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◈ 윤치호일기 (1898년) ◈

◇ 11월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권 10권  윤치호

1. 11월 1일

1
1st. (18th of 9th Moon). Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
The tent meeting still kept up at Chongno (鍾路) waiting for the first steps taken toward the enforcement of the Articles. As busy as ever- longing for some rest but seeing no way to it.
3
About 11 p.m. I had just gotten into "first sleep," as we say in Korea, when the gate man brought in the cards of Hyon Jeichang and of Hong Junghu, two men whom I trust. They said that Sin Taihiu, the Commissioner of Police had come to see them privately at the business office of the Club and told them the following story― "A man named Choi Inwhan, an ex-boy of the Tai Won Kun, has won the confidence of Yi Inwoo, by betraying the secrets of Mr.
4
Yi Joon Yong, the grandson of Taiwon Kun. This Choi is a member of the Independence Club. He told Wi Hongsuk, a police sergeant (警務官) that Mr. Min Yong Kui had been instructed by His Majesty to hire three men to assassinate the President of the Independence Club, and asked Wi to cooperate with him in the enterprise. Wi being the friend of the Club at once told the plot to the Commissioner, and asked Mr. Min of this were true. Mr. Min denied having had anything to do with the scheme, the Commissioner, at once, ordered the arrest of Choi Inwhan and called on Hyon and Hong in person asking them to inform me of the plot and to caution me not to sleep in my house." Hearing this I had to spend the night at the house of my father, though I didn't say a word of the story to him or to mother.
 

2. 11월 3일

1
3rd. (20th). Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
This being the Mikado's birthday I had to call on Mr. Hioki, the Japanese Charge d'Affaires. His little diplomat is a dandy combination of Japanese sweetness thinly coating over Japanese rascality and the European duplicity which passes for European diplomacy. I would not risk five sen on the diplomatic promises of a Japanese diplomat of Hioki type.
3
Japanese are sucking the very blood of Korea. The accursed traitor Yi Yong Ik has sold to Japs the Pyong Yang coal. Anther traitor Hyon Yong Woon induced His Majesty to borrow200,000 from the Dai Ichi Gingko, the security being the Ginseng monopoly on the condition that, in case the Palace fails to pay the debt one year from now, Jap would run the monopoly for two years. Japs will take care that the Palace shall not be able to pay the debt at the time stipulated!
4
Japs want no better system of government in Korea, just at present, than the one under which we are fast going to the devil. Why a few hundreds of dollars and several bottles of Champaign―or beer will enable Japs or Russians or anybody else to buy every concession in Korea that is worth having. Am told by Mr. Brown that the King is borrowing money from every possible source. The treasury empty. The King seems to be determined to make a short work of this country whose many sins Heaven has punished by putting it under the absolute control of a deteriorated edition of King Charles I.
5
The Cabinet has secured the Imperial sanction for the constitution of the Privy Council, one half of whose membership is to be elected by the Independence Club from among its members. The election will come off next Saturday, the 5th Nov.
 

3. 11월 4일

1
4th. (21th). Friday. Pretty.
 
2
Busy all day in the office. Kim Nakchip called on me and said that some people regard me as a "modern sage". The compliment is so foolish and childish that I am ashamed of it. Yet the people who coin such idiotic praises are the first who start unreasonable criticisms.
3
At six p.m. a Palace gateman came to the office saying that His Majesty would be pleased to see me at once. After dark, I didn't feel safe to go to Palace alone, but I could not well afford to disobey the summons of His Majesty. So I went in to the Palace and was conducted to the eunuch's quarter. Yi Kuitong, the President of the Peddlers Club was in. So was Kim Myongjei, a "whisperer". Had an audience at about 9 p.m. His Majesty asked me how and when the Privy Councillors were to be elected from the Club. I informed him that we intended to elect them by ballot tomorrow. He asked, according to his usual custom, the same question in various forms. Then he asked where I slept. I replied that I slept now in Jungdong and then at home. He wanted to know if I sometimes slept in the Independent Office. On my saying, "Yes sir", His Majesty graciously asked if the office was a German property or Korean. I told him that though the office was located between German Consulate buildings, it was a Korean house. (In this I was mistaken for the office is an American property.) With these simple questions he dismissed me. Found Mr. Cho Pyongsik alone in the Council office.
4
It was nearly 10 in the night when I got home. Hearing that I wanted some male friend to sleep with me in my study on acc't of the rumors of danger now afloat, my Darling said: "Darling, sleep in my room. Never mind your male friends. If anything happens you will find me better than ten Koreans." Smiling I obeyed her.
 

