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◈ 윤치호일기 (1895년) ◈

◇ 10월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권 8권  9권  윤치호

1. 10월 3일

1
3rd. (15th of 8th Moon). Thursday. A series of beautiful days and nights has come.
 
2
After sunset, a quarrel broke out between soldiers (?) and policemen. The former, who were in the wrong, went about in bands smashing up police stations, killing, wounding and beating policemen. A good sign!
3
A Corean "Maboo" or groom seems to make it a matter of his conscience, if he has any, to cheat and steal. What hurts me most is that kindlier you treat him the more ungrateful he becomes.
4
Went to see Dr. Scranton for some medicine for my dysentery 8 p.m.
 

2. 10월 6일

1
6th. (18th). Sunday. A beautiful day and a lovely night.
 
2
Min Yong Hwan (閔泳煥) was a few days ago appointed the Corean Minister to America. Beyond all doubts Min Sang Ho is to be the secretary. All powerful Mins!
3
About 11 p.m. a band of soldiers, shouting, went to storm the Central Police Station. Policemen rushed out with drawn swords and put the soldiers to flight as the latter were armed only with sticks etc.
4
In these fights between the police and the soldiery, there is something that indicates a coming storm. Somebody must be behind the scene. Is it the Palace which wants to get a pretext for abolishing the Police? Is it the Old man who desires to see the Palace and soldiers in open war thus giving him an opportunity of interference. General Greathouse thinks the latter supposition is more probable.
 

3. 10월 8일

1
8th. (20th). Tuesday.
 
2
Awakend at 4 a.m. by Yi Sun Kun (李巡根) . He showed me a letter picked up in the street informing the commander of the First Regiment that several companies under 李斗璜 and a Japanese instructor 村井 had left the barrack for nobody knows where. The letter was signed by an army officer 李敏宏. Sent Yi Sun Kun to show the letter to the Chief of Police.
3
At 5 the 2nd Prince came from the Palace. On his way out, he saw a large number of Japanese soldiers marching toward 迎秋門 or the West Gate of the palace wall, and columns of Corean soldiers (訓練隊) going toward 建春文 and 春生門. The Prince was sent out by H.M. to find out what the trouble was.
4
About 5:30 a brisk firing was heard for a few minutes. All quiet. Palace broken in by Japanese soldiers.―The Corean 訓練隊 refusing to join the attack ran away.―General Hong (洪載熙) killed―Tai Won Koon escorted by Japanese, went into the Palace. The gates guarded by Japanese soldiers. Only Kim Hong Chip, Kim Yun Sik and Cho Hui Yon admitted.
5
At 1 p.m. the 2nd prince came and reported thus: Soon after he had left the Palace, the Royal Quarters, occupied by T.M. and the Crown Prince, were attacked by a band of Japanese with drawn swords. They hunted after Her Majesty―Killed 2 or 3 waiting maids with great cruelty, apparently to make sure of the Queen. They seized the Princess (wife of the Crown Prince) by her hair, kicked her, beat her, dragged her forcing her to tell them where the Queen was. Refusing to answer, they threw the young lady down among the dying and dead soldiers. One of the Japanese seized the Crown Prince by the hair and kicked him. In the meantime there were nearly a hundred women huddled together with fear―the Queen came in-a Jap seized her and kicked her down―She cried out that she was not the Queen but came in to get something to eat. The assassins kicked her until she was insensible―dead. Then the murderers dragged her to an apartment―covered her with a sheet―then to make sure of it, Suzuki (鈴木) , a Japanese interpreter, told An Sang Kung (安尙宮) that Her Majesty was laid in "that room," pointing to the place. The lady went in and shocked at the bloody sight rushed out in horror crying "Oh, the Queen is dead!" Hearing this the assassins rushed in and dragged the body to the nearest flower pit. There they placing it, committed it to flames. The whole story is too horrible to think about.
6
Could not sleep in the night, the nerves so worked up by the barbarous fate Her Majesty met with. I would be the last man in the world to admit that the Queen's reign was a good one. I may even advocate her deposition, if she could not be in any other way made to give up her intrigues and evil favorites. But I am the last man in the world to approve her cruel murder committed by Japanese assassins.
7
Foreigners without an exception, are disgusted with the parties, Corean and Japanese, who committed the deed.
 

