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◈ 윤치호일기 (1896년) ◈

◇ 6월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권 7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 6월 4일

1
4th.(23rd of 4th Moon). Thursday. Moscow
 
2
Cold much better. A beautiful morning. Today at 11 a.m. we shall have an interview with Prince Lobanov. May we find him all right!
3
Prince L. being engaged otherwise, sent word to us that he could not see us today. Tomorrow p.m. 2.
4
This p.m. 2 Mr. Min sent a letter to Prince Lobanov asking him to obtain an audience for him (Mr. Min) as he is anxious to present the letter of Credence (國書) to His Majesty without any further delay. I feel melancholy. I should resign my connections with the Government service and lead a private life, devoting my time to some literary work for the good of my country. If we had a stable government under which Coreans could be safe in life and property, the annual income from my father's land would suffice to meet the moderate demands of our family. Yet in the present condition of Corea, our estate yields scarecely enough for our use. If I give up my government service, I would have to work in a mission for a living. That I do not like. A missionary's (support) would be humiliating to me, as its recipient is often suspected of a mercenary spirit. I am willing to serve my church which has done so much for me. But I want to serve her without being chargeable to her. But I must do something for support of myself and family. Hence my reason of the government service.
5
The expenses connected with the coronation could not have been less than fifty or sixty million roubles. All this only for a show off. Suppose a large portion of the sum were given for the pavement of the principal street of Moscow with asphalt as a permanent commemoration of the great event? I do not know, I might have thought differently had I been in the Czar's place.
6
At 9 p.m. went to the Bal an Palais du Kremlin,―the last ball of the occasion. Came back early. Have had balls enough to last me some time. I have never enjoyed one, as I could not participate in its pleasures.
 

2. 6월 5일

1
5th.Friday. Beautiful. A shower.
 
2
At two Mr. Min and I went to see Prince Lobanov, the Minister of Foriegn Affairs. The following is the substance of the conversation:
3
Min: "May I have an audience to present the letter of credence?"
4
L.: "I have informed His Majesty of your request. I can't answer whether His Majesty would grant you one or not. Shall let you know as soon as I hear from His Majesty.
5
Min: "The condition of affairs in Corea is such that I hope the Russian government may soon grant the five propositions which I have been authorized to lay before you, viz.
6
1. Guard for the protection of the King until the Corean army be drilled into a reliable force.
7
2. Military Instructors.
8
3. Advisors: One for the Royal Household to be near the King; one for the Ministry; one for mines, railroads, etc.
9
4. Telegraphic connections between Russia and Corea on terms beneficial to both―An expert in telegraphic matters.
10
5. A loan of 3 million Yen to cancel the Japanese debt.
11
L.: "I can't tell you whether these propositions could be granted or not until a due consideration with my colleagues be gone through. Moreover the pleasure of the Czar on the matter had to be waited upon. Please write me out the requests." Min: "I can't stay here too long. I must return to Corea as soon as possible to report to my government whether they are to rely upon the support of Russia or not."
12
L.: "We shall try to answer you as soon as we can."
 
13
Then Mr. Min handed Prince L. the following memo:
14
"Corea had concluded a secret treaty years ago, with Russia, binding the two countries into a close friendship. We did not consent to all that Japan demanded since 1894, because of our reliance on the support of Russia. Japanese, finding themselves unable to carry out their designs, were enraged. This drove them to commit, with certain Corean traitors the crimes of the 8th of October. Coreans, feeling the wrong deeply, look to Russia for help―hence the five requests. Russia is the ony country which Corea expects to take up the responsibility single-handed. Russia's help would place the government of Corea on a firmer basis."
15
Her Majesty, the late Queen of Corea, because of her partiality to Russia, brought on her the hatred of the pro-Japanese party, resulting in her death. In some Eastern papers it is rumored that Russia and Japanese intend to exercise a joint influence on Corea. Such an arragnment would bring about a conflict. Corea would gain nothing by the arrangement not only but would find in it the embryo of another national calamity.
16
"I beg that the five propositions might be soon granted."
17
Only two days after our arrival here Stein translated the five propositions into Russian. With some explanations, he gave the paper to Count Kapanist, the Director of the Asiatic Department, to be shown to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Some time ago the Count told Stein that the paper had been duly given to the Minister. But today the Minister seemed to know nothing about the five requests and asked for a written statement. A funny affair. Stein has been studiously kept away from the Minister of Foreign Affair. Stein believes that this is due to jealousy in certain official quarters.
18
The secret treaty was, about 10 years ago, concluded by Chung Piong Ha (鄭秉厦) .
19
Stein thinks that Mr. Waeber is too weak for the post; that the King and the late Queen had been led to count on Russia's help on false promises; that Corea ought to find at once whom she might rely upon, Russia or Japan. Stein detest Kim Hong Niuk (金鴻陸) .
 

3. 6월 6일

1
6th.Saturday. Moscow.
 
