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◈ 윤치호일기 (1921년) ◈

◇ 4월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권 5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 4월 1일

1
1st. Friday. Pretty.
 
2
A warm, windy and dusty day. At 8:30 a.m. took wife and 明姬 to the Government Hospital, the former for a dental treatment and the latter for skin trouble. The Gov. Hospital is undoubtedly the best equipped institution of the kind in Korea. I wish the mission hospitals were as well equipped.
3
Found the doctors so beset with patients that they have hardly turn to listen to the statements of a patient. That's one defect in the Gov. Hospital.
4
In the afternoon, took a walk to the small East Gate with 劉高原. So windy and I was so tired and didn't enjoy the outing.
 

2. 4월 2일

1
2nd. Saturday. Rain.
 
2
A splendid rain from early a.m. all through the day. Took 明姬 to the hospital 9 a.m.
3
In the good old days of the Yi Dynasty, a Korean of means lived in constant fear of being squeezed by (1) the Emperor; (2) by the reigning favorite of the Palace; (3) by the provincial governor; (4) by the royal inspectors; (5) by the local magistrates; (6) by the highway men; (7) and in case of rich common people, the yangbans. Now, to a well-to-do Korean, (1) the authorities say "Pay your taxes―jumping up toward the sky―or to the jail. (2) The robbers say "Give us money or we will shoot you." (3) The P.G. agents say: "Give us money or we will hang you." (4) The charity or philanthropy mongers say: Give us money or we will ostracise you as a miser. (5) The preacher says "Give to the church all you have until you feel it or else you are no good for heaven.
 

3. 4월 3일

1
3rd. Sunday. Cloudy a.m. Sun p.m.
 
2
Confined to my room with a bad cold. Beautiful afternoon.
3
Mr. Ryang thinks and says that the average income of every Korean is at least ¥296.00 per year. How? He argues thus: In 1919, according to the Government General statistics, the agricultural produce of Korea was val. ¥4,504,362,000(00/100)
4
Mineral prod. ¥ 25,414,000.00
5
Marine produce ¥ 43,844,000.00
6
Total ¥4,573,620,000.00 Diving this total by 17 millions of people you get the average of ¥269.00 per person a year! Mr. R. further insists that the Korean Christians are rich enough to contribute more than 5 million yen a year if everybody paid tithing. He fears to forget the following facts: 1st. Of the mineral profits the Koreans are not likely to have gotten as much as 1/100 part. The bulk of them having of Course gone into the pockets of the Japanese and the foreigner. 2nd. Most of the marine products goes to enrich the Japanese fishermen and what the Korean gets is a negligible quantity. 3rd. Since the average is obtained by pooling the rich and the poor and since 9/10 of the Christians of Korea are poor, the ¥269.00 per year standard wouldn't hold true among them. 4th. It is assured to say that every Korean household of five persons, say, gets a yearly income of ¥1,345.00 or ¥112(00/100) per month! I wish this were the case in reality! To expect the Korean Christians to make church contributions on the basis of this erroneous calculation is like expecting a child of five to run a race like a boy of 29 because his average age in his family is 29(His father 50; Mother 45; Sister 25; brother 29; child 5=145÷5=29 years per person.
 

4. 4월 4일

1
4th. Monday. Cloudy and rain.
 
2
Cloudy a.m. Rain p.m.
 

5. 4월 5일

1
5th. Tuesday. Chilly.
 
2
Very cold wind. Sunshine.
3
Mr. 姜藩 of the 韓一銀行 called and in the name of Mr. Min Tai Sik asked me to consent to be elected a 重役 of that bank.
4
With cousin 致昭 called on Mr. 兪星濬. Mr. 兪 had been the vice governor of 忠淸北道 and then of 京畿道 over ten years. Everybody expected that he would be promoted to the governorship sooner or later. Contrary to all expectations he was quietly dismissed from his office a month ago. It is suspected that his open profession of the Christian faith and his ill disguised Korean patriotism have made him a persona non grata to the powers that be.
 

6. 4월 6일

1
6th. Wednesday. Cloudy. Chilly.
 
