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  메인화면 (다빈치!지식놀이터) :: 다빈치! 원문/전문 > 기록물 > 개인기록물 영문  수정

◈ 윤치호일기 (1901년) ◈

◇ 5월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 윤치호

1. 5월 5일

5th. (17th of 3rd Moon). Sunday. Cloudy. Nampo.
Continued drought―occasional sprinkling―both ends of the day cool enough for stove.
Chinnampo and Samwha are as remarkable for the paucity of flowers as Wonsan is for their profusion. Neither in nature nor in man there is much to love in Samwha.
It sickens me to see the hills flayed. Magnificent trees requiring centuries to grow, flowering shrubs and plants are all ruthlessly cut down and their roots unearthed to be burned in the kitchen. It is beyond my power to conceive any race of people who can be so destitute of all sense of beauty as the Koreans. Food, raiment and official cap are the utmost extent of a Korean's ambition.
Bi Bal Do (比鈸島) is a small island off the harbor of Chinnampo. The wonder of wonders is that the island is covered with large pines and shrubs, a refreshing exception to the general rule of ugly nakedness of neighboring hills and mountains. The trees have so far escaped the woodman's ax from the superstitious belief that he who cuts a tree on the island shall surely die. A false notion as applied to this particular island but only too true a belief as applied to the whole country; Korea is certainly as dead as a door nail, politically and intellectually, as, no doubt, a penalty for having deforested the country.
By the way, I was the other day absorbed in a melancholy enjoyment of the scenery of the island beautified by the blended effect of red and green colors, azaleas skirting the pine-covered spot. To my disgust, a servant, a young fellow at that, brutally remarked that the pines were worth ten thousand Yang as firewood! The most magnificent trees or the most fragrant flowers have no value in the eyes of an average Korean except as firewood. Yes, I have too often seen beautiful tiger lilies, azaleas in full bloom, and lilies of valley in wood cutters' bundles to cook his miserable rice with.
A propose early marriage: One recent morning, I come upon a rustic engaged in a conversation with a middle-aged woman. She said: "Now, man, let me be your daughter. Why don't you let her marry?" "No, thank you," replied the man with a sign. "I don't want to urge her. Would rather let her live as she is, enjoying such things as fate may give her." From the tone and air of the man, I thought his daughter must be a widow or a maid on the wrong side of forty. But I was amusingly undeceived when the woman said: "Isn't she twelve years old now?" To which the answer was: "No, she is already thirteen."
The Chinese vegetable gardens near the settlement are models of neatness. The soil is so well handled by the painstaking farmers that one can hardly see even a small rock in the whole field. The beds are so beautifully laid out that my eyes get seldom tired to look on them. What a contrast to the shamefully neglected, stony and ugly looking fields owned by Korean farmers. When I asked a Korean why he didn't keep his field as neatly cultivated as the Chinese farm, the only answer I got was "됴선 사람은 그럿케 할 수 업서요" ("a Korean can not do as that") . One of the many reasons why a Korean farmer is so careless and lazy is that the land is too abundant and cheap.