2
At 3 p.m., the Czar granted Mr. Min an audience for the presentation of the letter of Credence. I went in to interpret. Mr. Min practically recited the memo which he had given to Prince Lobanov. The Czar listened attentively. When I mentioned "Certain Corean Traitors", he remarked "Tai Won Kun"? I said "What Corea wants is a stable government. A Corean has not known a single day in the last three years in which he felt secure in life and property. It is now in the power of Russia to enable Corea to have a stable government. A joint influence of Russia and Japan would breed factional intrigues among Corean officials and produce irritating complications between Russia and Japan. Under such an arrangement, either in war or in probable peace, Corea would be the sufferer. May your Majesty never consent to such an arranagment." The Czar, shook his head and said, "No. No!" every time the joint influence of Russia and Japan was mentioned.
3
Mr. Min also repeated the five requests. The Czar said "Tell what you have told me to Prince Lobanov and the Minister of Finance. These two men would arrange the affair for you. You may count on our help."
4
Then Mr. Min delivered the message from His Majesty, the King of Corea, thanking the Czar for the services of Waeber and Speyer. (asking that they might be long allowed to stay in the East) The Czar said, "I am glad to hear that."
5
At 8 p.m. Stein and I drove to the Petrovsky Park, a well kept, well wooded and extensive park this is. The drive both way was really refreshing. Spent about two hours in a garden where are many sorts of amusement―music, gymnastic performances, opera―theatrical shows―singing etc.―1 rouble 10 k for two cups of tea. Returned home at 12.
 

4. 6월 7일

1
7th.Sunday. Hot. Moscow
 
2
At 10:30 called on Witte, the Minster of Finance. Mr. Min repeated almost verbatim what he had already told Prince L. and the Czar, asking Witte to exercise his good offices in granting, above all, the guard for the King. As Witte can not speak English, Stein had to retranslate me. In substance, the Minister of Finance said:
3
"Russia is fully resolved to keep Corea in order and peace, not allowing Japan or any other country to take or trouble Corea. But until the Siberian Railroad be completed, Russia has to go very slowly. So whatever measure the Foreign Office may take in the arrangement of the Far Eastern question would be temporal. At present, Japan, the 100 times weaker than Russia, is, by her nearness, better situated to exercise greater influence in Corea. But there is no doubt that Russia would prevail in the end. As to your requests: (1) Military instructors would very likely be given. (2) As for advisors, we may increase the staff of officers in our legation at Seoul. They may help you. (3) The loan can not be granted until the financial condition of Corea be examined into. As the Corean finance is represented by the customs, Russia must have more influence in customs so that a reliable guarantee might be secured for the loan. (4) As for the guard, if the King of Corea has not the character enough to protect himself, how can others protect him? (Hear, hear!) If I were in his place I would punish all my enemies begining with Tai Won Kun."
4
From Wittes' went to the parade at 12. The sight was magnificent as regiment after regiment of well-equipped soldiers―infantry, artillery, and cavalry―passed by in superb order marching to the lively notes of the martial music. Mr. Min showed rather a languid interest in the review and complained peevishly of the heat. He had held the office of a general for nearly 10 years in the paluny days of Mins.
5
Returned home about 2p.m. Stein tells me that Witte told him privately that if the King of Corea has not the strength enough to punish his Corean enemies, how could he expect others to protect him from foreign foes? (Hear! Hear!) These remarks of Witte, as cutting and humiliating as they are, are all the more so because of their undeniable truth. Yes, indeed! If the King had the courage and manhood in him to stand out bravely, throwing himself on the loyalty of his people, he would find them devoted to his service. But, none the wiser by so many bitter experiences, he still wastes his time and energy in intrigues and soft pleasures with women, eunuchs, and unprincipled men, begging, for his personal safety, the protection of a foreign guard!
6
10 p.m. This is the last night I shall spend in the House of Mr. Holmsky, Troofnikovsky Lane, Pavarskaya Street No 42, Moscow. For 19 days we have, in this well furnished and comfortable house, enjoyed the luxuries of an imperial hospitality. Good fare, clean beds, cool drinks, efficient service, fine carriages―if physical comforts could make men happy, we have been happy.
7
After supper, medals and tips were distributed among the servants, 27 in all. The highest tip was 150 Roubles, the lowest 15 Roubles. Making in all 1,140 Roubles. Some of the recipients came and kissed the hand of Mr. Min and mine. An old and odd custom!
8
To see Kim Tuk Nien at the dinner table is really disagreeable. He feeds (loud) like a horse, drinks like a fish, eats like a hog. The sound of his chewing, of smacking his thick lips, of various other unnameable habits of nose and throat, is decidedly outrageous. His dirty habits are incurable; he is a great admirer of China. He says he has not seen anything in Europe so far as wonderful as the Chinese Summer Palace in Pekin.
9
Here twilight lasts up to 11 p.m. Moscow is a town of doors and domes. Many persons of both sexes and of all ages―but of the commoner sort―eat watermelon seeds like the Chinese do, even on the streets. Small toy or fruit dealers carry their merchandize on their heads advertizing them through the streets with a loud voice.
 

