been contributed by the poor believers who set aside a spoonful of rice everytime they cook a meal. The greater bulk of this hard earned money has enriched the Chinese and the Japanese with a few yen to the Korean coolies. What do the benighted believers get for their sacrifice?
 

11. 1월 15일

1
15th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Today being the 1st Anniversary of the birthday of our 璋善 according to the Old Calendar we celebrated it with joy. I wanted to keep the New Calendar date viz: the 27th Jan: but one of our servants being ready to give birth to a new child, my mother and wife insisted to keep the Lunar date for reasons of superstition. Of course I didn't want to make anybody feel bad, so I gladly consented to celebrate the day before the new birth takes place.
3
When we tell 璋善 "萬歲해라"(shout mansei) , he raises his little arms in real good fashion. He can walk baby fashion a few steps at a time. God bless him. I am of a mind to christen him Washington Lambuth.
 

12. 1월 17일

1
17th. Monday. Pretty. Mild.
 
2
Left Seoul per 12:20 p.m. train for Song Do. Arrived home nearly 4 p.m.
 

13. 1월 18일

1
18th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Too much tea drinking kept me restless last night.
3
Mild as a Spring day. Stayed at home. Invited Mr. Kim Chang Jay, Yi Sang Choon and Drs. Huh and Koo to supper.
4
Dr. Cram seems really desirous for me to relieve him of the burden of the Song Do High School(Anglo-Korean-School) . I wanted take the position, if I were to have absolute direction of the institution―without any foreigner to hamper with my freedom. To record just one little incidence(out of many) that goaled me too quick while I held the position of the principalship. One day a student from one of the classes I taught was absent. Two or more months later he turned up in the class as suddenly as he had disappeared. When I asked him where he had been, he told me that he had been sent to teach a country school by Mr. Wasson―who was then the Vice Principal. To be a Principal in name while somebody else has the real power is too humiliating to me. But since the mission will never consent to handing over to a Korean the absolute management of the school, since a foreigner will never be contented to play a second fiddle under a Korean, I can't persuade myself to put my neck under the disgraceful yoke again.
 

14. 1월 19일

1
19th. Wednesday. Cloudy a.m.
 
2
Song Do home.
3
Spoke twice to the training class for young converts.
 

15. 1월 20일

1
20th. Thursday. Mild.
 
2
Left Song Do by 9:45 a.m. train for Seoul.
3
At the station I met Dr. R. He informed me that Mr. Ivy had given him an X Ray outfit for the hospital. All honors for Mr. Ivy. But I could hardly tell, in my own heart, whether or not I was more glad for the X Ray information than I was grieved to see the arrogant and impolite behavior and manners of Dr. R toward the Koreans. One thing I am positively certain: that is the Dr. would have proved himself a more acceptable and even more successful missionary if he took off a little more of U.S. from his thought and put on more of Jesus Christ in his behavior. He will do more good to the people by reflecting the sun of righteousness than with X Ray. One is often puzzled to know whether a missionary is preaching the Gospel from pride or from love. It is more charitable to suppose that they preach love and practice pride.
4
On arriving home I found a letter from a 金東一 who signed himself a member of the Military Organization of the Republic(of Korea) . He demanded that I should have ¥10,000.00.100 ready for him by the 25th of this month.
5
If the fellows in the P.G. are really lovers of their own people they would not place them in such dangerous and embarrassing position. They act like simple bandits.
 

16. 1월 21일

1
21sh. Friday. Beautiful. Windy.
 
2
Stayed home.
 

17. 1월 22일

1
22nd. Saturday. Snow. Cold.
 
2
Mr. Kim Hak Nyon is a nephew of my grandmother. He came to Seoul to ask me and my cousin 致昭, each to take one of his sons who would graduate from the Primary School this Spring to put them through the High Common School. When one remembers that the request involves bearing the entire expenses of the boy for five long years through the High Common School course, the cheekiness of the man is simply astounding. He told me that he didn't believe that a boy who can't go to the High Common School after graduating from the primary school should never go to school at all. "For," he says, "What can he do with the primary education only―By that he means that a mere graduate of a primary school can't get an office. I was so impatient that I said with some heart "Why can't a boy do farm work with his primary education?"
3
Office is the paradise of a Korean, all other occupations being a disgrace to a gentleman. 吳永烈 an ex-ajun or writer once said to me with a sigh" 出于下計하야 農事나하려합니다." "As the last resort or the means shift I am planning to do some farm work."
4
Deliver us from poor relatives. 高敬伯 came to Wonsan an empty handed coolie 30 years ago. By dint of hard work and economy he accumulated a fortune as fortunes go in Korea. He returned to his village a rich man. His relatives came in a crowd and ate his fields up. He returned to Wonsan a poor coolie again. He succeeded in making a fortune the second time. He swears that he would never go near his relatives.
 