2. 5월 6일

6th. Monday. Cloudy-cool.
Mr. Koo Bon Soon(具本淳) , the court physiognomist, arrived at the port on his way to Sin-do(薪島) , where he is bound an exile for 15 years. For the past two or three years he has been a great favorite of His Majesty―as a fortune teller. Mr. Koo being a friend of my father, I called on him and gleaned the following facts from his rambling talk.
1. The cause of his banishment: A new ground, selected by over a hundred court geomancers, for the tomb of the late Empress, turned out to be stony under the surface. This wouldn't do, of course! Stones underneath the ground chosen with such care and prepared at such expenses ($80,000.00) for the grave of the beloved Queen―Why, this was a high treason. The geomancers, or rather the ringleaders of the gang, who could not see the stones several feet under the sacred ground, were to be hung and banished. But then Koo is a face-reader. What had he to do with the grave question? True; yet his enemies wanted to hang him, grave or no grave. So they tortured Kil Yong Soo (the villian who started the peddler movement against the Independents in 1898) , the Chief Geomancer, to comfess that it was Koo who had persuaded His Majesty to choose that particular site in question. So Koo was sentenced to be hung! But His Majesty came to his rescure and commuted the sentence to 15 years' banishment. Kil Yong Soo―exiled for life.
2. My father had to pay 60,000.00 Yang ($12,000.00) for the governorship of Kwang Chu. He gave 10,000.00 Yang ($2,000.00) to the Palace on the birthday of the Prince. Various articles of furniture etc. to the worth of 20,000.00 Yang ($4,000.00) were ordered by the Palace at the expenses of my father. Thus scarcely four months have passed since he was appointed the governor, whose monthly salary is200.00 only; yet he has already spent18,000.00 or twenty two and half times as much as his salary for 4 months! A very poor investment, I should say.
His Majesty is zealous of any intimate relations between the Crown Prince and an official. It is perfectly natural that the Emperor should try to prevent the Prince from doing unto him as he did unto Tai Won Kun.
The Emperor gave10,000.00 to the owners of the Kan-jo-shin-bun(漢城新聞) whose office had lately been burnt down. My advice to them: Build a shanty; then burn it again. The trick will be far more remunerative than editing a paper of small circulation.
Koo believes that Japan will do some wonderful piece of business― whatever it may be―in Seoul for the good of the Emperor and the reformation of Korea, before this month is half gone. He thinks that the French loan affair will give Japan the desired pretext for stepping in. I don't believe a word of all this.
The Japanese cheat, Omiwa (大三輪) through Sung-ki-woon (成岐運) and Min Byong Suk (閔丙奭) swindled out of His Majesty the neat little sum of80,000.00 on the promise that heads of the refugees in Japan should be cut off and sent to the Palace. No need to say that the goods were not delivered.

3. 5월 11일

11th. Rain. Samwha.
Last night received a telegram from Seoul to the effect that my father was dangerously ill. No sleep last night.
A refreshing rain from early dawn to about 4 p.m. Another wire telling me of the recovery of my father.