5. 6월 8일

1
8th.Monday. En route to Petersburg
 
2
Up at 6. a.m. At 8:30, a special car, attached to a passenger train, carried us away from Moscow. General Pascom who had been so good to us during our stay in Moscow, bade us an affectionate farewell at the station, I like very much his frank and straightforward and prompt manner.
3
The railroad between Moscow and Petersburg is in a splendid condition. Dense and extensive forests of beauteous hues on both sides of the road―more like traveling in the young America than in an old European state. Very hot but the forests and well-kept grass kept down dust. Nice stations. Bridges guarded by soldiers―just for the time of coronation―I am told.
4
Reached at Petersburg 12:45 (Moscow Time) but 12:15 Petersburg Time) . No darkness at all. Twilight enough to read by. If people were to go by senses, none would go to sleep here in summer. The sensation was very new to me―this absence of darkness at 12:30 p.m. Came straight to the house of Mrs. Stein (S. I's mother) which we have rented for 150 roubles per month. A very nice place but too few rooms. I have to be put up with the two Kims.
 

6. 6월 9일

1
9th.Tuesday. Petersburg
 
2
Up at 8 a.m. The house being on one of the principal streets, the jarring noise which vehicles of all sorts make is rather trying to the nerves.
3
After lunch, drove to the riverside. The Neva bounding the mainland portion of Petersburg separates it from five or more islands on which a part of the city stands. The river is said to be from 370 to 645 yards wide. Four bridges connect the mainland with the islands. The Nicholas Bridge is the finest―with 8-iron arches. The left bank of the Neva is adorned with a splendid row of magnificent buildings, the largest of which are the Admiralty, the Winter Palace, the palaces of several grand dukes. Three canals, semicircular, embrace and intersect perhaps the choicest portion of the town. The Fontanka Canal is the largest. But beyond them all, away behind the busy port of the metropolis, a canal called the Obvodny cuts the entire width of the town. The streets are wide and clean paved with stones a la Russe. The principal thoroughfares have fine sidewalks, some of which are wide enough for streets in other towns. Log pavement seems to be the fashion here. For miles upon miles in the city the wide streets have one or two stretches of log pavement. Logs are cut into polygonal blocks. These are laid side by side on a plank floor. The pieces or blocks are cemented with bitumen and the whole is covered with dirt.
4
One of the good things which Russia enjoys and which I envy is the abundance of wood.
 

7. 6월 12일

1
12th.Friday. A fine day. Hotter than yesterday.
 
2
During the last few days paid our visit to the Zoological and Botanical gardens. The latter are the finest I have seen. The evening drives through and around the beautiful parks on the islands are delightful.
3
Mr. Min is so strangely sensitive that I find him very disagreeable. He thinks that Stein and I are mad with him. He puts the queerest construction on the plainest words. For instance, this morning, in talking about sending to Prince Lobanov a written statement of the five propositions, I offered to write them in English. Mr. Min urged that another copy of the memorandum which Stein had written for the Foreign Office should be sent to the Prince, as that contains all Mr. Min has to say on the five propositions. To this Stein objected very naturally on the ground that what he had written was rather a private document for Count Kapnist and the Foreign Minister, and that as such it could not be sent to the Prince in the name of Mr. Min―a step which might arouse the suspicion that E. Stein controls the opinion of Mr. Min. Hence Stein proposed that, if Mr. Min should write out his views on the five propositions in Chinese and make the document authoritative by affixing thereunto the Seal of the Legation, he (Stein) would translate the statements into Russian and nobody could blame him for any presumption. As natural and sensible as this advise was given in all kindness and sincerity, Mr. Min, whose temper has been soured by all sorts of imaginary wrongs, complained with sighs and groans that Stein had a grudge against him or else he would not have suggested the putting the seal on the document; that he (Min) has done nothing unkind to Stein; that I too was angry with Son Excellence; that His Excellency had nobody to blame but himself for not understanding the language.
4
The last remark was no doubt a graceful insinuation that I was the root of all evils by either misinterpretation or misrepresentations of him. I took this and all else in as good a humor as I could commend and assured Son Excellence that I was not angry with him. Certainly Mr. Min is a hard man to please―for to do that one must give up his will and sense. Worse still, he is a dangerous man to work with or under. Whatever well done, he monopolizes the credit. When anything goes wrong or seems to go wrong, he, with a remarkable facility, loads others with blame. This no doubt, is due to his cowardice, a characteristic common to the male members of his race. I have been putting forth my best efforts to avoid any unpleasant scenes between us. I yield in all things that are nonessential. If I were his slave I could not interpret for him with more painstaking carefulness. Often I have been goaded by his ingratitude and unreasonableness to the point of saying, "All right, my dear Minister. I can not please you. Let Kim To Il interpret for you. I have done with you. Go to grass and stay there." But then, to do this would be mean, knowing as I do that there is nobody in the Mission to take my place.
5
After lunch with Stein's brother, and Son Hui Yong, went to the famous Cathedral of St. Isac. The Cathedral stands to the left of the Admiralty facing the Alexandria Park. By paying l rouble to the keeper, we went up to the top of the building, after climbing over 500 steps. The view from the height of 330 feet over the city is grand indeed. The houses, wide streets, domes, rivers, parks, canals, islands stretch themselves far and wide, presenting a bewildering sight of yellow, green, red, blue and white. The tall chimneys of Cronstalds could be discerned away in the Northwest. Came down with a piece of the Finland granite taken from the base of one of the 24 Corinthian pillars supporting the central cupsea. Each of the pillars weighs 64 tons and is 3 feet high. The 112 magnificent pillars supporting 4 peristyles are a thing of beauty to be a joy forever. Each pillar is 60 feet high with a diameter of 7 feet. The cost of the whole building was 3:15 million sterling. The right wing of the structure is now under repair. If the railroads of Western Russia must have been built at a moderate cost on account of the levelness of the country, the stupendous edifices on the "yieldy" banks of the rivers of St. Petersburg must have cost the builders gigantic sums of money for laying, or, rather, sinking deep the foundations.
6
Stein told me the other day that Mr. Witte, the Minister of Finance, thinks that Corea must have a diplomatic agent at Petersburg. According to Stein, I might get the position if I wanted to. No, Sir! To be an agent of the Corean government at St. Petersburg without any assurance of support under such a master as H.C.M.-nobody wants to be starved-neither do I! However, I shall be glad to stay at least a year in Russia to study either Russian or French. I see no way to it, thought. At any rate I do not like to make another long voyage with Mr. Min. If I can possibly do so, I shall try to go at least a steamer later than he.
7
Russians of all classes "cross" themselves very fervently whenever they pass a Cathedral or a shrine.
 