4. 10월 9일

1
9th. (21st). Wednesday.
 
2
Hearing that the Cabinet intended to degrade the Queen. I called on Mr. Kim Yun Sik, the President of F.O. and strongly remonstrated against the measure.
3
I said: The foreign community is very indignant at the foul murder of Her Majesty; and if......
4
"But," said he with some warmth, "foreigners are unjust and unfair. They think so much of her simply because she used to give them wine and shook hands with them. Even among them the fair-minded admit that she was bad."
5
"Yes, that is true," said I. "No foreigner whom I have talked with concerning the evil doings of her reign denied that she was ruining the country. But the most cruel death she met with―a death the meanest criminal would be ashamed to die―has aroused the pity and indignation of the foreigners. For example, Kim Ok Kiun was a noted traitor. If our government punished him according to legal proceedings, nobody would have said a word about his death. But his assassination, then his quartering made the world to forget his crimes only to remember and detest the cruelty, cowardice and treachery of the Corean government. Now you can not say Her Majesty is thought as bad as Kim. Then she was the Queen of a nation while he was a traitor. Is it any wonder then that the foreigners should so strongly sympathize for her fate?"
6
"Let them sympathize as much as they want to. What can foreigners do? Americans can only talk and talk and talk and that is all. Russians only may make a fuss but they are unable to cope with Japan. We are independent. Foreigners have no right to have any say so in our politics."
7
"Are we really independent?" asked I. "Are we really free from foreign interference? What! Is it independence that Japanese are invited to attack the Palace and murder our Queen? What Japan may do in the matter of interference, others may do as well. There! Your best plan is to publish the death of Her Majesty. Do her all the posthumous honors as you are able. This may soothe the feelings of foreigners. But if you, after having most cruelly murdered the Queen, go to blacken her memory by degrading her and enumerating her crimes you will set the Western world against you. Japan failed to do anything in Corea for having lost the good opinion of the Foreigners here. Do you expect to do anything without it?"
8
The old man promised to talk the matter over with the Prime Minister. Then I urged the necessity of publishing a general amnesty.
9
The 2nd Prince (義和君) has been staying with Dr. Underwood these four nights, fearing the Old Man.
 

5. 10월 10일

1
10th. (22nd). Thursday.
 
2
This morning's Gazette published the Royal Decree announcing the degradation of Her Majesty to a common woman.
3
The F.O. has written several letters to the Japanese Legation all to the effect that Japanese had nothing to do with the late trouble in the Palace. One of those famous letters says that the Japanese who did the bloody work were not Japanese but Coreans disguised in Japanese costume to avoid being killed by the Corean soldiers.
4
The foreign ministers pay their daily visit to His Majesty.
 

6. 10월 13일

1
13th. (25th). Sunday.
 
2
At 1 p.m. went to Riongsan with Mr. Appenzeller to meet Bishop Hendrix and Dr. Reid. The river steamer did not come in until 5 a.m. but the parties we waited for were not on board. Learned that the Bishops party, on the boat's being stuck on the sand bar down the river, took to their feet and made for Seoul overland. Felt very sorry for them.
3
On our way back, called on Brother Jenkins outside of the South Gate. Bishop H. And Dr. R. were in bed. The latter especially was perfectly delighted to see me. So was I to see him. Took them to the ladies home for breakfast and rest.
4
The Cabinet offered to send the 2nd Prince as ambassador to the Courts of Europe.
 

7. 10월 14일

1
14th. (26th). Monday.
 
2
Went to the office as usual. This afternoon, the American, the British and the Russian Legations answered the communications of Mr. Kim informing them of the late trouble in the Palace and the degradation of Her Majesty. The Legations insisted on a thorough investigation into the murder of the Queen, which fact the F.O. did not mention, and refused squarely to believe that the Decree announcing the deposition of the Queen was sanctioned by His Majesty.
 

8. 10월 15일

1
15th. (27th). Tuesday. A beautiful day―Office as usual.
 
