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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 1월 ◇

해설목차  1권 2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 1월 1일

1
1st. Wednesday. Windy―Rain now and then. Very cold.
 
2
God be good unto us as He has been in the years gone by. God, lead me with thy light and love!
3
Made a few New Year's visits to a number of Japanese and American friends. At Dr. Underwood's met Rev. Twing of Pekin. He said that the 三井 and Co. is sending about 18 tons of opium to China by way of Korea, and that, after he had denounced the habits of tobacco, of liquor and of opium in a Pyoung Yang Church, the local police told him to confirm himself to the preaching of the Gospel and to let these topics alone!
4
Had a pleasant evening at 2nd. cousin's. Had 윳 party.
 

2. 1월 2일

1
2nd. Thursday. Bright and cold, the coldest day so far. Below 8' C.
 
2
發信: 白副尉. 忠南長官.
3
Stayed at home.
4
Yesterday morning as I passed by a Buddhist temple in the Japanese town, the gentle, measured notes of the bell had a strangely quieting effect on my nerves. Why? Because the notes of a Buddhistic bell reminds one at once (1) the vanity of this world with its pomps and glories; (2) the pains and sadness mingled with transcient pleasures of life; (3) the attractions of a life of retirement compared with the feverishness of heated passions and of insatiable ambitions. I envy my old friend 南宮檍 at least for one thing, viz.: he is enjoying the repose and peace of a country home, surrounded by beauties of nature―far away from the dust and devils of an artificial society like that of Seoul.
 

3. 1월 3일

1
3rd. Friday. Bitter cold―only a little milder than yesterday. A little snow.
 
2
Home the forenoon. Took lunch at Y.M.C.A. with 梁柱三 Met 朴麟鍾 from Wonsan. If what he says is true the Methodist work in Wonsan is in bad plight. (1) The general strike and the breaking up of the Girls' Industrial School were caused by the obstinacy of Miss Bine who would not consult the Korean teachers in the conduct of the school and who treated the Koreans, teachers and students with contemt. (2) Miss Cooper is hard working; but her stinginess has earned for her the nickname of 정이. She, when she itinerates with a Bile woman, deducts from the latter's wage the price of any 집신 she(Miss C) had to buy for her on the way, or a part of a pony's hire for any little bundle the Bible woman might a have put on it. During the summer while the Missionary ladies are having good time on the Beach, they give piles of dirty clothes to the Bible woman to wash and darn. Mr. Collyer is universally detested by the Koreans for his stinginess. Dr. Ross is said to have the rule for deducting from the wages of his employees the price of any empty bottles they might have taken.
 

4. 1월 4일

1
4th. Saturday. Pretty―very cold.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. in the morning. Left Seoul by 4:30 p.m. train for Song Do with Mary Abbe. Arrived at Song Do about 9 p.m. When we got home everybody was already in bed. 光善 had left home this morning to go to 瑞興 with 朴冕瓚 to see about this millet harvest. Found everything cold―especially the room in the new house. Had to go to bed supperless.
 

5. 1월 5일

1
5th. Sunday. Beautiful―but very cold.
 
2
Had a good sleep in spite of the cold room. 11 a.m. went to Northward Church. Mr. Cynn gave a fine talk.
3
Rest at home. The telegram which I sent to Candler yesterday afternoon worded "Leave by 4 o'clock train" was delivered this afternoon about 1 p.m.
4
According to 任敎師 the teachers in the Holston School are very much dissatisfied with the treatment they receive at the hand of the foreigners. Pride and thoughtlessness are the ruling faults of the average missionary. The Korean lady teachers in Holston School get only ¥11 while the men teachers in the Boys School (Primary) get only ¥17. Then these starvation rates are paid in such ungracious and insolent way that none of the Korean teachers are willing to stay in the School a day longer than they can help it.
 