2
What a miserable weather, chilly and chilly and cheerless day after day!
3
Called on Mr. 山縣五十雄. He is no doubt one of the most liberal viewed Japanese I have known. As a personal friend I have found him sincere and kindhearted.
4
Mr. Ryang called and asked me to join him and Dr. Cram in their itinerary to 伊川. 鐵原 and 元産, I consented to do so as I had promised Dr. Cram a month ago.
5
Mr. Ryang and Dr. Cram are making good their secretaryship for the Centenary Movement. Over ten thousand people have signified their desire to become Christians―as a direct result of the work of the preaching bands who have canvassing the S.M. territory under the direction of Dr. Cram.
 

7. 4월 7일

1
7th. Thursday. Cold.
 
2
9:50 a.m. left Seoul, with Mr. Ryang for 金郊, Leaving wife unwell with 明姬 fretting for sores makes me very home sick. O how I wish wife had a sweeter temper and gentler tongue―if not for my sake at least for the sake of our precious children.
3
At Song Do Station we were joined by Dr. Cram and Mr. Branum. Reached 金郊 Station 2:30 p.m. From there the party took "rickshaws" for 市邊里. The road was rough and wind was cod. After a tedious ride we arrived at 市邊里 6 p.m. Glad to see the Dr. 印□洙 and 金永燦 agin. Put up at 具文善's inn. After a good supper fell into sleep at once.
 

8. 4월 8일

1
8th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left 市邊里 about 9:30 a.m. for 伊川邑. For 40 li the road runs along the bank of river. Mountains far and near enclosing valleys with little hamlets scattered here and there. Certainly this is a beautiful country, yet it makes me sick at heart to see the beautiful mountains all naked. The pitiless hand of ignorance has denndedthemf Il oa reest. If. these mountains have spirits as the Koreans say will they hesitate a moment to choose between the Korean and the Japanese possessor?
3
Took lunch at 四員里, a little village situated in a very attractive valley. Arrived 伊川邑 about 6 p.m. Agreeably surprised to find 伊川邑 such a nice. Put up at Mr. 盧在臨's house. Christianity is a ruling force in this village.
 

9. 4월 9일

1
9th. Saturday. Beautiful. Frost on ground.
 
2
A lovely day but frosty cold. From 9 to 12 morning attended the Centenary service at the church.
3
This village was attacked by 義兵 in 丁未年 1907, burning 120 houses. I understand that it was the Il Chin Hoi people that drew the wrath of the "Righteous Soldiers" upon the village. They spared the Christian homes thus expositing the latter to the tender miracles of the Japanese.
4
Another service at the church from 2 to 4.
5
I addressed a full house at 8:30 p.m.
6
It is said that formerly a man who came here as 伊川府使 wept twice. Once when he looked down on the village from the Yu tal Ryung pass feeling like an exile in a mountain fastness. But when the time came for him to leave the place he wept once more regretting to leave such a profitable position.
 

10. 4월 10일

1
10th. Sunday. Cloudy.
 
2
Worshipped in the local church. Mr. Ryang gave a good sermon on the Spirit of the Cross.
3
Lunch with the missionaries. I enjoyed the coffee more than anything else.
4
3 to 5 p.m. Centenary talks by Dr. Cram and Mr. Branum. The latter insisted that the law of tithing is, as binding on the Christians, as it was on the Jews. One thing I object to is that all speakers seem regard the support of work of God. I believe all good works are works of God.
5
Rain from 7:30 p.m. Centenary Service from 8:30. Mr. Ryang and I spoke. Rained hard all the time. Am afraid we shall have to stay over here tomorrow.
 

11. 4월 11일

1
11th. Monday. Sun. Warm.
 
2
A little cloudy but no rain. Left 伊川邑 for 福溪 Station at 9 a.m. Sun came out about 10 and warmed up the weather, making my fur overcoat unnecessary for the first time trip. For 60 li the new road hugs close around mountains in repeated S's―cork screw fashion. Mountains, mountains and mountains all struggling to be clothed with lovely forests but in vain. The shortsighted Koreans show themselves pitiless butchers of beautiful mountains. What the Japanese shall have completed the process of grabbing these mountains under the pretax or another the Korean will one fine morning awaken to the fact these they have no more mountain to maltreat.
3
Lunch at 玉洞里. Arrived 福溪 Station just to catch the train for 鐵原. Reached 鐵原 Station about 7:15 p.m. Met by Dr. Anderson who took us to his home in his auto. I dislike very much to put up at a foreigner's house; but I can't help it. Mrs. Anderson is one of the prettiest American women in Korea.
 

