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◈ 윤치호일기 (1896년) ◈

◇ 5월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 5월 1일

1
1st.(19th of 3rd Moon). Friday. C.P.T.
 
2
The sweet girl and party left the car at 4 a.m. This made the day as tedious as tedious can be.
3
This morning, Mr. Min told me privately that His Majesty had given a secret telegraphic code to Kim T. Il and instructed Min to use him as interpreter in all important negotiations. What a grateful King! He would rather trust a young man, who had spent most of his whole life in Vladivostok, who can not read a word of written Chinese or Corean, who was but a month ago an interpreter for the Russian sailors in the Legation, who was admitted to the Royal Presence only a few weeks ago―in short His gracious Majesty prefers trusting a youth of such an antecedence with the state secrets to counting on my fidelity. No wonder the King has no friends.
 

2. 5월 5일

1
5th. Tuesday. Pleasant. Montreal
 
2
After a tedious and dusty journey over mountains and prairies, we arrived at Montreal about 10:30. Went straight to the Windsor Hotel.
 

3. 5월 6일

1
6th.Wednesday. A fine day.
 
2
Up early to take in the town as much as can done in an hour. The hotel occupies perhaps one of the Chief squares of the city. To the right and front of our hotel stands the Cathedral, which is said to be the exact copy, on a small scale, of St. Peter's of Rome, 25 years in building. A fine Y.M.C.A. not far from the Cathedral. A Y.M.C.A. 2 or 3 streets behind the hotel. Montreal seems to be a religious town as it is certainly a beautiful center of the Canadian commerce. Population 30,000.
3
Left Montreal about a.m. 10:30 for N.Y. Crossed the Victoria Bridge 2 miles long! The Palace car most luxurious. Reached N.Y. about 10 p.m. Put up at the Waldoff Hotel. This monster hotel is said to be the newest and the most fashionable in N.Y.
 

4. 5월 9일

1
9th.Saturday. N.Y. and S.S. Lucania.
 
2
Aboard at 1 p.m. Collections and Recollections of N.Y. etc.:
3
1. My visit to his wonderful city is like a dream. The Broadway, the Suspension Bridge, the gigantic stores, the elevated R.R., the palatial hotels, the beautiful cafes, the wide-famed Central Park, the Riverside Drive and the pine board shad, the World's Building, the noise and din of the city, the rush and crush in the stores, the street, the station, the study, in fact, in the very air―all this is like a bewildering dream to me. Only I wish I could have time to go about quietly studying the multiform and many-sided life in this miniature world. But what could I see or hear much less know, of the city in three short days?
4
2. Mr. and Mrs. Silorovesky were very kind to us. He is the Russian Consul General at N.Y. His wife is a pretty woman of fashion.
5
3. Was happy to see Mr. Soh K.P., the Corean representative at Washington. He wears the European costume and is as dudish as ever. He changed his shoes and clothes almost every hour.
6
4. Met Brockman. Was so happy to see him that I would have gladly given up the chance of seeing the Central Park for the pleasure of having a quiet chat with him. But my engagement and his hurried departure from N.Y. prevented me from enjoying fully his society. He works in the Y.M.C.A. Telegraphed to Dr. Candler, Hoss, Tillet and Lambuth. Dr. Candler alone answered. Sorry had no time to call on the brother of Dr. Underwood.
7
5. Went to the Book Concern of the M.E. Church. But has no time to see the departments―and nobody to show me either―a cold reception.
8
6. Newspaper reporters as busy as bees. The papers extremely sensational and often trashy.
9
7. Everything is fast in N.Y. except the waiters. There are two ways in which a person may get starved. One is to have nothing to eat and the other is to stay in a fashionable hotel.
10
8. If laughing and smiling are a sign of happiness. Certainly we, in our strange dress, were an innocent cause of making many a person happy in N.Y. However, I decline to be responsible for the profanity in which the sons of the "Land of the free" indulged at our sight.
11
9. The Waldorf Hotel is a world in itself. One may have every comfort and luxury in it―provided he has money.
12
10. Mr. Frazer, once the honorary Consul General of Corea at N.Y., called on us. He desired to be reappionted to the post. Very funny; I do not see any honor in it. Mr. Soh is in favor of giving that post to Tom Underwood.
13
11. The praise of Japan is in everbody's mouth in N.Y. Nobody cares to know anything about the fate of the Queen of Corea. If Japan had murdered not only the Queen but everybody in the Palace, the King not excepted, the world would think no worse of Japan. No success is like success. No right is like might.
 