8. 6월 13일

1
13th.Saturday. Pleasant a.m.
 
2
Mr. Min has spent nearly 1000 roubles in buying presents for general Pascom―Messrs, Plancon and Stein. He is very nice in that.
3
Mailed a letter to my Darling.
 
4
At 1:30 Mr. Min and I went to see Prince Lobanov, the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The substance of the conversation:―
5
Prince L.: "On my reporting to His Majesty the Emperor, the condition and desires of your country, he said that Russia would, to her utmost, protect the independence and peace of Corea from being endangered by Japan. His Majesty, the King of Corea, may stay in the Russian Legation as long as he wants. He shall have a guard there.
6
Mr. Min: "But the King can not stay in the Legation always. He must return to the Palace as soon as possible. As long as he is out of his own Palace the people would never feel at ease. Can't your government lend him a guard to protect him in his own palace?"
7
L.: "No, that can't be done. If we send a guard into the Palace, England and Germany would be offended. But if the King returns to the Palace he shall have our moral assurance of safety."
8
Mr. Min: "If you can not give a guard for the Palace, can't you let us have a large number of military instructors, say 200, who may both protect the King and organize the Corean army?
9
L.: "They might come into conflict with the Japanese soldiers at Seoul. (1) Our government intends to send an officer to examine into the military affairs of Corea and the advisability of sending out Russian instructors. (2) As for the loan; the Minister of Finance is going to send an expert in financial matters for the purpose of examining carefully the condition of the Corean finance and of the state of commerce and agriculture of the country. Upon his report shall depend the willingness or unwillingness of our government to advance a loan to Corea. (3) In regard to the telegraphic connections between Russia and Corea, we are willing to connect a Seoul line with the Vladivostock line. But we shall do nothing concerning the sub-marine cables between a Chinese port and Corea until we know more about the situation and circumstances of Corea.
10
Mr. Min "As to the steps which your government intends to take in the matters of loan and of telegraph, I see no objection. But I do not see why you cannot ask Mr. Waeber and your naval authorities out there to report the condition of the military affairs of Corea. It would take 3 or 4 months to send an officer to Corea and wait for his report. In the meantime, the King would have been in the Legation nearly a year and the country gone to pieces."
11
L.: "We have the fullest confidence in Waeber and the naval authorities out there. But such matters require a specialist for a thorough investigation. Hence an official has to be sent specially for the purpose. Besides, our telegraphic and postal services are such that it would not take so much time as you fear. Why did not your government tell us these things earlier―say when the King first went to the Legation or even before it? We can not settle these things in a day or two. However, I shall report your request for the military instructors to my colleagues and let you know their answer."
12
The Prince asked Mr. Min whether it would require an armed force to protect the telegraph lines in the North Corea. Instead of answering one way or another, Mr. Min said that he would discuss the matter later on when details should be arranged concerning the telegraphic connections.
13
On our way home called on Mrs. Stein, the mother of our friend E. Stein. She is a fine and kindly looking lady of youthful appearance. Stein's sister-in-law is a very pretty woman. She spoke English but with a great deal of difficulty―which added charm to her blushing beauty.
14
After supper had a long and refreshing drive through the island parks. Home at 10:30. Decidedly cool in the late p.m. Just before going to bed the following conversation took place between Stein and myself.
15
T.H.Y.: "Mr. Min had a telegram Seoul this p.m. asking him to send another telegram, as the last one (sent from Moscow) was so mixed up that it could not be made out. I suppose some Japanese operators did the mixing up trick."
16
Stein: "I do not think so. The whole trouble rose from the fact that Kim To II had copied English words from the secret code. I saw many words in the telegram which I had never seen in English. You did not see it, did you?"
17
T.H.Y.: "No, indeed. All telegraphic communications between the Mission and Seoul are a secret to me."
18
Stein: "That is funny. You, a principal member of the Mission, kept out of such matters! You must be vexed, though I see you bear it quietly."
19
T.H.Y.: "Yes, I have to bear it as best I can. It is a regular Corean trick to keep secret what may well be public and make public what ought to be secret."
20
Stein: "Corea would never succeed as long as such tricks keep up suspicions, misunderstanding and divisions. I have somethings to tell Mr. Min but I do not want to commit my secrets to K.D.N.K.T.I. and the garcon in whom Min confides all state matters."
 