12. 4월 12일

1
12th. Tuesday. Hazy and warm.
 
2
9 a.m. went to the church to hold Centenary Services on Christian standardship. Laymen delegates from the Seoul district formed a respectable audience.
3
3 p.m. by the kindness of 韓興植 who keeps a bath house, I had a refreshing bath. Another meeting at the church. Received a letter from 明燮 informing me that wife is well and that 明姬 is getting better. Thank God.
4
8 p.m. went to the church and I addressed a full house.
5
鐵原邑 has over a thousand houses and the houses are more substantial than those found in other country towns of Korea.
 

13. 4월 13일

1
13th. Wednesday. Cloudy. Warm.
 
2
After breakfast went out to the village of 용담 to see the new site for school and church. Was surprised to see several nice tiled houses in the village. Returned to 鐵原邑 church about 9 :30. The Centenary meeting was closed at 11. An early lunch and we started for the station. Left 鐵原 Station about 1 p.m. for 元山. Arriving at 元山 about 6 p.m. we were met by Messrs. Taylor and Turner. Mr. Ryang and I came to Mr. Turner's home. Mrs. T. is a lovely woman.
3
This beautiful port is improving in its appearance every year. Yet what pains me is that all the improvement is on the Japanese side. The Koreans seem remain unchanging in their wretched huts. Feel tired and homesick.
 

14. 4월 14일

1
14th. Thursday. Dust storm.
 
2
Dust storm all the day long. Centenary Services at the church 9-12 and 2-5 p.m. Lunch at Mr. Taylor's. Supper at Dr. Ross's. This missionary compound(of the S.M.E. Mission) is undoubtedly the most beautifully located one in Korea.
3
A few rich Koreans left in Wonsan are between two fires―the P.G. agents and the police. One of them 金參奉 has taken to morphine as a refuge form nervousness caused by the fears and anxiety.
4
Yi Kim Jey is a well known miser. People used to call him 되야지; new they call him 망아지, because they don't want him 되야 or succeed any more but with to see him 망해 or ruined. While Yi is wrong in being so stingy those who curse him are more wrong and foolish because the ruin of one rich Korean only tend to increase the volume of Korean poverty. I spoke to a full audience at 8 p.m.
 

15. 4월 15일

1
15th. Friday. Dusty.
 
2
Between 9 and 10 a.m. Dr. Ross took me in his auto to 德源邑. Left 元山 by 11:10 a.m. train for Seoul. Arrived home 7:30 p.m. All well, thank God.
3
The dust-storm of yesterday and today is the worst of its kind that people have seen in Korea for many a decade. Wise men tell us that the dust has come from the Gobi desert.
4
Mr. Ryang tells me that Ok Kwan Bin is reported to have turned a spy in the service of the Japanese. I can hardly believe it. Ok is one of the most talented young Koreans I have seen. He suffered terribly in the conspiracy case of 1911―15 not only; he showed unusual firmness in him of great physical and mental torture. A man of that type to become a renegade―that I can't believe.
 

16. 4월 16일

1
16th. Saturday. Cloudy.
 
2
Cloudy all the day long. A little sprinkling of rain about 5 p.m. I wish we had a good rain to wash the dust away from trees and flowers.
3
P.m. 4 went to the Seoul Orphanage to attend its meeting of managers.
4
Mr. Kim Il Sun is the most able and conscientious manager for the Orphanage.
5
Another great strike of miners, R.R. men and transportation workers involving 2 1/2 million people is said to have been declared in England. How England will come out of this tremendous trouble is a matter all important not only for the English nation but also for the whole world. If England goes under the power of Bolshevism there is no hope for other nations.
 

17. 4월 17일

1
17th. Sunday. Sunshine and wind.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual.
3
On my way home, met Mr. 金潤晶. He invited me to lunch with him at the Family Hotel. Mr. K. told me that he had been requested by Mr. Katothe Governor of Kyong Ki Province to persuade me to deliver a speech in favor of the Gov. General, in the Administrative Propaganada 施政宣傳 that the authorities are carrying out throughout the entire country during the 16th, the 17th and the 18th inst. Fortunately I was not in Seoul when Mr. Kim tried to get me for the purpose. Why any Korean who has the cheek to defend or praise the Government General in the public will become a marked man among the Korean people?
4
The ever-increasing taxation under various headings―entirely out of proportion to the economic power of the Korean―is making anti J. sentiment in towns and in country more and more wide spread and deep rooted. Any pro-Japanese speech from a Korean will do more harm than good.
 