5. 5월 16일

1
16th.Saturday.Liverpool London. Queensboro
 
2
A remarkably smooth voyage of 7 days brought us safely to Liverpool this a.m. 8. Europe at last. I can say nothing about Liverpool because I have seen hardly any of it. The landing stage and station all big and busy, as one may well expect from such a place as the chief port of the great England. However, the waiting room in the station is a poor affair. Left the port about 11 a.m. The country through which a narrow gauge train carried us to London is as beautiful as any piece of land I have seen anywhere. The gardens, fields and the neat brick or frame cottage snug as a bug in a rug, the comfortable―looking villages with tiny sidewalks and clean streets, the green meadows as fresh as one may wish, the sleek cows luxuriating in the rich pastures―all this delightful scenery made me wish I could stay long in the Merry England.
3
Reached London about 3:30 p.m. Straight to the Royal Hotel, on the Thames. The sight of this river, of the bridges that span it, of the Westminster Abbey bringing to my memory the beautiful essays of Irving and of Addison concerning this noble edifice, of the Hyde Park―the sight of these places so familiar to me through history, poetry and romance made my heart thrill with delight akin to rapture. What a pity I had only two hours to spare in this classical metropolis instead of two months or two years!
4
At 7 p.m. left the Victoria Station for Queensborso. Aboard the steamer bound for Flushing about 11 p.m.
 

6. 5월 17일

1
17th.Sunday. Holland. Germany
 
2
After a night of stuffy and uneasy rest, up at 5 a.m. Just time enough to catch the express train for Berlin. All day long the road ran through well cultivated country Rich and green pasture everywhere. Cottages substantial and cozy―roofs very steep―windows high up and small―blinds painted green like in England. Village folks going to and from the services in the churches. Dusty roads, not much wagons or carriages. Quietness and restfulness pervade the air itself. No rush like in America.
3
About noon reached the German territory. Custom house examination―the officers well dressed and well behaved. Our baggages exempt from examination. At stations boys and pretty girls sell beer-the like of which I had never tasted in the East. German beer as sweet as honey water―hardly any alcoholic taste of effect. German towns, as we passed, looked so comfortable. Even large towns seemed to have no streetcars―at least none to be seen from or at the station. Women very pretty and quieter in manner than her American sister.
4
Reached the Frederick Station, Berlin, about 8 p.m. A substantial supper in the station. Everything German seems to be substantial―knives, forks, tables, chairs, toothpicks and all.
5
A gentleman from the Russian embassy at Berlin showed us the sleeping car which was to take us to the Russian frontier. Went to bed as soon as we got into the car.
 

7. 5월 18일

1
18th. Monday. Warsaw, Russian Poland
 
2
Up at 6 a.m. Reached Alexandrof, the first frontier town of the Russian Poland about 7:30 a.m.
3
Russia at last! A cup of tea in the station. The Russian railroads and the stations, all governmental. The military officers, in fine uniforms of green and silver and decorations, welcomed us in good manner. Expensive, $3 (R) for three cups of tea. Slow train―dusty road―extensive plains as far as the eye could reach on both sides―peasant homes with thatched roofs.
4
Warsaw at 2 p.m.! met at the station by His Excellency, an agent of the F.O., to act as the official guide of all the embassies passing through here to Moscow. Came to the Grand Hotel d'Europe about 3 p.m. We the objects of great wonder and curiosity―Good streets―Street-cars with one horse. The principal street with the sidewalks present a gay appearance. Houses solid not higher than 5 stories. The hotel far inferior to the hotels in N.Y. or London―$1(R) for shining the hair. Pretty women abound.
5
By the way this is the capital of the once Kingdom of Poland. I feel sad when I think of the fate of poor country―a Kingdom divided by three neighbors, like a sheep torn by three wolves.
6
English language not much used. French in fashion. Every fifth man you meet here is a military functionary of some sort or other.
7
Illumination in the night.
 