21
Stein thinks that the sending out of a Russian financier means putting the Corean Customs in the hands of a Russian.
 

9. 6월 14일

1
14th. Sunday. Very Cool.
 
2
This morning Mr. Min asked Stein to translate in Arabic numerals a telegram which he (Min) had prepared in Chinese figures. Why. I should think I understand the Chinese figures better than, and write the Arabic numerals as well as, Stein. But I must not see what there is in the telegram. By the 3:15 p.m. train Mr. Min, Kim D.N. and myself left the Capital for Czar's Village ( ) about half an hour's ride from Petersburg. My. Plancon met us at the station and took us to his home. Found his wife a sweet little woman. In their company visited the Summer Palace in which Catherine Ⅱ spent much of her summers. The rooms called according to the predominant color with which each is furnished―as the green room or pillow room etc. The Chinese room is wall-papered with Chinese paintings. The most costly room is the Amber Room. The walls and the tables are paneled with amber. The exquisite figures carved in the same valuable substance were numerous on the walls. The bed and furniture which Alexander I used are attractively simple. The park, of a magnificent extent, kept in good order. By the way, what I like in the Russian parks is the absence of the gaudy flower beds laid out in exact geometrical figures―so common and so tiresome in American parks. Good avenues, pretty walks, quasi-neglected grass, noble trees,―these make up a Russian park.
3
Czarsville is a favorate summer resort of the Czars. It has about 1,200 inhabitants. Wide and clean streets, electric lights, shady trees innumerable. A good dinner at Mr. P's.
4
The policeman in Petersburg and other towns I have seen in Russia is armed with a sword and sometimes a pistol.
5
"A Lady of Quality" is a novel that I read on the Lucania. It is one of the most original stories I have enjoyed. The heroine, Clorinda, is a magnificent character. She committed some pardonable but deadly crimes (if such a paradox is possible) . That is, the crimes were deadly in nature but pardonable in circumstances. An ordinary woman or man would have sunk under the condemnation of the conscience, but the queenly will of Clorinda conquered the conscience itself and made her misdeeds the stepping stones to a high and noble existance. Yes, there is hope where is will.
 

10. 6월 15일

1
15th.Monday. Very cold.
 
2
Judging from what Mr. Min and Stein tell me, Corean court began its flirtations with Russia years ago. Stein says that the secret treaties have all but one subject etc; the protection of the Royal Family from Chinese or Japanese dangers. The Russian answer was always the same promises of the desired protection. Has Russia ever fulfilled her promises? Let the events of 1894 and 1895 answer. A reasonable lesson for the man (or woman) who makes himself helpless by relying too much on the help of some one else.
3
Went to the Pavlovsky Park, about a mile from Czars, village, and enjoyed the fresh milk and beefsteak in the Farm. The Park, differing none from others, is big enough for a Corean county.
 

11. 6월 16일

1
16th.Tuesday. Warmer but pleasant.
 
2
At 2 p.m. Mr. Min and I called on Count Kapanist at the Foreign Office. The sum and substance of the conversations:
3
Mr. Min: "The most important of the five propositions is the guard. But if you can not give us a guard for the palace, why can't you let us hire as many military instructors as we want? We have the right to hire instructors from any country for the organization of the Corean army―only in this instance we want Russian officers."
4
K.: "The protection or safety of the King and the organization of the soldiers are two separate questions. Let us not mix the two. Now, as for the safety of the King, we are as much interested in it as you are. But as to the means or methods of insuring that safety, you have to leave them to the judgment of our government. Prince L. told you that a guard could not be allowed to go into the palace because that would evoke political questions whose consequence might be rather more injurious than helpful to the safety of the King. We must consider the question not from the standpoint of the local interest of Corean alone but also from that of the general welfare of the whole political world. Moreover what more can we offer you than the two propositions we have already made; (1) the King might stay in the Legation as long as he wants; (2) or he might return to his Palace without a guard, it is true, but with the full moral assurance of Russia that nobody should harm him. If he so desires, we are willing to keep the guard, of even a larger number than at present, in the Legation, which is only a short distance from the Palace."
5
Mr. Min "Then, in case of any trouble, would the guard be allowed to go into the Palace for the protection of the King?
6
K.: "That we can't promise. That must be decided by the Russian representative at Seoul in conformity to circumstances. I am told Waeber was the first person who went to the Palace on the 8th of October. It is likely that he might have gone in with a guard if he had any."
7
Mr. Min: "What objection is there to on having a large number of military instructors who shall organize the Corean army and, until the organization be perfected, shall act as a guard for the King?"
8
K.: "If we send a large number of instructors into the Palace, nobody would be deceived that they are not, after all, a guard under another name. What we are careful not to provoke is a political question from our action in Corea. Nobody objects now to the King's staying in the Legation, because nobody objected to it four months ago. But let Russia change the present program and send a guard into the Palace, in any form, it would at once evoke a political question of very disagreeable nature. We objected to Japan's stationing any troops in the palace. How should we do it ourselves?"
9
Mr. Min: "Then, can't you tell me how many military instructors you are willing to send?"
10
K.: "That we can not tell, as we do not know the condition of Corean military affairs. An expert in such matter shall be sent out as soon as possible from the War Department to find out how many and what sort of instructors may be required for the organization of the Corean soldiers."
 