4. 5월 14일

14th. Beautiful. Shamwha.
Had a delightful walk in the morning.
Intensely do I long for the time when I shall enjoy my home surrounded by vegetable and flower gardens, with trees and shrubs registering the passing seasons of the year in languages of flowers and fruits, of autumnal colors and snowy boughs. I am sincerely tired of this knocking about from pillar to post.
I have seen many a beautiful picture, yet, on the canvas of my memory, nothing has left, in hues of indelible beauty, lovelier images than the kindnesses of some of my American friends. The fatherly kindnesses of Dr. Allen; the gentle and genuine affection of Professor Bonnell; the unforgetable thrill of love and gratitude which the warm grasp of Mrs. Hoss sent through my being that evening when after hearing Mr. Bonnell's insulting remarks on Korea, I returned to her house with internal struggles of shame, indignation and hopelessness; the sisterly and constant friendship of Miss Richardson―these four Americans are, par excellence, my dearest friends.
The resume of the events of the past months.
The only visible result of Darling's stay with my parents during the Winter is a bad cough. She got a severe cold sometime last November. Carelessness allowed the cold to go into the lungs. She has been coughing all this time throwing up reddish sputum. In the beginning of June her cough and fever assumed an alarming attitude. There was a Japanese Doctor in the settlement, but he inspired no confidence in us. He would apply the ( ) to the lungs, then listen, then say Ha-! Ha-!, then pull out his cigarette case and smoke right in the sick room! We made up our mind to place the case under the care of a foreign doctor in Seoul.
Succeeding, fortunately, in securing a leave of absence, Darling and I left Chin-nam-po on the 14th of June per the Chikugo. After a smooth voyage, we arrived on the 15th at Chemulpo safely. Darling was so sick as she could be, but she bore the hardships without murmur. On reaching Seoul, went directly to Mrs. Campbells. Darling had a miscarriage in the afternoon. Doctor attended her. On the 18th removed Darling to a private room in Dr. Avison's hospital.
Having left our children in Nampo with the amah, our hearts ached to think of their separation from parents even for a short while.
While in the Capital, I met Hutchison, and enjoyed once more his good coffee and delicious beefsteak. Hutchison said it was unfortunate for Korea to have to keep Mr. Brown another five years. "He is a curse to your country. His attitude of opposition to His Majesty is unjustifiable. He would have earned the respect and confidence of Koreans if he insisted on raising the salary of the foreigners in the customs." etc. etc. etc.
In a conversation, Mr. Gubbins, the British Minister, ad interim, said: "What Korea wants is lighthouses. They will promote commerce and hence prosperity." He might as well insist that what a bankrupt prodigal wants is a good lamp poat in front of his house!
The only persons in Seoul who went about with their heads high up without fear and trembling were Foreigners, and their Korean servants. All the rest seemed so depressed and hopeless and helpless. Every Korean, high or low, seemed to live under the shadow of detectives and in the fear of nameless tortures. Friends meeting on the streets dared not exchange any words of salutation lest they might be arrested for concocting some treasonable plots against the fatherly Emperor.
While Koreans are ruining each other by false accusations, official robbery, imperial extortions, the City of Seoul is gradually passing into the hands of Japanese and Chinese.
The impudence, nay, the downright rudeness of the Korean servants under foreigners is something detestable. They seem to think that their being in the foreigner's pay exempts them from all social customs and distinctions of Korean, and that, in order to show their freedom from Korean usages, however innocent, they must be insolent and saucy to their Korean superiors. The servants―gate keepers, chair coolies and cooks―of the missionary are decidedly worse in this respect than those in Foreign Legations. In a Legation, a servant is treated and talked to as such. He knows his place. But in the house of a missionary he is allowed to attend prayers with the master and mistress of the house. A coolie is addressed and talked to by the missionary in honorific terms. Then, consider he is a believer in Jesus―a fact all sufficient to make a coolie impolite to everybody, especially to the higher class. The gate keeper of Miss ( ) after insulting me to an unbearable degree, apologized by saying that he believed in God! Thus Christianity, which is the salt of the world, is only hastening the putrefaction of the Korean society. God forbid I should attribute this to the religion of Christ.