8. 5월 19일

1
19th. Tuesday. On train.
 
2
At 8:30 a.m. accompanied by General Pascom and Mr. Plancon, both of whom have been commissioned to entertain us, we, in a special parlor train, left Warsow for Moscow.
3
The Russian cars are as commodious as those of America.
4
Extensive plains―rich pasture land―fine forests―dusty roads―scattered villages of comfortless looking huts―good station at convenient distance―pretty women often met with―profuse use of wood, the engines burning wood instead of coal,―well supplied dining car―nice birches.
 

9. 5월 20일

1
20th.Wednesday. Moscow.
 
2
Reached Moscow at 3 p.m. A splend station and car shade―Saw the uncles of the Emperor and other high officers in uniform welcoming the Prince of Montenegro who had come on the same train with us.
3
Drove to the house which the Russian governement has prepared for us on the ( )
4
Str. Found the accommodations as comfortable as we have any right to expect. We are told that the expenses of our stay in Moscow is to be paid by the Russian hospitality.
5
Found the card of the American Minister awaiting us. Very good of him.
 

10. 5월 21일

1
21st.Thursday. Moscow
 
2
Stayed home―rested the a.m. For the first time in the History of Russia, the Corean flag showed its colors in the sacred city of Moscow this morning.
3
At 2 p.m. Mr. Min, "Fish" and I went to the Palace of the Governor of Moscow to witness the "Entrance of the Emperor and Empress into the city." The procession passed through two lines of soldiers, two deep. The splendor of the scene was beyond anything I have ever seen. The soldiers, officials, pages, horses, carriages, and all seemed almost clad in gold and silver. The Emperor rode alone on a horse back, erect, in the simplest style of dress. No humbugs―such as grooms, eunuchs, and servants, etc., who disgrace the presence of the King of Corea―No such abominations were around this Autocrat of the all Russias. The Empress, clad in a dress of silver cloth rode alone in a golden carriage, bowing all the time to the hurrahing multitudes on both sides. The whole procession took one hour to pass a fixed point.
4
Among the special envoys, Chinese with their dirty teeth (some of them) and long queues cut a very sorry figure, notwithstanding their magnificient silk and embroidered robes etc. etc. Japanese, dressed European style, behaved like the representatives of the most civilized and enviable nation of the whole East. Persia was represented by a very handsome fellow in a very handsome uniform. But I had a sort of fellow feeling for him as he comes from a land whose King was lately murdered and whose government is divided in Pro-English and Pro-Russian factions. We, pitiable we, conscious of our miserable national condition, must have been an object of great contempt and ridicule to the representatives of other and happier lands.
 

11. 5월 22일

1
22nd.Friday. Moscow.
 
2
A warm day. Mr. Min has decided of his own accord, not use Kim To Il as an interpreter on important occasions. K's knowledge of the Corean language is so poor that he actually called the Empress Dowager the "Huang Jai Aimi (황데에미) !"
3
At 2 p.m., the Emperor and the Empress gave us an audience, in the Kremlin Palace. We were escorted to the Palace by high officials of the Palace. Mr. Min and a Master of Ceremony rode in a golden carriage. It was 1:30 when we reached the Palace.
4
In one of the magnificient halls in the Palace room occupied by their Majesties, Mr. Min and I only went in. In a good sized room with no furniture, the Emperor and the Empress stood waiting. Nobody near him except an official or possibly a servant. Mr. Min almost lost his voice and mumbled out his presentation speech in the most distressing manner. I translated the same to T.M. in round English. Then Mr. Min gave the Emperor the letter of greeting from our King. The Emperor thanked His Corean Majesty for the letter; expressed his gladness to see the Corean Envoy; asked how long it took us to come; and how we liked Moscow. He spoke good and clear English. Then in the name of Mr. Min said, "Whenever it shall please your Majesty to inquire into the affairs of Corea, the Envoy extraordinary, is prepared and authorized by his government to present to Your Majesty in full the condition and needs of Corea." The Emperor said "I am glad to know that." Then a few seconds of silence made it awkward and I said, "Of course, not today," "No, of course." said the Emperor faintly smiling. The Empress all the while stood quietly by, listening. Soon we retired in a very disgraceful awkwardness. We flatter ourselves with the belief that the Emperor showed us a special favor in seeing us today before any other embassy―the Japanese not excepted.
5
At 4 p.m. called on Prince Lobanov, the Minister of Foreign Office. Found him a pleasant old man, with a strong face.
 