6. 1월 6일

1
6th. Monday. A little snow in the morning―then sun shine―Again snow in Seoul
 
2
Stayed at home in the morning. Left Song Do home at 1 p.m. On the way to the station, called on 金承烈. He is one of the finest young men the Anglo-Korean School ever turned. He is grateful to me for the financial help I rendered him while he was studying in Japan. In speaking about Dr. Reid's Christian acts toward 金董炯, Mr. Kim said: "金董炯's affair was only the occasion and not the real cause of the people's indignation against Dr. Reid. The real cause was his un-Christian manner of treating the Koreans and his un-Christian way of conducting the work. If the missionaries don't change their behavior for the better, they will fail."
3
Left Song Do by 2:35 p.m. train. Arrived about 5:45. I went straight to 太和館 to the supper I had ordered―for the Korean members of the editorial staff of the 每日新聞社. About ten young men came. The stories of 독갭이's and on psychic phenomena in Korea were very interesting. Home about 9 p.m.
 

7. 1월 7일

1
7th. Tuesday. Cloudy―milder.
 
2
發信: 李主事.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual.
4
I am thinking seriously about taking 文姬 out of the 培花 school and sending her to the 官立普通學校. She has been going to the former school for the last three years and hasn't learned hardly anything in Chinese or Japanese. Can I afford, is it right for me, to sacrifice the education of my precious children to the mere sentiment―of keeping or sending my children to the Church schools when the Church schools, thanks to the obstinacy of missionaries, are the poorest of their kind?
 

8. 1월 8일

1
8th. Wednesday. Cloudy―mild. Rain on and off.
 
2
來信: 白副尉.
3
明姬 being sick again, I had hardly any rest. A slight cold plus carelessness makes me feel tired and indisposed. Stayed at home whole of the day. Quite a little rain in the afternoon.
4
The other night at 太和館 I saw a handsome 妓生. Was surprised to hear that she was 邊致德's sister. 邊 used to be a Sunday school teacher and an active church worker in the 水標橋 Church. I understand his school expenses while in Seoul were defrayed by his 妓生 sister. That's quite a oriental easy going morality!
5
Nodoavecfeum from this to the 20th of Jan.―F. R.
 

9. 1월 9일

1
9th. Thursday. Cloudy―windy. 43℃.
 
2
Cough and headache in the morning. The weather so changeable―明姬 suffers from cough.
3
Went to Y.M.C.A. as usual. When, this morning, I said to 致昌 that Roosevelt was only a national character while Wilson is international, and that if Roosevelt died today, he would be forgotten tomorrow outside of America, little did I expect to read in today's paper that Roosevelt had died yesterday! So love lost.
4
金貞植 begging for a loan(?) of ¥100 said he would never have mentioned the matter but for the great friendship existing between us(!) . He is becoming a sponger.
5
Had a good bath―feel better.
 

10. 1월 10일

1
10th. Friday. Cloudy―mild like early spring. Showers on and off. 41℉.
 
2
Stayed home all the a.m. Felt very mean owing to a restless night. 弘求's affair bothers me so.
3
Late in the afternoon went to the 女子高等普通學校 to see the Principal about putting 文姬 in his school. I regret very much the necessity for withdrawing 文姬 from my own church school. But the missionaries, with the very best intentions in the world ruin the schools by (1) employing only the cheapest grade of teachers ¥11 to 12 for girl-teachers for example, (2) by not talking in confidence and conference the Koreans who have great interest in the school and who ought to know what is good for the Korean, better than a missionary (3) by not adopting method and curicula to the needs and conditions of the Korean children. For instance the missionary insists on 30 to 45 minutes each-hour system. The missionaries despise Koreans too much if not in so many words, nonetheless, in so many acts. Or that is really bad. The southerners seem a little worse than others.
 

11. 1월 11일

1
11th. Saturday. Dark in the morning. Rain from noon all the p.m. like spring. 40℉.
 