At 4 p.m. on the 24th June went on board of the Hyon Ik bound for Mokpo. The 1 steamer belongs to the Korean Steamship Company, whose head is no less than His Majesty, the Great Emperor of Great Han. This mighty company, composed of many great and influential ministers of state, such as Min Yong Whan, Yi Yun Yong, Yi Wan Yong, Yi Ha Yung, Min Sang Ho etc. etc., now boasts of a magnificent fleet of four boats, everyone of which has the luxury of being laid up in the dock of Nagasaki or Shanghai for a goodly number of months in the year. Each steamer is honored by from five to six pursers, the protege's of the great men, who argue that the interests of the mighty company can be best promoted and protected by paying from twenty to thirty dollars to their favorites actings as pursers.
The steamer, Hyon Ik, was advertised to leave Chemulpo at 5 p.m. sharp. But at that hour a telephone message reached the chief purser that, by the order of His Majesty, the president of the company, the boat was to take uniforms to the soldiers in Quelpart, and that the clothes would be sent by the 9 p.m. train. When 9 p.m. train came, no uniforms but only a dispatch to be carried all the way to Quelpart. No wonder the company is no good as a carrying agent.
Reached Koon-san early on the morning of the 25th of June. The low tide prevented the steamer from going into the harbor and we had to wait until evening. The port of Koon-san didn't strike me as a good one. Only a few Japanese merchants. Rice the only export.
On the 26th, after breakfast in the Kamni Yamen, walked about 10 li to visit Dr. Drew. Found him at home. A heaty welcome given me. Mr. and Mrs. Miller were there too. Mrs. Drew, who in 1895, had impressed me as a handsome woman with a lovely figure, was but a shadow of what she used to be. The hardships of a missionary wife with many children seem to have told on her health with uncompromising severity. Nothing sadder than to see a pretty woman fade into a mere skeleton.
In talking about the bad government of Korea, Reverend Miller said: "Well, after all, the bad government is helpful to the mission work. Under a good government, western learning and science would come in with scepticism, agnosticism etc." What a fine text for an anti-Christian or anti-missionary editorial for the Editor of the Kobe Chronicle!
Everywhere fields and hills, men and beasts, were parched up by the long drought.
Leaving Koon-san late in the afternoon of the 26th of June, reached Mokpo about noon the next day. Had the pleasure of calling on Mrs. Dwen, formerly Miss Whiting. On the 27th, left Mokpo in a chair for Kuangjoo.
Was agreeably surprised, nay, delighted, to see, on the road to Kwangjoo, valleys and hills decently covered with verdant vegetation. Bamboo groves reaching a graceful height of from 20 to 20 feet were found in many a village. The difficulty of getting rooms in an inn was a striking feature of the journey in this granary of Korea. The inn keepers seemed to have great objection to accommodating a "Yang-ban" traveller. On getting to Na-joo, the magisterial capital of the district of that name, I was denied admittance from one inn to another. Their common excuse was that they had no rice. No doubt this apparently inhospitable custom arose from "Yang-bans" not paying their hotel bills.
On the 29th June, reached Kuangjoo. Needless to say that I was happy to see my dear Father and Mother well.
The Governor's Yamen of Kuangjoo hasn't much to excite one's admiration. The buildings are rambling and commonplace, all on flat ground. Except rich fields, pomegranates, bamboo groves growing in almost semi-tropical luxuriance, not much to see in Kuangjoo.
There is a Japanese Buddhistic Mission established in Kuangjoo. It doesn't flourish much. Japanese, so eager to imitate the Westerner, have been trying to plant religious missions in Korea. But so far they have failed. For, what can they teach the Korean in the line of religion or morality? A mission is no go without living force in it, and a Japanese Buddhistic mission has no living force in it, unless it be insular prejudice or hatred against Christianity.
Spent three pleasant days in Kuangjoo. On the 3rd of July, left, once more, my dear Father and Mother and hurried on to Mokpo. Jo Byong Sik (曹秉植) , accompanied me to the market place of ( ) . He told me that the extortions of officials are such in the South that no one who has a superfluous bag of rice can sleep in his own house.
Left Mokpo on the 2nd of July per the Futami Maru. Most welcome rain. Arrived at Chemulpo about noon on the 6th. Hurrying to Seoul, found my Darling fairly on the way to recovery, thanks to God and the skill of Dr. Avison.
Met Dr. Allen on the train. He was a picture of contentment. His success in securing the American concessions of mines, of railroad―S. C.―of the electric tramway etc. have placed him far and away beyond the reach of poverty.
It is true that cajoling the Emperor into setting up in his mind capital a2,000,000.00 eletric plant can be no credit―morally to the Doctor, who knows the bankrupt condition of Korea; but then, if he didn't do it somebody else would have done it.