12. 5월 23일

1
23rd.Saturday. Moscow
 
2
Cloudy but pleasant in temperature.
3
In the a.m., paid our respect to H.I.H. the Grand Duke Sirgi Alexander, the uncle of the Emperor and the Governor General of Moscow. His wife is a sister of the Empress―both being the granddaughters of Queen Victoria. Found the Duke and his wife exceedingly gracious. The Duke spoke fine English. Then left names on the "Visiting Recorders" of some of the members of the imperial family.
4
The streets of Moscow are clean and wide but very rough―so full of big gravels, with which the streets are paved (?) . Sidewalks are narrow and sometimes a strip of sidewalk is in the middle of the road. The drivers have long thick robes of ample dimensions, confined by a girdle of fancy colors. The robes are (在六任) or left-handed. Houses mostly two stories high―public gardens not very attractive―people solid and reverential in their manner―ladies quiet and pretty.
5
While we, in our strange costume―a costume that can not stand rain or work―are objects of ridicule and contempt wherever we go, the representatives of the nations in the central Asia subject to Russia, are new sight to me. They were pink or many colored robes loose and thick, while their turbans are either white or red.
 

13. 5월 24일

1
24th.Sunday. Rainy. Moscow
 
2
The church in which the coronation is to take place being a small one, cannot admit any but the highest dignitaries of Russia and foreign embassies. Everyone who goes into the church must take off the hat. Persians, Turks and even Chinese will take off their hats against their national custom in order to attend the ceremony―for which purpose they have been ostensibly sent by their governments. Mr. Min, no doubt influenced by the advice of "Fish", refuses to comply with the requirement of taking off his hat for a short while during the coronation on the pretext that it is against the law and custom of Corea. I tried to persuade him that as he has been sent here by His Corean Majesty for the paramount purpose of attending the ceremony of coronation, he (Mr. Min) does no wrong in suspending a foolish Corean custom for a few minutes for the higher consideration of doing his appointed duty. No go. When Mr. Min chooses to be obstinate he is as bad as a mule. So far, however, I am concerned, I would, if I could, rather stay home quietly than to expose myself to the sarcasm and ridicule and contempt of the representatives of all nations in my scarecrow of the Corean uniform (?) ! The Corean court dress is certainly the ugliest the devil could devise in the shape of a dress―inspite of the opinion of "Fish" who "ax-eyes" me for holding such anti-Confucian views.
 
3
After lunch, the p.m. was occupied with making official visits to the Russian nobles and foreign embassies. Saw Li Hong Tshang. The following dialogue took place between him and Min:
4
Li: "When did you leave Seoul?"
5
Min: "We left Seoul on the 19th of the 2nd Moon according to the Chinese Calendar."
6
Li: "Was the King in the Russian Legation then?"
7
Min: "Yes."
8
Li: "Is Tai Won Kun still energetic and active?"
9
Min: "Yes."
10
Li: "How old is he?"
11
Min: "78"
12
Li: "Does Mr. Min Yong Whan belong to the Tai Won Kun Party or opposed to him?"
13
Min hesitated and smothered the question in round about words.
14
Li: "Who murdered the Queen?"
15
Min: "When the official report be out, your Excellency will know who committed the crime."
16
Li: "Why was Kim Hong Chip killed? He was a good man."
17
Min: "He was implicated in the murder of the Queen."
18
Li: "Does Mr. Min belong to the Japanese party?"
19
Min: "I do not belong to any party."
20
Li: "I do not believe that. Do the Coreans like Japanese?"
21
Min: "Some of them like Japan and others don't―just as it is in China." The last hit silenced the old man.
 