2
9 a.m. with 文姬 went to 官立女子普通學校 to introduce her the authorities of the institution. Thence to the 女子高等普通學校 to attend the opening service which was dry and simple and dignified. Y.M.C.A. from 11 a.m. had consultation with cousin 致昭 in regard to the definition of my relation to 弘求's fields which I had bought last autumn.
3
6 p.m. went to Family Hotel to entertain Mr. 永野警視. He said that the police authorities here have no advanced ideas or plans; that these are entirely too many higher officials and too few real workers. Mr. 永野 tells me that in his village he saw some ignorant people actually drinking the water in which a Buddist priest had bathed in the belief that the holy water would cleanse their hearts―to illustrate that the poor Koreans who contribute money to the 天道敎 cheats are not the only ones who are being fooled and exploited by so called religious leaders.
 

12. 1월 12일

1
12th. Sunday. Bright and cold. 7℃.
 
2
Went to 宗橋禮拜堂 as usual. Pastor 吳義榮 made a fine talk―on the subject of overcoming the world.
3
3 p.m. 靑年會講話會 as usual. Mr. 朴榮木 spoke to a large audience. With 李, 具, 朴, 黃 called on 李商在. The oldman seems to be evidently enfeebled by age and worry and disease.
4
While Mr. Y. Sang Chai is a strong character with some fine traits, he is too fond of arguing. He loves contradicting what others say. One great fault of the old gentleman is that his mouth is full of unlucky words. He often offends even his best friends with remarks that are nothing but 惡談 or curses. This may be the cause of his life long misfortunes.
 

13. 1월 13일

1
13th. Monday. Bright and cold. 5℃.
 
2
9 a.m. went to 官立普通學校 to place 文姬 in the class. They had opening service or rather ceremony this morning. The principal Mr. 川上 made a long speech on the studiousness and gratitude of Mr. 木村銳市 who, from a destitute student, has educated himself up to the position of a prominent and rising man in the diplomatic service Japan. Mr. 木村's gratitude to his teacher who, out of his meagre salary of ¥30, helped to pay for the university education of the brilliant young man was a good story.
3
The building which is being used for the 女子普通學校 used to be the Korean Foreign Office between 1883 and 1896. My old teacher 金正浩's house used to be the one under the western wall of this house when it was occupied by 趙成夏. In 1879, I, as a boy went to this same house to see Min Yong Ik who was then the favorite of the King and Queen.
 

14. 1월 14일

1
14th. Tuesday. Dark―very cold. 9℃.
 
2
發信: 永善.
3
Home in the morning. Y.M.C.A. p.m. Lunch with 金光瑞 at Y. Mr. 李商在 who has been ill and who is not well yet, told me that he had long enough robbed God, (by taking salary without doing anything) ; that he is getting too feeble every day, and that he had decided to resign his position in the Y. I told him not to talk like that as yet.
4
2:30 p.m. met Mr. Niwas at his office. He said it is time for us to form the Y.M.C.A. in Seoul into a federation under a common board.
 

15. 1월 15일

1
15th. Wednesday. Beautiful―cold. A little snow last night. 4℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. F.R. Nodoavecfeumn from this until the 30th of Jan. F.R. to be kept.
3
Mr. 白象圭 sees ambition in the new energy and activity which Mr. 申興雨 has, of late, shown in religious work. "What is he after?" says 白. The better thing to ask would be "Is his new activity doing any good?" If so ambition or no ambition, it is a good thing and we ought to encourage it. Visited uncle after supper.
 

16. 1월 16일

1
16th. Thursday. Pale. Cold. 7℃.
 
2
來信: 白樂俊.
3
This morning 尹秉熙 dropped in to see me. He volunteered the information that the Koreans in America have raised about ¥10,000 to send 安昌鎬 to the Peace Conference, that the Koreans in Russia have collected about ¥5,000 to delegate 河相騎's son-in-law to Paris;, and that a 權 somebody is going on the same mission from Seoul. I told him that the best and the wisest thing we can do is to keep quiet giving no offence to the powers that be. The Hindoos by making generous contributions, in man and money to the war activities of the British Empire have won the gratitude, and sympathy of the British people. Had India tried any anti-English stunts, she would have been placed in a bad plight this time. Win the good will of the Japanese first.
 