5
Why do the Koreans take to Bolshevism so easily. Reasons:―
6
1. Thanks to the clan system of and the Confucian morality which was the basis of the system of paternal Government, a hierarchy of dependents, was developed to perfection. If one faculty has been more abnormally developed than any other in a Korean it is his instinct or faculty of parasitism―living upon others. Formerly Koreans lived on relatives and friends in the name of morality. Now they do it in the name of patriotism, of advanced socialism.
7
2. The Japanese regime is driving the Korean people into a state of beggary by having taken away offices, by monopolizing industries and commerce, by supplanting Korean farmers with Japanese settlers. Centuries of parasitism having practically destroyed the instinct of self help and the manly spirit of struggle for existence the Korean is like a mere baby matched against an athlete when he comes in competition with the Japanese―backed by all the powers of his Government.
8
3. Under the corrupt Korean rule it was impossible for a Korean to get rich. But more the beneficent rule of Japan it is getting more and more impossible for the Korean to find the means for bare existence. That Koreans are unconsciously realizing this horrible fact; hence their welcome of Bolshevism.
 

18. 1월 26일

1
26th. Wednesday.
 
2
鄭□基 who has lately returned to Seoul from 迎日 distract where he had gone home to spend the New Year vacation. He tells me in his uncouth way that the sentiment of the people of his district vis-a-vis, the Japanese has undergone a striking change for the worse. Some months ago when he told his country people that we must get more intelligence and wealth before we can demand equal treatment and self government, his hearers used to approve his argument. But this time the people were ready to knock him down for any such moderate views. They said something like this: Money is scarce. Price of rice is low. Taxes have gone up nearly hundred eighty percent. We are mortgaging our lands at ¥15 per tsubo. There is no hope of many of us redeeming our mortgaged lands. In ten years all the rice fields will become the property of the Japanese. They will drive us out from the lands as their settlers come. We shall die anyway. What's use of waiting!
3
Certainly the argument of the poor people sound cogent enough. But what good will hasty attempts of uprising do. After all is said and done the best thing is to learn and wait!
 

19. 1월 27일

1
27th. Thursday.
 
2
This is the first anniversary of the birthday of our beloved Washington according to the New Calendar. He can walk across a little room now. God bless him now and always!
 

20. 1월 28일

1
28th. Friday.
 
2
Snow all day long. 8 p.m. went to 水口門 Church to give a little talk to the parents of the school children. This is one of the poorest sections of the town. The people are engaged in making silk strings. They are poor but independent.
3
It was, by the way, at this church, not the same building though, that Bishop Candler, in the autumn of 1907, preached a sermon on the beautiful text "Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you rest." I tried to interpret his message but I broke down. There was something so tender and sad in his tone or sentiment.
 

21. 1월 29일

1
29th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
P.m. went to Y.M.C.A. to attend the wedding of Mr. Kim Sung Soo. Pastor Kim Paik Won officiated. Three new features in the ceremony surprised me. 1. A solo(by 崔東俊) 2. A speech(by Mr. 兪星濬 who visited the officiating pastor) 3. Another speech by a guest. What foolishness! When the rather tedious ceremony was over and the bride and the bridegroom were ready to march out, a guest who sat a few seat in front of me turned to some one next to him and asked: "When are the bride and the bridegroom coming?" When I told 白雲◉ of this incidence he said: "That will illustrates the mental attitude of the old people of Korea. They hold on to their old notions and habits, being oblivious to the great happenings that are turning the world upside down."
 

22. 1월 30일

1
30th. Sunday. Beautiful.(TABLE)
 
2
==地方費==大正八年==大正九年==
3
==地方費==¥340,000.00==¥910,000.00==
4
==面費==¥430,000.00==¥940,000.00==
5
==學校組合費 Japanese==¥74,000.00==¥418,000.00==
6
==學校費==¥22,000.00==¥517,000.00==
7
==Total==¥866,000.00==¥2,785,000.00==
 
8
The following figures show to what extent the Korean's burden has been increased. Take Chulla Nam Do for it:
9
On the other hand farm products sell at 1/3 of the price which they commanded last year. To aggravate the situation the price of other commodities have fallen only about one half or nearly retain the wartime quotations. A loaf bread which jumped to 20 sen from 8 sen keeps its wartime price.
 

23. 1월 31일

1
31st. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Received 致昌's photoes.
3
Called on Mr. 劉猛 in the afternoon. A few months ago the Japanese authorities took a party of Privy Councillors(中樞院議員) to Tokyo and gave them a flattering reception. They were dined, wined and speechify wherever they went. I didn't understand why the Japanese Government should like such an elaborate trouble to please a score of men from whom they had nothing to fear and less to expect. But everything became clear when 劉猛 told me that Mr. Matsunga the President of the Privy Council had asked him (Mr. 劉) to travel through the country to tell the Koreans what the party had seen and heard in Japan; that on Mr. 劉's refusing to do so six younger men 魚允迪, 李晩奎, 洪運杓 鄭朝屛 etc. had been detailed to go about for the propaganda business. Am simply astonished that a great government should have stooped to such petty schemes of propaganda!
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1921년) ◈

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