22
I was very much disappointed with Li. If he were really a great man he would never have asked just such delicate questions in a room full of people―many of whom being Russian officials of high rank. My opinion of Li Hong Tshang is this: He is one of the shrewd and able Chinese mandarins. He had sense enough to discover the superiority of the Western civilization over that of China and the wisdom of identifying himself with the introduction of Western ideas and implements into China. He early surrounded himself with a large number of adventurous and able foreigners liberally paid. These men would naturally trumpet abroad the praises of their patron, giving him credit for qualities which he has never possessed. Thus in course of time, money, influence and interested foreign reputation created an imaginary being called Li Hong Tshang. But this paragon of ability and greatness vanished into the air and water too with Port Arthur, Wei Hai Wei and the Peyang Squadron―thanks to Japanese. There remains now the real Li, H.T. only, who played such an ass before us today.
23
Met the Ministers of Law and of Clergy (?) . The former is said to be one of the smartest men in the Russian government.
24
There is much that is Asiatic, hence grotesque, in the architecture and costume in Russia.
 

14. 5월 25일

1
25th.Monday. Beautiful-rather warm.
 
2
Took pictures in the a.m.
3
After lunch, finished our work of official visitation and then rode to the Petrovsky Park. The ride was pleasant especially as I saw more of beautiful women in an hour than I had seen anywhere in the same space of time. Returned quite tired.
 
4
Mr. Min, who behaved himself very badly this afternoon, and during the dinner gave it to me, later on, for having treated him with slight. The charges were 4, as follows:
5
Ⅰ. That I said that the 8th Moon (Old Corean Style) belonged to the season of summer. I am sorry I made this unpardonable mistake to His Excellency, the Special Envoy of His Corean Majesty. August (the English 8th Moon) being a notoriously hot month as I experienced it in America and Corea, I forgot myself and insisted that the 8th Moon belong to Summer.
6
Ⅱ. That I said one thing one day and another the next. This trouble arose thus. Here are two Russian officials, General Pascom and Mr. Plancon, who have been appointed to help us. None of our Mission being familiar with the customs and etiquettes of Russia especially as they are observed in the diplomatic circles. I―in fact Mr. Min too,―have to ask the advice of the Russian Officials on all important occasions. But unfortunately they sometimes blunder, like other people. For instance, the other day, they strongly persuaded us not to take the trouble of calling on different embassies in person but only to send cards around. But the next day, getting better enlightened on the subject, our Russian advisors told us that we had to go around in person and we did. Again, yesterday, General P. and Mr. Plancon assured us that the Turkish, Persian and Chinese ambassadors also were going to take off their hats in the Cathedral during the coronation ceremony. Hence I persuaded Mr. Min to do the same rather than be left out. But today, the Turkish ambassador told us that he was not going into the Cathedral, as he would not take off his hat, so that it is doubtful whether the Persian and the Chinese would go in either. Am I, however, in any way, responsible for these changes? I only interpreted to Mr. Min what the Russians told me. I have never said one thing one day and another thing the next.
7
Ⅲ. That I do not translate to Mr. Min every word I hear. Well, this is an impossibility.
8
Ⅳ. That I often pretend ignorance. This is rather a compliment to me. Certainly I have neither the knowledge nor the cheek to pose myself as a Sir Oracle. As Mr. Min chose to reproach me for these four items of misconduct, and as I knew it would make the matter worse by trying to explain myself, I, on general principle, promised to His Excellency that I would be careful not to offend him in those lines mentioned hereafter. Am glad Mr. Min spoke out what he felt to be a sore grievance against me. This is a salient point in his make-up.
 