17. 1월 17일

1
17th. Friday. Gloomy―mild.
 
2
Went to station to see 韓相龍 off for Tokyo. The miserable 大正親睦會 has nothing to do but to go to station to welcome, (?) or to see off some fellow Y.M.C.A. as usual. Entertained Mr. 安定洙 a lunch. He is expecting to leave Seoul seoon for America.
3
申 came to see me and asked if I didn't like to visit Europe. He asked me what I thought of the "Small Nations" agitation or its bearing on Korea. I said "Those small nations which had something to do with the Great War will undoubtedly come up for discussion in the Peace Conference. But Korea stands no chance of even being mentioned. The Conference will have its hand full to settle the questions concerning the small nations that the Great War touched directly or indirectly without opening a back acc't―like Korea.
4
Entertained Mr. Yasumoto of the Post Office at supper at Family Hotel. He seems to be a nice man.
 

18. 1월 18일

1
18th. Saturday. Pale sun―snow. 34℉.
 
2
Went to station to see uncle off for 新村.
3
Mild as a spring day. Y.M.C.A. as usual.
4
Mr. 宋, Principal of 中央學校 came to see me. He maintained that the League of Nations will become a realized fact; that the League of Nations will have no meaning unless small nations are given the right of self-determination; that Kor. will be given her autonomy and that if these ideals are opposed America may declare war(!) I tried my best to convince him that like all great ideals, the League on N. will take many years yet to become a working fact; that Korea will not come up for discussion in the Conference; that none of the great powers will risque the displeasure of Japan by fooling with Korean question, and that it is inconceivable that America will go to war just to force Japan to let it go independant. Mr. 宋 thought I had too high an estimation of the power of Japan. 6:30 p.m. to 明月館 to the Korean supper given by the Japanese Y. in honor of Dr. 安島 and Mr. 秋山. Home about 9:30.
 

19. 1월 19일

1
19th. Sunday. Gloomy―bitter cold. 11℃.
 
2
So mild yesterday―then so cold today. This sudden change is causing sickness.
3
宗橋禮拜堂 as usual 3 p.m. Dr. Schofield gave a fine talk to a large audience of young men on "The Greatest Discovery". After briefly mentioning some of the wonder discoveries in science and arts, he said Christ was the greatest discovery the world has ever made.
 

20. 1월 20일

1
20th. Monday. Bright and bitter cold―windy. 14℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 11 a.m.
3
Between 2 and 4 dust storm―bitter cold.
4
7:30 敎役者懇親會 only a few present. Mr. 張執 of the Salvation Army gave a brief acc't of the relief work that the Army has begun for outcast boys, and have their habitation in dust bins. So far about 26 boys from 9 to 16 years of age. The ragged fellows taken to the Army quarters were given bath and clean cloths―rice twice a day. Yet in a few days 4 boys ran away―one of whom was found dead by a dust bin! Last Sunday 8 more ran away. Then children actually seem to prefer dust bin life to a comparatively comfortable home!
5
Dr. 五島 of the Imperial University gave a lecture on the contrast between the west and the eastern civilization to a roomful of students.
 

21. 1월 21일

1
21st. Tuesday. Bright. Cold. 15℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 10 a.m. 申勝熙 told me that H.M. the Ex-Emperor 光武太皇帝(李太王) had passed away at about 6 this morning. But the 號外 of 每日新報 announces that. H.M. the Ex-Emperor is seriously ill. Which is which? May be the marriage ceremonies to be celebrated in Tokyo between Prince Yi and Princess Nashimoto being near at hand, the death of the Ex-Emperor is temporarily made a secret.
 