11
Then Mr. Min asked that the Russian government might give him a written statement of the answers to his requests.
12
Mr. Min is so depressed that he would not go anywhere or see anything. He fills the house with sighs. He begins to complain that his mission has so far been a failure because of his incapacity. That is all O.K. If he really thinks so―which I doubt most sincerely―he is welcome to his affected Confucianistic humility. Only, I hope he will not shift the onus of the so called failure on me―the tongue of the negotiations.
13
With Stein and his brother spent a pleasant evening in Arcadia garden. Not a newspaper man has been to see us since we came to Petersburg. The absence of the feverish thirst after novelties characteristic of America is rather refreshing here.
14
In railroad and hotel accomodations America beats Europe all to pieces.
 

12. 6월 19일

1
19th.Friday. Warm.
 
2
From this morning began my study of French with Madam. Boivin 2 hours a day 6 days of the week, 40 roubles per month.
3
In several stores I found the image of our Lord or of the Virgin in a gilt frame with an oil lamplit in front of it.
4
Mr. Maac, a brother of Mrs. Waeber, called on us today to return our visit yesterday.
 

13. 6월 25일

1
25th.Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
This and that and everything―
 
3
1. To me, one of the ills of life is to have no apartment of my own wherein I may reign the monarch of all I survey and wherein I may be free from intrusions of every sort. But ever since our arrival to Petersburg I have to bear this very ill. I have not known what privacy is here, except sometimes in Stein's little room.
4
It takes time, lots of it, to do anything here. You give soiled clothes to the laundry and count yourself happy if you get them back in ten days. The Moscow tailor who made Mr. Min's "Turumakis" first promised to have them done in two days. But Mr. Min had to wait two full weeks for them. By the way, one "Turumaki" cost Min 60 or more roubles at Moscow. A Petersburg tailor promised to make Kim To Il an overcoat in two days. Five days have passed, but no overcoat. The hat cases which we had left at Vancouvor and which had cost us―me―a great deal of anxiety and vexation, came to Petersburg a week ago. But certain formalities to be gone though the Customs or the Treasury Department are keeping the hat cases in the Custom house over a week!
5
The routine of life here which we have been pursuing! Up at 9 or 10 a.m. Tea between 10-11 a.m. Lunch 12:30 1 p.m. Sour milk or ( ) 4 p.m. Dinner 6 p.m. Ride to the parks between 8-11. Bed between 12-1. One cook, one chambermaid, one waiter. A landau 215 roubles per month.
6
In company, sometimes in the midst of conversation, Mr. Min sighs as if his heart would break. When he tries to be exceedingly dignified he purses his lips and sticks the mouth out an inch long. But worst of all, when talking with friends (foreign) , he often curls his upper lip and gives out a sneering smile right in the face of the visitor. On such occasions his face assumes coarse and ugly expressions. So long has he been served by servile crowds in Corea that he demands service from everybody―sometimes with a peevish importunity. Sometimes, when he is so humored as to think himself a great persongage, he talks and acts as if the Almighty God has made men for no other purpose than to serve the whims of Son Excellence, Min Yong Hwan.
7
Min seems to have been very much impressed with the splendid forestry of Russia and its not-over-good roads and streets. Very good. Am glad he sees the importance of forests and of good roads. But he is very much off in thinking that books on forestry and street or road making can, in themselves, do any good. He bothers everybody whom he meets to get him books on these subjects. I told him that books in Russian would not do any good in Corea; that books on these subjects in any foreign language would be hard to be translated into Corean; that until the government be stable and specialists be engaged to make roads and look after forestry in Corea, mere books on the subjects would not make a single street clean or a single tree grow. No go. He must have the books.
8
After all, I can think of nobody among the Corean officials of Min's caste who may be have himself as decently and as prudently as he has done. He is by nature sensible, reasonable, liberal and even confiding. But his unlimitted success in the corrupting official life of Corea has spoiled him into a calculating, suspicious peevish and arrogant and selfish man. If he had a foreign education that makes a man see things straight through the surface into their essence, he would have been a truer and braver Corean.
 