4. 11월 5일

1
5th. (22nd). Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Was awake before 5 a.m. thinking about the best means of making the election dignified and quiet. About 6 o'clock, we heard the little amah screaming at the top of her voice near the well. Was surprised to learn that Mr. Kang Moonsu who was coming to see me, was arrested within our gate. Thinking that Kang got into trouble for some debt, I felt no alarm. I was in my study with nothing but night-gown on talking with Choi Suntal, an ex-Mu Yei Chung(武藝廳) whom I have engaged to sleep in our house. A man was seen coming toward the study window. Choi telling me that he was a head constable(總巡) I said "Tell him to come in." "No, no" said Choi in great consternation, "that man is Pak Inwhan, a well known detective. He is always sent to arrest important offenders. Something is up. Take care." Getting a little sobered I went into our bed room. In passing I saw two or three men standing outside of the little gate. My Darling at once begged me to escape. She hurried me on while she went out to engage the attention of the Chief Detective in a conversation. No time was to be lost and the risk had to be run. Hastily dressed I ran out of the little back which had been made only a few days ago, and bounding down the hill at the back of our house, thought of seeking a shelter in the Catholic chapel. But distrusting the Christian charity of a Catholic priest I made for the little west Gate. The hour being yet too early, there were not many people on the streets but I seemed to attract the attention everybody whom I passed. Fearing to go through the Gate, I went to the railroad camp but found Mr. Furgerson already out. There called a closed chair and rode it to the M.E. Ladies' Home. Saw West Gate strongly guarded by police.
3
From the Home went to Mr. Appenzeller's. The Ladies, Mr. and Mrs. Appenzeller showed me every possible kindness. They kindly called on my Darling, and found the brave, sweet little woman calm and safe. Thank God. Yes, she was a better guard this morning than ten men!
4
Heard 17 leaders of the Club arrested. Cho Pyongsik, the Vice President of the Council, was appointed the Acting Minister of Law and Home Departments. Min Chongmuk again out. Nam Jung Chul, the wretched, who had obtained the position of the Minister of Home Department by sharing his concubine with Kim Hong Niuk was last night made a Councillor of State.
5
Yi Sungman, the Editor of Empire News, and Yang Hong-mook, an assistant teacher in the Pai Chai School called on me and we agreed that a crowd should be drummed up as soon as possible. They went out and by the help of others succeeded in getting up a crowd in front of the Police Station demanding to be arrested to share the punishment with the Club men.
6
Today's Gazette publishes so-called edicts disestablishing the Independence Club and dismissing the Ministers who had approved the Six Articles! This is a King! A smooth-lying treacherous coward could not have done anything meaner than this Tai Whangjei of Tai Han or the Great Emperor of Korea!!!
7
The Government is in the hands of Yu Kuiwhan, the pro-Jap slave and of Cho Pyongsik, the pro-Russian villain. That is, both the Russians and Japs are in the business, backing up their slaves for, no doubt, some fat concessions. Cussed Japs! They will, I sincerely hope, soon find reasons, for thus helping the Russians to crush out the last hope of Korea-the Independence Club.
8
In the night moved to Dr. Reid's house.
 

5. 11월 6일

1
6th. (23rd). Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
The members of the Club still keeping up the agitation. But what disheartens me is the abominable indifference of the general public. They look on the struggle as a personal quarrel of some Independents with the government. These children of oppression and slaves of centuries fail to see that the six Articles touch the national and personal interest of everyone of them! To have based any hope on a people of this sort―we have been greater fools. As the king, so is the people! They deserve to be nothing but slaves!
3
The Government threatens to resort violence. The people ready to face the soldiers, at least say so. Much uneasiness as general upheaval might prove destructive to foreigners. Dr. Reid called on Dr. Allen, the American Minister, to ask him to use his influence dissuading the government from firing into the crowd.
4
The funiest part of the anti-Club plot is that the rascals wrote anonymous proclamations purported to have been written by the Independents notifying the people that Pak Jung Yang is to be made the President, Yun Tchi Ho, (me) , the Vice-president and Yi Sangjai, the Home Minister of the new Republic of Korea. His Majesty is, or rather pretends to be scared by these crazy stories!
5
Have exerted my best to persuade the Independents not to commit any violence, as that would alienate the sympathy of foreigners and give excuse to the government for using force.
 