2
Mr. Yi Kun Ho 李根皓 whose eminent ability for gathering news―correct ones―I can not help admiring, through a protracted experience, tell me that I am strongly suspected of being pro-Queen and pro-foreign. Good reasons have the Japanese and the new Cabinent for disliking any one who may tell the foreigners a deal of their secrets―if he cared to.
3
The Cabinent is under the dread influence of the Army Officers. 禹範善, 李斗璜 etc.
4
At 4 p.m., a meeting of all the Ministers and Vice Ministers was called in the Cabinet to discuss the advisability of changing the title of "King" to that of "Emperor." Messrs Cho (趙羲淵) , Kwon (權瀅鎭) , Chung (鄭東夏) advocated the step very strongly. Kon said that this was absolutely necessary to make the people to realize their independence of China. I told them that while neither Japan nor China would honor Corea an iota more for putting on the imperial title, we would evoke the ridicule of the sensible. The Minister of F.O. and the Prime Minister agreed with me but they dared not oppose the majority―supported the Army Officers. Mr. So Kuang Pom made himself a goose by saying that none should assume the title of an Emperor who has no dependencies.
5
The proposition was carried to receive the sanction of His Majesty at about 6 p.m. My heart was touched to go into the Royal Apartments and to see the King after the terrible calamity he has so lately experienced.
6
I was asked by Yu Kil Chun to accompany the 2nd Prince. Later I was told that a Japanese is to go with us―a sure sign that I am sent out from the country where I may talk too freely with foreigners and that somebody is to watch me abroad.
7
The election of a new Queen was ordered today.
 

9. 10월 16일

1
16th. (28th). Wednesday.
 
2
Yu Kil Chun told me the following story, or stories:
3
1. Sim Sang Hoon 沈相薰, Yu Tong Kun 柳東根 (?) etc. under the order of Her Majesty, planned to disband the Japanese drilled soldiers on the pretext of their quarrel with the police. Then arming the Palace guard to the teeth they intended to put every officer and servant in each Department to the sword. The day fixed on for this general massacre was the 25th of the 8th Moon (八月二十五日) , or 13th October.
4
2. Mr. Waeber was to back this conspiracy with his influence and with the Russian marines if necessary. For this service Russia was to have the port of Wonsan. Waeber takes such a threatening attitude toward the present Ministry because his golden plan was so suddenly broken up by the event of the 8th. Two secret letters from His Majesty to the Czar of Russsia were discovered in the Palace, one of them begging the latter to keep Waeber in Corea.
5
3. Allen and the French commissioner have joined the protest through the machination of Waeber. The gold mine of Woonsan 雲山 to be granted to an American firm was a bait to catch Allen with.
 
6
Yu Kil Chun is an able man. One of his abilities is to tell all possible and impossible lies, sometimes to brag himself, sometimes to accomplish whatever object he may have. His yarn about Waeber is one of his richest ones.
 

10. 10월 17일

1
17th. (29th). Thursday.
 
2
Bishop Hendrix and Dr. Reid took tiffin (Corean) with us. Miss Rothvrilder also.
3
At 2 p.m. Mr. Waeber called on Mr. Kim Yun Sik and reiterated what he had said in his official answer etc. that he would not, and could not acknowledge the "present state of things as long as there were no investigation into the murder of Her Majesty. He then enlarged on the unwisdom at least of changing the royal title to that of an emperor at this juncture. He also spoke against the selection of a new queen so soon after the foul of murder of the Queen. He ascribed all these shameful measures to the conspirators and not the choice of His Majesty. Mr. Kim answered that the Palace being in the hands of the "mutinous soldiery" the investigation can not be carried on now.
4
At 7:30 with my precious Darling went to the church to have our baby baptized by Bishop Hendrix. She behaved most beautifully throughout the long service.
 

11. 10월 21일

1
21st. (4th of 9th Moon). Monday.
 