14. 6월 26일

1
26th.Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
This p.m. 2, Stein told Mr. Min that, as the Southern route via the Red Sea, would expose Min and his party to intolerable heat and "Typhoon", without giving them any substantial benefit, the Siberian route would be far more preferable. Here, Mr. Min would undergo no climatic extremes during this season, while he could see the gold and silver mines, the Siberian Railroad, the fur trade, the conditions of life among the European and Asiatic nations under the Russian sceptre, the frontier relations between Russia and China―things which are certainly more instructive, especially to a Corean officer, than the sun, and seas and sky and possibly the sickness of the Southern route. Stein added that it would be a great boon to him if Mr. Min should take the Siberian route, as he (Stein) is not in condition to stand the hardships of the Indian voyage. To this Mr. Min answered that, as he might never have another chance of seeing the places of interest along the Southern route, as he might travel through Siberia when the railroad be completed, as he does not think it worthwhile to see the mines etc. (talks just like a Corean official) and as he is too dull to profit by any good thing he might see or hear in Siberia―as, in fact, the Northern route has no attraction to him, he would prefer the Southern voyage. When Stein suggested that the Siberian route would cost him very much less than the Southern, Mr. Min said to me, "The cost is no consideration to me. His Majesty gave us forty thousand 'Yen' for the Mission. If we, through our economy, have a large surplus to be returned to the government, we are fortunate. But should I be mean enough to use up every cent of the appropriation, nobody could have said anything against it. With me the cost, however great, is a matter of no concern."
3
The last remark on the cost is very rich and interesting, as it comes from a man who has been whining all the time, that he must return as soon as possible because, forsooth, he could not bear to spend, in staying here longer than absolutely necessary, the precious money belonging to the hardpressed treasury of Corea. He can not and ought not to and will not stay in Petersburg longer than official answer from the Russian government, because his conscience pains him at the very thought of expending his government's money. Yet, this paragon of a patriot refuses to take a route which would not only give him a large stock of information highly instructive and interesting to Corea, but which would save his government a handsome lot of money!
4
If I were in Min's position I would gladly take the Siberian route all the more because no Corean official has ever taken the journey. But I am the last man to urge Mr. Min to take this route, as the least discomfort to his valuable body during the journey would make him whine and cry, complain and sigh. Mr. Min was one of the men who held the destiny of Corea in their hands for over 10 years under the late Queen, and he was one of the decent sort of the lot. No wonder Corea has become what she is!
5
At 3 p.m. Mr. Min, the fat Kim, Stein and myself went to see the Forest Institute. The Director, Mr. ( ) showed us round with the kindest attention. The Institute has or had last term 400 or more students. Established 97 years ago under the reign of Alexander I. The State gives per year to its support 136,000 roubles. The tuition etc. amount to 20,000 roubles a year. The tuition 50 roubles per year. Commodious dormitory accomodating 140 students. A nice hospital. A superb ground full of trees and flower beds. The library, and the scientific equipment tolerably good. The Director took us to his home and, on the veranda facing his beautiful garden of trees and flowers, gave us Caucasian wine, fruits and champagne. His two nieces served us. Lovely were the flowers and fresh the shadetrees. But to me the two girls were lovelier and fresher. These sweet and pretty girls of Petersburg make me often pensive.
6
Kim To Il, the Interpreter of the Mission, has been in the habit of spending the nights in drinking and sleeping in day time ever since we came here. Stein is much put out with him. But I like him better than I once feared. He is more straightforward and less servile than if he had been brought up in Corea in the fashion of Kim Duk Nien and his class.
 

15. 6월 28일

1
28th.Sunday. Rained a little―Warm.
 
2
Mr. Min having decided to go by the Southern route, Stein prefers to stay behind. Stein told Min that Son Excellence should take the southern route with the full understanding that Cholera is now raging in Egypt, that the tropical heat is intolerable, that guarantine regulations are bothersome, that the plague may revisit Hong Kong this summer, that typhoon is disgreeable.
3
If Stein doesn't go, I must accompany Min and crowd. Really I do not relish that.
4
The street cars here are run very awkwardly, there being only one line for even the largest street―Nevsky for instance―the cars go all in one direction. Hence at the either terminus of a street, cars are seen crowded together, from 3 to 12. Then loading themselves with passengers, they file out one after another.
5
At 5:30 all of us went to the Pavlovsky Park for a change. I enjoyed the beefsteak and milk and coffee of the Farm.
6
Stein intends to apply for a position in the Russian Legation at Tokio. He says that in case Mr. Speyer should return to Corea, he may likely go back to Seoul.
7
Here the girls chew no gums and men no tobacco. But I have seen today two fashionable women―one in the Farm and another on the car―smoking cigarettes. A cigarette makes a pretty woman look smarter.
 

16. 6월 29일

1
29th.Monday. Very warm.
 
2
At 1:30 with Mr. Min and two Kims, went to the Agriculture Museum. All sorts of agricultural implements, all sorts of seeds, all sorts of dairy and vintage utensils and all sorts of collections kin to the general subject of agriculture. The best sowers, reapers etc, are American made. This Museum is said to be the best of its kind in the world.
3
Felt melancholy in the evening without any reasons known.
4
Suggested strongly to Mr. Min to visit all the public institutions in Petersburg, including the penitentiary and the hospital. His interest in those things is very languid.
 