9
Mr. Min is a spoiled Corean Yangban out and out. He is capricious, petulant and self-willed. he behaves himself haughtily and ungraciously when he is humored as he has been of late. (He seems to think that it is really somewhat to be "His Excellency, the Special Ambassador of His Majesty, the King of Tai (?) Choson!)
10
Well, God help me to be wise.
11
The women of common class in Moscow wear handkerchiefs or shawls on their heads. A white silk handkerchief taste―fully worn sets off the beauty of the wearer to a smart degree.
12
A stranger in a strange land without the knowledge of the language is naturally as sensitive as a deaf man. Be careful with Mr. Min, therefore.
 

15. 5월 26일

1
26th.Tuesday. Russia
 
2
A beautiful day for the great ceremony. Up at 5 a.m. According to the program of the day, Mr. Min and the suite, in court dress, went at 7:15 a.m. to the Turkish Embassy. Thence, all the representatives, headed by the Ottoman Ambassador, went to the Kremlin Palace, about 8 a.m. When we got there, as Mr. Min and I had decided not to go into the Cathedral, went to one of the platforms which had been provided for diplomatic and other invited guests. The Cathedral where in the coronation took place seems to be a part of the Palace with which it was connected today by raised platform covered with rich carpet.
3
The sight was bewitching to me. In the first place the weather was faultless. The sun, as he shone on the peasants and princes alike with impartial splendor, my eyes were dazzled now by the be-eagled helmets of the guard reflection the sun shine as so many mirrors then by the ladies and gentlemen of the court in gold, lace, jewels, velvet and ribbons. Here were priests in loose robes of golden cloths, there the fair damsels of Russia clad in white looking more like snowy winged angels than mortals in flesh and blood. Surrounding the Cathedral―at least those sides of the edifice as were open to the public―stood an immense multitude of the Russian peasants and citizens, or remarkably good behavior.
4
At about 10:30 a.m. the Empress Dowager walked under a rich canopy, held by generals and nobles, to the Cathedral. At the door of the Church, she knelt before the image of our Savior and received the blessings of the officiating bishops. All the while the bells of the Cathedral rang and bands were playing. About half an hour later the Emperor and the Empress came under one canopy. The hurrahing of the people, the booming of cannons, the deep-toned ringing of hundreds of bells, the animated notes of the band seemed to make the very thoughts of the multitude vocal. At the door of the Cathedral Their Majestes seemed to go through the same religious rites as I had noticed the Empress Dowager did. By the way, here was a very concrete example of the superiority of mind over force. The Autocrat of all Russias, with unlimited wealth and power, knelt meekly before the image of an humble Galilean who died on the cross 20 centuries ago!
5
The elaborate ceremony of coronation in the Cathedral lasted over 3 hours. Their Imperial Majesties came out about 2 p.m. A substantial dinner was prepared fot the invited guests in one of the halls of the Palace. No expense seemed to have been grudged in spreading those sumptuous tables. Mr. Plancon told me that the delicious strawberries must have cost the Host at least a rouble each―possibly 2 roubles.
6
The repast was made very pleasant to me by an American belle who sat opposite to Mr. Min. No place or dinner seemes to me attractive without a lady.
7
Mr. Min made himself very disagreeable during the dinner. He wanted to go home as soon as the soup was over and I had to choke down my indignation in persuading His Excellency that it would be very hard on General Pascom and Mr. Plancon, who did so much for us, to take them away from the refreshment which they needed so badly. When humored, Mr. Min wants to have everything his way but he cowers and loses his wit when confronted by a superior force―an angry foreigner, for example.
8
As we sat on the platform with the representatives of Bokhara, of Mongolia, of India, in their different costume and headgears―as I noticed how the multitude smiled at us in the glory of horned hats and ghost-like official dresses―as I thought of the wretched country which we represent―as I felt so hopeless of the condition of Corea under the present regime, a sickly sensation of pain thrilled my whole being, intensified by the sight of national prosperity and honor and glory of other countries which their representatives showed in their very looks and walks. If there were no such place called Heaven, one should be invented for the Corean. He, by being a Corean, has enough of the "other place" in this life.
9
Reached home about 4 p.m. Rested until 7:30. Tried to read some, when Mr. Min wanted to see me. I found him in the parlor in great distress and rages, sighing and writhing and cursing the day or the fate which made him to come as a minister. He complained bitterly that I had not told him the reasons why the words "Ambassadeur Extraordinaire (持使) " were put on his card instead of the title "Minister Plenipotentiary". He lied! I did tell him at least two times as plainly as I could the reasons why General Pascon and Mr. Plancon took on themselves the task of altering the wording of the cards. For future reference, the following memo.
10