2
My Darling sick of a severe cold. Bishop H. and Dr. R. left Seoul this a.m. 9:30 for Chemulpo. Wrote to Dr. Allen.
3
Thank God, my dear Father and Mother have safely returned from Woolsan. We are once more together. How I wish the time were peaceful so that we could enjoy our circle of love unbroken.
4
The Japanese government has called back Miura (三浦) . Komura (小村) , who came here for the ostentatious object of investigating the late trouble or the Japanese part in it seems to be doing his best whitewashing the matter for the American and European eyes.
5
One of the most emphatic signs of the low condition of life in Corea is the conspicuous absence of toys. Lately Japanese and Chinese toys, poor and few as they are on account of the Corean poverty, are seen in the stores. Also cakes, biscuits etc. So a Corean child today is better off in these matters than his seniors 10 years ago. Formerly, custom forbade the flying of kites any time besides the new year's holidays (15th, 12th Moon to 15th, 1st Moon) . Now children are seen with kites every day in every moon. Japanese and the Japanites (Yu Kil Chun and Co.) seem to be anxious to have every Corean prince under their influence. Though the 2nd prince is accredited to the courts of Europe Yu and Co. insist on his going to Tokio first. I would not be surprised if the 2nd prince does not go further than the Mikado's capital.
 

12. 10월 24일

1
24th. (7th). Thursday.
 
2
Prince Uihwa and my cousin left Seoul last night and Riongsan this a.m.
3
Wrote to Dr. Candler, Mrs. Hoss.
 

13. 10월 25일

1
25th. (8th). Friday.
 
2
Mr. Kim, the Foreign Minister, told me that the members of the Cabinet were threatened by the Army men to hasten the change of the royal title, the royal marriage and the cutting of hair. The Cabinet had to give in. The declaration of the imperial title is to take place tomorrow. The selection of another Queen to be soon in order. The hair cutting to be reconsidered. Against the sensible advise of General Greathouse, Mr. Kim went around to see the Foreign representatives concerning the change of the royal title.
3
Sugimura left Seoul this a.m.
4
Nio, (仁尾) the advisor of the Finance Department, puts off endorsing the payment of the traveling expenses of the Prince to go Europe on the merest pretext―He wants an itemized statement of the expenses. On my telling him that I can not possibly do it, he asked me to give him a written statement of the length of time the mission expects to occupy in each country, the distances between different places.
5
The Corean government is a thing on three wheels, one representing the Corean Cabinet, another the Japanese element and the third the Foreign in fluence. The former two are in some sort of harmony. But the last one is out of order. The thing cannot move well. The foreign representatives must either quit their protest and let the new ministry go on its way, wise or otherwise, or take such a decided step as to break up the "usurpation" for something else. Their lukewarm interference keeps everybody in suspense and makes them exceedingly ridiculous in the eyes of the Japanites.
 

14. 10월 26일

1
26th. (9th). Saturday.
 
2
Ishitsuga (石塚) , the Japanese advisor of the Cabinet left Seoul this morning. I suggested to him that the best way to set things aright in Corea now is for Count Inouye to cooperate with the Foreign representatives to get up a new Cabinet agreeable to all parties; and that this might go far to present the armed interference from the Foreign Legations―a possible or probable event fraught with dangerous consequences.
3
On giving Nio a written statment of the length of time the Prince and suite expect to spend in the countries they have to visit and the distances between the places. The financial advisor again objected and said that I should furnish him with the estimation of the daily expenses in each place! In despair and indignation I could hardly conceal, I gave up all attempts of arguing with him. I have very little doubt as to the fact that the Special Envoy business is trick gotten up by Yu Kil Chun and the Japanese to send the 2nd Prince to Tokio. Nio made no fuss in paying the prince 1,300 Yen for his expenses in Japan.
4
The ceremony of imperializing His Majesty did not come off today. He is reported to have refused to accept the ridiculous offer of the title. The straight talk of the Legations seems to have some effect in the matter.
5
So Kuang Pom (徐光範) went to the American Legation and intimated to Mr. Sill his desire to go to Washington as the Corean minister. Old Sill told him that a man who signed the degradation of Her Majesty was not the best man for Washington. (Greathouse) .
 

15. 10월 27일

1
27th. (10th). Sunday.
 