17. 6월 30일

1
30th.Tuesday. Steaming heat. Rained.
 
2
A thunderstorm of about 10 minutes at 6 p.m.
 
3
Some facts for a possible future reference.
4
1. When we were in Shanghai, Stein told Mr. Min that it would be easier and safer to send the heavy boxes containing the King's presents, Min's heavy baggage together with that of other members of the Mission, 20 in all, via Suez and Portsaid to Moscow as the rough handling they would sustain through America and Europe might smash them to pieces. Min consented to the proposal. After our arrival Moscow, when Min was informed that 5 of the boxes had not turned up, he sighed and groaned blaming Stein for not having known better; me, for having told him that the boxes would be too much to be carried with us; and himself for having listened to us. All this in spite of the fact that he, with his own eyes, had seen the rough handling our personal effects experienced on our way! that hardly any of our trunks had escaped serious damages; that none of us ought to be blamed for not being a prophet. When the heavy boxes did come sound and whole, Min himself was frank enough to admit that they could have been all smashed had they come by way of America.
5
2. When the King's letter was to be presented to the Czar, Plancon gave Min a private and confidential advice not to present the letter of greeting and of credence all at once. By keeping back the latter, "said he," you would have a chance of an audience. "Min thanked Plancon for the advice. Afterward, no doubt prompted by the fat Kim, Min began to sigh and groan blaming Plancon, for having advised him to present the letters separately; me, for not having interpreted more carefully(!) ; himself for having listened to us. When he wrote to Prince Lobanov for an audience, Min actually said in the letter "I did not present the letter of credence with the letter of greeting according to the advice message of an official of your Department of Foreign Affairs(!) " This letter, written in Chinese by the fat Kim, was kept from me up to the last moment, when it was to be translated into English. I simply told Min that it was wrong to put the confidential talk of a friend in a public document. I had a time of it to strike out the objectionable clause from the letter. When Plancon seemed to be offended (for he was consulted) Min got scared and flatly told him in my face that he had not known that Plancon had given the advice confidentially! (Min has a remarkable faculty of forgetting whatever does not suit him.)
6
3. At the request of Plancon and Stein, I wrote out my private view in regard to the dangerous consequences of a joint influence of Russia and Japan on Corea, to be given to Prince L. I showed it to Min and he said it was good. But on the day when we went to see the Prince, as we were going, Min, with an ugly expression of pride and anger, said, "If you give the Prince the memo, it would look like our Mission had two envoys" I said nothing and kept back my meno. Then afterward he asked me why I did not give it to the Prince!
7
4. A few nights age, all of a sudden, Min asked Stein to get the answer of Prince L. to his letter asking for an audience in Moscow! I and Stein told him that he had the invitation from the Minister of Court announcing the grant of the audience which would do very well for the answer. Min, in dogmatic way, said, "The note from the Count Min is quite another thing. I must have an answer from Prince L." The next day Stein came back from the Foreign Office and said Count Kapanist had told him that Plancon had to answer the letter, as he it was whom Prince L. sent to announce verbally to Mr. Min that the audience would be granted.
 
8
Then Min sighed and groaned, blaming all parties for dealing unkindly with him, saying that he did not want the answer but that he only wanted Stein to find out whether Prince L. would answer the letter or not. Min, as usual, conveniently forgot that he had the previous night told Stein and me that he (Min) must have the answer (그 답장이 잇어어야 흘터야) . He is heady as a donkey when humored, but scary as a hare when buffeted.
9
By the way, he was glad enough to have kept back the letter of credence after he had the last audience with the Czar.
 

18. 6월 30일

1
30th.Tuesday. Warm, showers. At Petersburg
 
2
Mr. Min is a most disagreeable man to advise. When any course of action which you may advise him to take goes or seems to go wrong (for he seldom waits till the end of course) he sighs, groans, whines and blames you, never for a moment taking into consideration the circumstances and the best intentions which prompted you to give the advice. If I have ever believed that a big head means a big sense, Min has knocked the theory all to pieces.
3
Prince Lobanov, the minister of F.O., sent Mr. Min the written answers to the five requests. The sum and substance of the document.―
4
1. The King may stay in the Russian Legation as long as he wants. In case he should return to his palace, the Russian government would answer for his safety. A guard will remain in the Legation at the disposal of the Russian Minister at Seoul.
5
2. For military instructors, the Russian government will send an experienced officer of high standing to Seoul to negotiate with the Corean government on the subject. His first object in view shall be the organization of a Corean guard for the King. Another experienced man will be sent to examine into the economical conditions of Corea and to find out necessary financial measures.
6
3. These two confidential officers may act as advisers, under the guide of the Russian minister at Seoul.
7
4. The question of the loan will be taken into consideration when the financial condition of Corea and its needs be fully known.
8
5. Russia consents to connect the land lines of Corea with those of Russia and will give all possible assistance to the realization of the project.
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