6. 11월 7일

1
7th. (24th). Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Sin Taihiu, the pro-Club(?) Commissioner of Police who had been superseded by Kim Jung Kun(金禎根) in the night of the 4th inst, was reappointed to the position last night. The prisoners removed to the Supreme Court. The Crowd changed their seat to the front of the Court. Hear contributions have been made from various sources to the meeting. One man gave300.00. Father sent100.00 to the meeting this morning. Yi Kuitong called on Father last night and said: "His Majesty has no grudge against your son. The Emperor rather loves him and wants him to go to Shanghai and stay there at least a month. His Majesty promises to write a letter to Min Yong Ik to supply your son with as much money as he needs there. The Emperor hopes that he will harbor no disloyal feeling on account of the strong measures against the Club."
3
Rumous are afloat that a secret treaty has been made between the government and Matunin, the Russian Minister granting some important concessions for promised support.
 

7. 11월 8일

1
8th. (25th). Tuesday. Cloudy. Rain.
 
2
No change in the situation. The siege continues. Told the leaders to go to the front of the Palace―which they didn't!
3
Mr. Han Kiusul has been appointed the Minister of Law. But he is so cautious that he dares not try the prisoners, as his decision will offend either the King or the people.
4
Am afraid the crowd is being deceived by the government. Cho Pyongsik and Co. try to tire out the crowd knowing that cold, rain, frost and fatigue would surely discourage and disperse the people. The appointment of Sin Taihiu, a trimmer, to the position of the Commissioner of Police and of Han K.S. to be the Minister of Law is a pretty trick to fool the people with. In the meantime the King and Cho will sign away everything to Russians and Japanese for promised support or for some begarly bribes!
5
Yu Kuiwhan, one of the leading villains in the Cabinet, sent word to me indirectly that everything would be made all right if I should surrender myself to the authorities.
 

8. 11월 9일

1
9th. (26th). Wednesday. Fog-sun-rain.
 
2
This has been a miserable day. Fog in the morning―deceitful sunshine now and then but down right rain the greater part of the p.m.
3
Tried my best through several persons to persuade the people to go to the front of the Palace. The crowd charmed by some fatality would not move saying that if they moved to the Palace gate, the soldeirs might cut off all who wanted to join the meeting, at the Chungdong entrances. Things are going fast beyond hope.
4
Received a letter from Dr. Jaisohn―begging me to keep up the paper by all means.
5
The present government is composed of:
6
Minister of Home Dept.…Min Jong Muk
7
Acting Minister of F. Aff.…Min Jong Muk
8
Minister of law…Han Kiusul
9
Minister of Education…Yi Tojai
10
Minister of Finance…Min Yong Kui
11
Minister of Agriculture…Kim Myong Kiu
12
Minister of War…Yu Kui Whan
13
Minister of Household…Min Pyong Suk
14
Governor of Seoul…Jung
15
Commissioner of Police…Sin Tai Hiu
 

9. 11월 10일

1
10th. (27th). Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
The Club and the people of the "People's Meeting" memorialized His Majesty yesterday begging that the persons who first brought to him the lying placard alleged to have been issued by the Independents notifying the people the proposed change of the Empire into a Republic, should be handed over to authorities so that the placard may be traced to its source. The Imperial reply to the petition ran to the effect that the placard was unfounded, being no doubt the work of some unprincipled fellows; that His Majesty was assured of the innocence of the people; that the leaders of the Club had been imprisoned for other reasons (disobedience to the Imperial will) ; and that the people should disperse.
3
The people refused to budge a step. All efforts to make them go up to the Palace gate have failed so far.
4
Dr. Reid tells me that George Bell who is now teaching in the A.C.C. refuses to put on his native clothes; that he proposed marriage to a girl while both sitting by the dying bed of his mother; that they had married for some time when Bill's American girl wrote him that her parents had finally withdrawn their objections to her marrying him!!! Poor fellow!
5
At 8 p.m. the news reached me that the 18 prisoners were released. Later, Hyon Jeichang, one of the leaders incarcerated, came to see me. We decided that the meeting should continue until the Six Articles be directly sanctioned by His Majesty for enforcement; Cho Pyongsik etc. be expelled from the Palace and the Club be reestablished.
6
Rumor says that Cho Pyongsik is cooperating with Lady Um, to persuade the King become a Catholic as that would (so they think) prevent His Majesty from marrying another wife. None can tell how true the report is; but I should not be surprised to know that the Catholics are deeply interested in the anti-Independents persecution.
 

10. 11월 11일

1
11th. (28th). Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Told Yang Hongmook and Yi Sungman, the two young men who have managed to keep up the recent agitation, that the Government be asked to show the people a written assurance that no secret contract made during the anti-Independent week shall be held valid and that the same should be communicated officially to all the foreign legations at Seoul.
3
It is reported that a widow who sold the other day her house for300.00 gave200.00 to the meeting.
4
This afternoon's Government Gazette announces the dismissal of Cho Pyongsik, Yu Kuiwhan and Min Jongmook from their offices.
 