Having removed my Darling to Mrs. Canpbel's place to be there until full recovery, I left Chemulpo on the 16th of July for Chinnampo. Arriving at the latter port on the 17th, I was joyful to see my precious children all well―the girl barely keeping up her frail strength. On the 20th removed to Samwha with the children, hoping to spend the Summer in a more commodious house than I could find in Nampo. However, on the 25th a telegram reached me informing me of my transfer to Wonsan!
It seems that a Kim Jung-sik, by hooks and crooks, got himself appointed to the lucrative position of the Kamni of Pyong Yang. But his reputation as a squeezer, plus the higher bid of the actual incumbent of the office, Mr. Paing Han Joo transferred Kim to Samwha.
From the 26th, the people of the port and Samwha actually beseiged the Kamni Yamen, taking away my wheel and chair, saying that they would not let me go. They closed up stores and business of the port was suspended. Wire petitions were sent to the Seoul authorities begging them to keep me in Samwha. This popular agitation and demonstration which surprised me by their sincerity, lasted over ten days. The situation was unpleasant to me, as I was in a measure responsible for the losses which the people were sustaining. On the 9th of August when the new Kamni was reported to be coming, the people resolved to refuse him by not allowing him to land. Some lawless deeds might be the result. It took me two hours of persuasion and threats to dissuade the people from their determination. When I bade them good-bye, many of the simple souls wept.
Mr. Hopkins, the Acting Commissioner of Customs, was all of a sudden superseded by a Mr. Leich, the dirtiest European I have seen in his personal looks. The unlooked for change was a thunder stroke to Mrs. Hopkins, who has by incessant work, created a pretty home for herself. I was sorry to see her take it so hard. She has been good to Mrs. Yun and children.
Hutchison died early in this month. Hard drinking killed him. His career in Korea was anything but enviable. When I first met him, he was the headmaster of the government English School. He was the headmaster of the government English School. He changed his political opinions on the shortest notice. One day he would be thick with Madam Waeber, saying all manner of nice things about her and Russians, holding that Korea could have no better friend than the northern Orthodox bear. In an incredibly short time all this Russophily would be changed into an extreme Russophobia. Then Japan would come in to run up and down the political mercury of this irate Scotch for a little while. His masterful spirit brought him often into collision with the supple Korean officials. Finally he quit the school and joined the English mining company. Through all these years he had been as steady a friend to me as it was possible to a man of his type. For that he has my thanks.
On the 14th of August, left Chinnampo per Kyong po, at about 12. The Japanese Consul Mr. Nakamura, and the Chinese Consul Mr. Lo Ching Shu (陸淸秀) , with whom I had been on tolerably good terms, came to see me off.
About 2 p.m. the weather becoming so foul and threatenig the boat had to seek a shelter behind the Cho-do island. Torrential rain and wind on the 14th, 15th and 16th. Cooped up with children in a small―two kan room, with rough Japanese and Koreans to the suffocating number of twenty or more, I had a most wretched time of it, rendered all the worse by seeing the suffering of the dear little ones bearing with seasickness, smoke smell, rain and draught like little heroes. Only late in the afternoon of the 16th, the boat dared come out of its hiding place. On the 17th, we had the good fortune of landing on Chimulpo. Found my Darling doing well, though still weak. Decided to leave Seoul together for our new appointment, Wonsan.
Dr. Reid came to Seoul about the 21st. I most fully sympathized with him for his irreparable loss in the death of his sweet wife. She was certainly an exemplary missionary wife. When my Father was in Shanghai in the Winter of 1895, Dr. and Mrs. Reid showed him hospitality which our family shall remember with gratitude as long as friends in need are friends indeed. I have never seen a missionary wife more kind to the natives than she. Her stock of sweetness and unselfishness seemed almost inexhaustible. In her frail body she possessed a great soul―for a great soul only can be long-suffering with the weaknesses of barbarous people.
On the 26th August we left Seoul for Wonsan. My Darling bore the Journey well―the pure air and lovely country scenes seemed to do her good, inspite of the wretched inns on the road.
After months of soul-drying heat of Chinnampo and Seoul, the music of running streams among the mountains refreshed us.