18. 4월 18일

1
18th. Monday. Bright and cool.
 
2
The morning hours spoiled by the uncalled-for ill humor of wife.
3
About 1 p.m. took wife and children to 淸凉寺 for an outing. The place devoid of natural attractions, crowd that occupied every room. I was disgusted. Felt simply wretched in body and mind. The nursery is filled with women, ignorant and coarse whose only sign of Buddhism is their clean tonsure heads. After supper came home nearly sick.
 

19. 4월 19일

1
19th. Tuesday. Beautiful. Cool.
 
2
One of the greatest faults of the Korean is his contempt for little things. He is given to the very foolish and harmful habit of starting things on a scale beyond his means and ability. He starts an orchard with several thousand fruit trees―when he has no idea how to take care of one. This love of big things―big names―big shows has been the cause of most of the failures among the Korean merchants and manufacturers.
3
About 1 p.m. went to 靑蓮寺 outside of the Water Gate or 光熙門 with Messrs 尹忠求 and 劉昇熙. Found the monks of the temple thoroughly secularized―everything dirty. I didn't enjoy the meal for which they charged us 70 sen per person.
 

20. 4월 20일

1
20th. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Left Seoul at 1:30 p.m. with Dr. Cram, Rev. Branum, Mr. 梁 for 春川 on Mr. Stokes' car. With a few bridges down here and there, the road was on the whole good. From 加平邑, the scenery was good all along the road. How I wish these lovely mountain were all clothed in their native robe of trees! For nearly 70 li of the road the acacia trees on both sides are well preserved―the first thing of the kind I have seen in Korea.
3
Arrived at 春川 about 5:30 p.m. Met Mr. 南宮憶. He is doing a grand work in his native village where he has started a church and a school.
4
Put up at Mr. Stokes' home.
5
I spoke in the church. 朴鶴晃 after a series of misfortune, is now sheltered and supported by his wife―whom he had so cruelly treated. She is a good woman and noble in spirit.
 

21. 4월 21일

1
21st. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
From 9 a.m. the Centenary service on Christian Stewardship was held in the church. A fine body of men―some had walked 300 li from 襄陽 to attend the meetings.
3
After lunch, with Mr. 尹 as my guide took rather a strenuous walk over the 鳳儀山 and along the ridge to the 昭陽亭 on the bank of the river. A fine view of the town from the top of the mountain. The town of 春川 has about 1,000 houses; and looks clean. The walk took us 3 hours. Supper at the parsonage(Korean) . Mr. 尹 entertained us, Messrs. 南宮憶, 洪鍾□, 梁牧師 and a few others beside me. After the supper Mr. 尹 spoke of the great needs of a high school in 春川 and hinted that I might start the work by contributing, say, ¥20,000(00/100) So the supper was not a pure matter of simple hospitality. Can't there be as disinterested friendship? I spoke in the night.
 

22. 4월 22일

1
22nd. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Had a restless night. Left 春川 at 8 a.m. The ride between hills here and there covered with azalia and a river winding about in graceful curves like a stretch of deep blue ribbon was on the whole refreshing. The ignorant villagers seem to have no use for these beautiful hills than to denude them of what little trees there are. The lovely azalia-shrubs are ruthlessly cut with flowers in full bloom to be burned as fire wood! Can man be degraded deeper than these soulless villagers? Is this the result of the absolute sway which Confucianism has held over the Korean people during the last ten centuries?
3
Arrived home at 11:30 a.m. No appetite―no sleep. My health is in a bad state.
 

23. 4월 23일

1
23rd. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
During my recent trips I have enjoyed the hospitality of several missionary families. The one that has left the most pleasant impression on my memory is the hospitality of Mrs. Turner of Wonsan. On the table in our bedroom we found a plate with two apples and two pomelos not forgetting two fruit knives. Now this was extra thoughtfulness, and thoughtfulness is the essence of hospitality. I was reminded of the hospitality of Mrs. Hoss. Only a plate of ordinary fruits―and that makes all the difference in the world between a common hospitality and a genteel one.
 