2
Called on Yu Kil Chun. Told him that the present state could not last; that an armed interference of the Legations would be disastrous; that, to simplify the matter, the Japanese force might be called in helping the Corean government to investigate the affair. Suggested that the "liberty of conscience" should be granted as a measure conciliatory to foreigners. Seems to me the present government may be more willing to grant this than another one on a firmer basis.
3
Yu Kil Chun told me that the "traveling expenses" of the Special Envoy and Suite could not be given until the present crisis should have passed. This confirms my suspicion that the whole plan was a trick to get the Prince to Tokio.
4
Whatever new Government may be set up, Yu Kil Chun ought to be put in.
5
The adoption of the solar calendar from the 1st Jan. (96) was ordered today.
6
Worshipped in the Methodist Chapel.
 

16. 10월 29일

1
29th. (12th). Tuesday.
 
2
Chemulpo; Left Seoul at 9:30 a.m. for Chemulpo to welcome Count Inouye expected to arrive at the latter place sometime tomorrow. He comes as a Special Envoy of Consolation (Condolation as well) . Had a pleasant trip.
 
3
Collections and Recollections!
4
1. About 2 weeks before the 8th of Oct. Miura had an audience with the King. He most politely endorsed every new measure T.M. had taken (to make themselves unpopular) . He advised them to use nobility in preference to others, to restore the old names of the "Yamens." He praised the new changes and additions T.M. had just made in dress.
5
2. Kim Kiung Ha, the Old Man's spy, who was made the governor of the metropolitan province, put up proclamations all over the town re-publishing the reasons why the King had to depose Her Majesty. This unnecessary infliction of disgrace on the memory of the unfortunate Queen shows the dirty and dastardly spirit of Kim and his party.
6
3. Miura, as soon as he arrived at Hiroshima was arrested and imprisoned. The "Inso" who had trusted on Sugimura as their Rock of Salvation, could hardly believe that he should be called back, likely to be arrested.
7
4. The threatening attitude of the Foreign representatives, (whom by the way, Yu Kil Chun declares to be the dregs of humanity in their respective countries) seems to have at last some sense of uneasiness in the kinds of the "Ins."
8
5. The sight of the abominable condition of the river bank so close to the capital of the Kingdom that has squeezed the people for 5 bloody centuries, the denuded hills and wretched hovels along the roads, the devilish outrages the so called nobles indulge against the people-all this involuntarily forces a Corean to feel that it is after all fair and just that Corea should be given to some one, Japanese or Russians, who may know how to rule.
9
6. The retainers of Yi Chai Soon (李載純) who is expected to arrive at Chemulpo with Ct. Inouye, are behaving themselves very badly-like a band of robbers. As the master so are the servants. Yi is a fat hog in the human shape. Mr. So Sang Chip (徐相□) whose hospitality I enjoy now tells me that a Corean fears to keep good inns because of the exactions of the devils called nobles.
10
7. It is to be noted that of the two of the Japanese Ministers who have lost their posts for backing up Corean conspirators one (Takezoye) was a Confucianist, while the other (Miura) a Buddhist.
11
8. Reports say now that none of the Palace maids is missing. The assassins are said to have been seen examining each woman with Her Majesty's photo in their hands. Too horrible to think about!9. Tai Won Kun was carried away from his bedroom early on the 8th of October by a band of Japanese. His chair was carried by 4 Japanese in Corean police uniform―taken from the policemen in the Old Men's house.
 

17. 10월 30일

1
30th. (13th). Wednesday.
 
2
Chemulpo. At 12 a.m. the Yokohama Maru, a transport came in with Count Inouye on board. Called on him, extending to him the welcome of the Corean government. Later on met him at his lodging. He told me that he did not expect to do anything in the Corean affairs beyond the duties of a special Envoy(?) .
3
Supped with An Kiung Soo the ex-minister of War. He told me that it was all fib that Her Majesty had plotted to kill all the cabinet officers of the new-order government; that he has seen 禹範善 in the Japanese legation on the 7th of October late in the afternoon; that Cho 趙 himself had told him (An) that 李斗璜 was informed of the plot only on the 7th; that the present Cabinet had offered to send him to Europe with Prince Uihua.
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