Reached Namsan in the evening of the 31st of August. A large number of the respectables of Wonsan met me at Namsan. On the 1st of September, entered Wonsan between walls of humanity. It touched me to see the people of Tokwon extending such genuine welcome to me. Was happy to see the poplars which I had planted in front of the Kamni Yamen grown to tall shady trees.
In the early part of the month of September, the bridge between the Japanese settlement and Korean was completely washed down. The building of a new bridge―in proper sense of the word―had been the dream of the Japanese residents as well as of Korean officials. But the cost of building it―nearly four thousand dollars―had kept all from attempting the work. But this time, a good bridge or none at all, was my determination. After days of strenuous efforts I was able to collect2,000.00 from Wonsan, and through the cooperation of Mr. Wakefield, I had the good luck of getting2,000.00 from Mr. Brown. The contract was given to a Japanese carpenter, through the Japanese Consul, Mr. Segawa, and on the 2nd of December, the new bridge was an accomplished fact.
I learned afterward that the head of the Public Works in the Japanese Municipal Council abused my, as well as the Consul's, confidence, by not making the contract on the best possible terms. My! when one considers that the bridge is more important to the Japanese than to the Koreans; that the Japanese had been more anxious for a good bridge than koreans; that the good name of the Japanese was at stake in any mistake made in carrying out the contract―when all these considerations made me to place the contract in the hand of the Japanese Consul, how could I suspect that any Japanese could be so mean as to abuse not only my trust but the trust of his own officials and nationals? My only consolation is that I had been honest in the matter from beginning to end. I should here after put down every Japanese a scoundrel until he proves himself otherwise. No engagement seems to do sacred to a Japanese.
A member of the Municipal Council telling me that Mr. Yoshizoye, the head of Public Works Division, hadn't made the contract on the best possible terms and that he, (Yoshi-zoye) was stinking in the nostrils of his compatriots for the dishonest contract, I asked him why he did not expose his (Yoshizoye's) misdeeds in the Council. "No that I can't do," answered the Japanese. "No matter how bad a Japanese may be, it is against our Yamado Damashi to expose him when his evil deeds concern a foreigner." This Yamado Damashi, which I would rather call "hido-damashi," explains why it is almost always impossible for a Korean to get any redress for grievances he has against a Japanese.
Mr. Segawa, the Japanese Consul, arrived at Wonsan a week before I did. He is a graduate of the Do Nin Sha where I spent some tin months in 1881~2. This fact, combined with the naturally kind gentlemenly disposition of the man, made him my friend from the start. He is a Christian and so is his young wife. They have been very nice to us.
From November on, all through the Winter, I have been unwell, often sick for weeks together. In spite of the queer fact that I feel no older than if I were just fifteen(!) , I am getting old. The rooms I occupied in the Anglo-Chinese School were damp. The board walls, covered with condensed moisture running like rain drops, did not affect my health then. Wrapped up in a wadded blanket as wet as if soaked in water, I used to sit up, far into the small hours of the night getting my lessons with conscientious care. I was never sick then. Oh how happy I was in those days. Every English word I learned, every scientific fact gathered, every historical knowledge I gleaned, from teachers or books made me hunger for more words, more facts and more knowledge. Those blessed days ever endeared to me by the kindnesses of Mr. and Mrs. Allen, of Professor and Mrs. Bonnell, will they― or rather, days like them, come to me once more?
During the Fall, the Kamni Yamen of Wonsan lost one of its old fixtures in the shape of Sin Hyong Mo. He had been "Chusa" of the office for 16 years! Long experience seems to have rounded off any angularity he might have possessed. He was a regular India rubber ball―entirely too round for me. He proved no help to me; for he made it his rule not to advance any opinion that was likely to put him in any inconvenience. When a new "Chusa" came to the office he would either initiate him into all the little tricks of corruption; or, finding him a Tartar, he would fight shy of the newcomer, and patiently wait for his removal. In these many years he could have made a neat little fortune, but he left Wonsan rather a poor man―certainly not on account of his virtues.
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  메인화면 (다빈치!지식놀이터) :: 다빈치! 원문/전문 > 기록물 > 개인기록물 해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 영문  수정

◈ 윤치호일기 (1901년) ◈

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