On our way to Moscow, General P and Mr. Plancon, in whose judgement in such matters I had the fullest confidence, recommended that Mr. Min should have new cards, because, 1st, his old cards were of poor quality, and 2nd during the coronation, he would stay in Moscow not as a Minister Plenipotentiary, but as an Ambassador Extraordinary according to universal usage. Of course, these reasons were repeated to His Excellency by me on 2 or 3 occasions. The new cards were therefore printed with the title "Ambassadeur Extraordinaire." All of a sudden, His Excellency had the fit that he, by calling himself an Ambassadeur, had done a thing that would expose him to the displeasure of His Corean Majesty not only but also to the disapproval of the Diplomatic Body in Moscow assembled. When anything goes wrong, Mr. Min has the wonderful and comfortable faculty of either forgetting or remembering such parts of any statements and interpretation as would free him entirely from blame at my cost. Hence his rage (affected, I am pretty sure) against me for not having told him the reasons or changing the cards(!) . As he never gives one a chance to explain himself if that explanation reflects on him (Mr. Min) and as quarrelling would complicate the matter, I simply called Mr. Stein to the scene. In substance the following discussion took place.
11
Min: "How did you translate my title in the letter of greeting and in the credential?"
12
Stein: "As the Envoy Extraordinary Minister Plenipotentiary."
13
Min: "Then, why an Ambassador Extraordinary on my cards?"
14
Stein: "Because during the coronation, your office and duties here are not those of a Minister Plenipotentiary but of an Extraordinary Ambassadeur. The Ministers of other nations which have not sent Ambassadeurs Extraordinary are treated as such in Moscow during the Coronation. The Russian government plainly understands that you are a Minister Plenipotentiary. But you have brought with you two letters. The letter of Greeting in which His Corean Majesty congratulates the Emperor entitles you to the title of an Ambassador Extraordinary while, or the Credential which you will present to the Emperor in Petersburg will make you the acknowledged Minister Plenipotentiary.
15
Min: "But I have no paper authorizing me to act as Ambassador Extraordinary. I had no right therefore to precede the Japanese this morning. Suppose the Japanese should call my title into question?"
16
Stein: "There are Ambassador and Legations in Russia. As you have as yet no Legation here, you were put among the Ambassadors. Your precedence of Japan was according to the alphabetical order and not according to your rank."
17
Min: "Are you sure that nobody will call my title of Ambassador Extraordinary into question? For instance, the Japanese?"
18
Stein: "No, besides Japanese who did do what they did in Corea, could not do anything worse by calling into question your official title. Your office, of course, changes as soon as the Coronation be over. However, if you think it was so wrong to change your cards Mr. Plancon and General Pascom are responsible for the change. I shall tell them of your displeasure and they shall have no more to do with the Mission.
19
Scared at this declaration, the grateful (?) Mr. Min once more complained that my interpretation made Stein mad. I politely informed Son Excellency that I simply translated the words of one party to another and had nothing to do wiht the effects of the words. Then the assurance of Stein that Mr. Min had nothing to fear in this matter ended the discussion.
20
"Fish" of Kim Deuk Nien, sneaky slave to the whims of Mr. Min, is responsible for much of Min's peevishness. No wonder Min and I can't get along as well as we should. He, from his childhood, has had everything according to his pleasure. He never had anybody who dared to cross his will. Moreover his nature is very far from being courageous. He was brought up in the damning atmosphere of dissimulation, suspicion, ingratitude and intrigues of the Corean court and officialism. On the other hand, I have been, comparatively speaking, a free booster for most part of my life, I have been in the habit of speaking and doing pretty much according to what I regard to be right without much reference to the Corean standard of fashion and etiquette. This, however, ought not to make me careless. Am sure my association with Min would do me good, if I should take the lesson from what failures I have made in dealing wisely with him. God help me!
21
About 8:30 p.m. all of our Mission went out to see the illumination. There was nothing specially remarkable in the illumination of streets. I have seen better illuminations in America. But I have no power to describe the brilliancy and beauty of the towers and domes of the Kremlin Palace be-jewelled with electric lamps discovering the tall buildings into almost unearthly grace and magnificence. Mr. Plancon informed us that it took several hundreds of sailors from the navy to fit in the lamps on the towers―about 14 in all. They were at it for over 3 months. The streets near the Palace were so crowded with carriages and crowd that it was dangerous to be in a carriage. Policemen on foot and on horseback were scarecely able to keep the horses and the crowd from trampling upon one another. According to Mr. Plancon, the number of private citizens whom the government had requested to help the police in keeping order on the day of the Entry of the Emperor was not less than eighty or ninety thousand. The number of spectators might be imagined.
 