24. 4월 24일

1
24th. Sunday. Pretty
 
2
Stayed at home. Enjoyed the diary of Mr. 內村鑑三. He says "The greatest happiness of a living being, is to be born a man, and the greatest happiness of a man is to be a Christian: Having these two forms of happiness there is no necessity of seeking for others." What a healthy sentiment!
3
Just as selfishness is the source of hell so is faith, the source of happiness. The just shall live by faith―is more practical than theological. I know all that; but what a pity I haven't got that kind of faith!
 

25. 4월 25일

1
25th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left Seoul for 牙山新村 home per 12:20 p.m. train with Mr. 劉高原. Arrived at 平澤 Station about 4 p.m. A light refreshment at 尹亨一's inn and left 平澤 for 新村 about 4:30 p.m. Found the clay road full of hard nuts almost impassable for vehicles and exceedingly rough for pedestrians. The sun as hot as summer. Toward evening the walking became easier.
3
Arrived home about 7:30 p.m. Supper at cousin 致昞's. Uncle and aunt well.
4
To simplifying or to have already simplified the 手續 or redtapism of various offices has been one of the reforms promised by the Saito government not only; but one of the reforms which the authorities said fit to brag about in their recent campaign of education(施政宣傳) . In the face of all that it is an interesting if it were not a vexing; fact that I filed an application for Candler's 民籍抄本 on the inst., and that haven't got it yet.
 

26. 4월 26일

1
26th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Beautiful and hot. First time in many years, may be 20 years or more that I have been here in the season of flowers. The cherry and peach trees are in their full glory. Azalia also whould have been fine but for the fact the fact the ignorant peoples have cut them so that very few and stunted azalia shrubs are left.
3
Paid my respect to the graves of grand-parents. The walk seems to have taxed my strength―returned home very tired.
4
Hot as summer. Farmers are wishing for rain very much.
5
A refreshing bath.
 

27. 4월 27일

1
27th. Wednesday. Rain.
 
2
Good rain gladening the hearts of the farmers who are looking forward to the barley crop with hope not unmixed with anxiety.
3
Gambling is doing much harm in the village. 李春城, is making a profitable business of it. 尹弘求 and 尹鴻善 are his victims as well as his accomplices. 李春城 has built his house with the money he won from 弘求. Recently 李春城 and 林翼善, the grandson of 林吉榮, completely ruined 鴻善 by gambling. I am told my fifth cousin 致明 has lately been victimized by 李春城, 林翼善 and 尹鴻善. My uncle is the only person sho can stop this evil, if anybody may. Yet he wouldn't take the trouble.
 

28. 4월 28일

1
28th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Windy but beautiful after the rain.
3
In the afternoon visited my uncle's orchard. The peach and the pear trees are in full bloom.
4
I enjoy flowers best when they are few. When a garden or an orchard are full of flowers their too many-ness produces a sense of tire-some-ness or satiety on me.
 

29. 4월 29일

1
29th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left 新村 9 a.m. Walked to the 平澤 Station the road being too rusty for a "rickshaw." On the way, met two police men, a Japanese and a Korean. The former stopped me and asked who I was. I gave him my card. He demanded why I had my name printed in "Western letters" 西洋字, when Chinese characters were all that I needed. I politely told him that I could speak a Western language. "You may," said he, but others don't." "But" I replied, "I have intercourse with Westerners." "Westerners of what country?" demanded he. "well," said I, "Americans, English and French." "Having your name in Western letters I thought you might be a '天道敎人' or a Christian." "Yes," said I "I am a Christian." Looking at the Western letters on my card for another minute or two, he seemed in suspense what to do. Then he said "I shall keep this card" and so we parted. Now; (1) if one traveler is to be examined and searched why not all? (2) To print one's name in Western letters, there being no law against it, is a kind of personal liberty which the Almighty Police has no business to question. (3) To have intercourse with Westerners being perfectly lawful why should a police man ask what Westerners I might associate with? (4) Being a believer in 天道敎 or Jesus’ religion should not be in itself, a matter of police suspicion and investigation.
3
Arrived home nearly 5:30 p.m.
 

30. 4월 30일

1
30th. Saturday. Pretty.
 
2
11 a.m. went to 淸凉寺. Entertained the members of the 松美會 or the alumni of the 松都高等學校 and of the Holston Institute. Eight girls and 24 boys present besides Mr. Ryang. Had a pleasant evening.
3
7 p.m. went to the concert given by the Korean boys and girls from Vladivostok, at the Central Y.M.C.A. Hall.
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