11. 11월 12일

1
12th. (29th). Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Had intended to go out but received a card from Father this morning warning me not to venture out until further notice from him.
3
Cho Hanwoo and Yu Hakju, two of the 17 who had been imprisoned called on me and said that the 17 would have been killed outright on the 5th Nov. had I been caught. The plan of Kim Jungkun, the anti-Independent Commissioner of Police of that date was to do away with me as soon as caught in the Police Station before anybody had anytime to interfere and to despatch the 17 right in the Station. But my escape modified the plan a little which the popular demonstration a few hours later changed the situation considerably.
4
The People's Meeting sent in a memorial begging His Majesty to punish the "five evildoers(五凶) " viz. Cho Pyongsik, Yu Kuiwhan, Yi Kuitong, Min Jongmook, and Kim Jungkun; to reorganize the Cabinet with men in whom the people have confidence; to sanction and enforce the Six Article to reestablish the Independence Club; and to remove all causes of popular suspicions and fears by making public the official transactions of the five traitors pertaining to foreign affairs.
5
Kokubu, the Japanese interpreter at the Japanese Legation has interviewed several of the leaders of the Meeting(安寧洙, 尹吉炳) lately and tried to persuade them into some sort of compromise. The Japanese authorities are reported to have instructed their nationals not to shelter any of Club leaders. All this plainly indicates that Japs are behind the anti-Independent schemes.
6
Col. Nienstead called on me. He said that the Corean Legation at Seoul is in a horrible condition, the parlor being too dirty for a decent visitor. "Yi Hayung in a good man," said Col. N. "but he is too weak. He cannot refuse anybody who comes and sponges on him. His Majesty promised to make me the advisor to the Legation: but he failed to keep his word." The Colonel thinks that Prince Ui-wha will go to the devil if he were let alone as he is now; and that he (Col. N.) would be happy to be authorized to act as a sort of guardian to the young man.
 

12. 11월 13일

1
13th. (30th). Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
This morning Jung Kuijoon informed me that last night orders were out to rearrest the 17men; and 80 more objectionable persons were to be locked up. A large force of detectives and police came to the meeting but seeing that none of the 17was out, they withdrew. It is said that Min Yongwhan and Min Yongjoon interceded for the Club men to the Emperor.
3
Some suggest that a man should be sent to Japan to hire an aid on such conditions as may be acceptable to both parties. My objections; (1) This will subject Corean again to the oppressive dominion of Japs― a course of action entering foreign to our patriotic policy. (2) Japs can never be trusted. They may inform His Majesty of our offer. Then the Emperor scared will grant any concession that Japs may demand. Japs will prefer making bargains with the Emperor who has absolute power over Corea to helping the Independents on doubtful conditions.
4
Others recommend setting fire to the houses of the anti-Independent ministers etc. My objections, (1) The deal will give an excuse to the government for resorting to violence. (2) It may scare the people into opposition to us and alienate the sympathy of foreigners. (3) Any act of violence will get an example to our enemies, and endanger the life and property of every Independent. (4) We shall gain nothing by burning the houses of a few bad man.
5
The People's Meeting has invited a number of exofficials viz. Yangbans to cooperate with the people in memorializing etc.
6
Urge the Meeting (thro certain parties) to send out lecture committees in all directions to explain to the people the principles for which we fight.
 

13. 11월 15일

1
15th. (2nd of 10th Moon). Tuesday. Beautiful-cold.
 
2
At about 2 p.m. the crowd went up to the front of the New Palace. Now something will turn up.
3
Mr. Brown tells me that of the 6 Legations 2 sympathize with people; 2 help His Majesty to resist the demands; 1 is possibly working with the anti-Independent party while the remainder is neutral.
4
Where will all this end? Sitting alone in Dr. Reid's study with a French book on the lap surrounded by darkness and silence on all sides, I feel so sad. The present struggles are not worth complaining of, but the future! Risks and dangers, personal and national at every step, yet no hopes of success relieve the gloomy outlook!
5
If I had religious zeal that will make me delighted in missionary work, I shall be happy to devote my time and ability, be it what it may, to the moral elevation―the only proper elevation―of my country.
 

14. 11월 16일

1
16th. (3rd). Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
A most lovely day.
3
His Majesty shows signs of yielding. The Five Villains (五凶) are to be trial; the Club is to be reestablished in a fashion; the Six Articles are to be carried into effect; no secret treaty has been made with foreign power during the anti-Independent week. All this is very good but His Majesty has so often deceived the people that I doubt seriously his sincerity, will the people consent to be fooled once more?
4
But then, what can be done. The only way to keep the Emperor from deceiving and oppressing the people is to deprive of him the power of doing so. But this can not be even thought of under the present circumstances.
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