16. 5월 28일

1
28th.Thursday. A beautiful day.
 
2
At 11 a.m. went to the Kremlin to congratulate Their Majesties on the happy consummation of the great ceremony.
3
Went to the Reception a la Cout, at 9 p.m. Saw the Emperor and Empress often as they are going about with the members of the Imperial Family and the principal ambassadors.
 

17. 5월 29일

1
29th.Friday. Beautiful day.
 
2
At 10 a.m. went to the Kremlin, with General Pascom to deposit the presents from the King of Corea to the Emperor, in the Imperial Archives. The presents consisted in, 2 embroiderd screens, 4 large bamboo window-screens, 4 mattings, 1 mother-of-pearl inlaid cabinet, 2 nickel braziers. These might pass for a present from a private Corean to a private Russian. But as the gift of a King to an Emperor, they are shamefully poor. I had scarcely the cheeks to look at the officers who have the charge of the archives. Impoverished Corea!
3
At 2 p.m., visited the Museum. The collections not very edifying judged by the European standard. Nothing to be compared to the superb collections of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington.
4
4 to 6 p.m. sat for a portrait.
5
Went to the Imperial Theatre, at 7:30 p.m. The program began at 8 p.m. The music very fine. A scene from the Russian history. Then a brilliant ballet. The latter was, to the senses, a feast of youth, beauty and grace. But the almost or rather thinly disguised nudity of such lovely girls of dangerous teens―no wonder the sober folks of religious bodies should disapprove the exhibition of this kind.
 

18. 5월 30일

1
30th.Saturday. Beautiful and warm.
 
2
Before lunch went to the plain near the Petrovsky Palace to witness the Fite Populaire. The big plain was covered densely with people as far as the eye could reach on all sides. The dust raised by men, wheels and horses was suffocating. From our galleries the theatrical exhibitions were hardly visible. In short there was nothing much to see except the crowds. Hurrahing was enthusiastic during the whole time the Emperor was there―about an hour. I enjoyed what little I could hear of the songs which school boys and girls sang in front of the Imperial Pavilion.
3
The Emperor gave to each of the crowd a package containing 1 muslin (?) handkerchief, 1 cup, 1 piece of cake, 1 copy of the program of the coronation, 1 large coil of sausage. The officer who has charge of the distribution told me that there 400,000 packages prepared. But these gifts proved rather a sad occasion for a dreadful accident. This morning the crowd got to the little store houses where the packages were kept before the appointed hour of distribution. As there were no policemen or soldiers in sufficient force to keep order, the crowd rushed after the packages pell-mell. During the confusion more than 1,000 (one thousand) people were killed! The Emperor knowing this ordered that each family which sustained the loss of a member should receive 1,000 R. Even now one may, with much truth, repeat the remark of Talleyrand to the Tzar. "In Russia the Sovereign is civilized but the people are not."
4
Went, at 9 p.m., to the Turk Ambassade to witness the ball. Came back late. Took a very bad cold.
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