22. 1월 22일

1
22nd. Wednesday. Bright―cold. 14℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 10 a.m. The death Ex-Emperor officially published. Koreans―especially those of older ages―seem to be much affected. The first face-to-face interview I had with the Ex-Emperor took place in the spring of 1883. In his 紅龍袍 and 翼蟬冠 he was certainly handsome. Now all is over with him. His personal amiability and public faithlessness resemble Charles I of England.
3
By the way the Japanese have shown themselves very liberal and gracious to the Ex-Dynasty of Yi Family. The annals of the East can show no instance where a fallen dynasty has been treated so royally.
4
Sent600(=¥1159.42) to Rev. C.C. Fisher for Helen.
 

23. 1월 23일

1
23rd. Thursday. Cloudy―milder. A little snow. 4℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The average Korean is made up of 1/10 sense and 9/10 emotion. The Korean portion of the Seoul population is making much hullabaloo about the death of the Ex-Emperor. Many of the old men who pride themselves as Confucian ritualists or 禮文家, are donning the repulsive-looking mourners robes. However, the Koreans seem to take this occasion to ventilate their pent-up feelings of sorrow and shame. They are making this ado about the death of the Ex-Emperor not because they are unware of the fact that he was a long reign of follies and of blunders, but because his demise is the symbol of the final extinction of Korean autonomy. One tear for him and two tears for themselves.
 

24. 1월 24일

1
24th. Friday. Cloudy morning. 3℃.
 
2
來信: 致旺 Dec. 3rd, 1918.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Committee of Fifteen met at 4:30 p.m. to consider the question of sending two men to Siberia to work with the Japanese War workers. Mr. 玄楯 and Mr. 南宮爀 were two names most favored by the Committee.
4
Mr. 宮岡恒次郞 dropped in to see me―I first met him in 1882 when he was a student in the Imperial University. He introduced me to Prof. Fenerosa whose mother-in-law first taught me ABC. She had a time of it to teach me how to pronounce F. Afterward I was introduced to Mr. now Baron 神田乃武 who gave me a few lessons in English. In 1884 Mr. 宮岡 came to Seoul as private secretary of Mr. Percival Lowell. The last time I met Mr. 宮岡 was in 1892 when I visited Washington City. He then treated me to some icecream. Twenty-seven years have passed since then! So glad to see him again. He is practicing law now.
 

25. 1월 25일

1
25th. Saturday. Cloudy―mild. 36℉.
 
2
8:30 a.m. went to station to see Mr. 宮岡 off. He is a typical Japanese of the newest fashion―alert, bright, sharp, nervous―a little cynical.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. About 7:30 p.m. 李世稙 came and bored me for two good hours with all sorts of rubbish of which I could make neither head nor tail. He it was who planned and effected the murder of 金玉均 by hiring 洪鍾宇. Yi is a passing master of intrigues. He has been in prison 9 times. He tells me that he has been asked by the police to spy out what is going on in the churches. I don't know what to believe and what not to believe in his statements. Does Japan expect to win the affection of the Korean by shadowing him always with spies?
 

26. 1월 26일

1
26th. Sunday. Cloudy. 5℃.
 
2
Attended 宗橋禮拜堂 as usual. The death of the Ex-Emperor occuring just four days before the wedding has given rise to a rumor that he committed suicide. Nonsense! He swallowed the camel of humiliation and then strain at a gnat of disappointment. Besides, the wedding between the young Prince and the Japanese Princess is undoubtedly one of the best things that could have happened to the Yi Family. It strengthens the amicable relations between the two Imperial families while the Prince gets a bride who in grace and gifts excels any girl whom he might have chosen among the Koreans. All agree that had the Ex-Emperor died before the annexation he would have gone unwept; and that the people are weeping for themselves and riot for him!
3
光善 returned from 牙山.
 

27. 1월 27일

1
27th. Monday. Bright and cold. 4℃.
 
2
Home in the a.m. 12:30 p.m. went to the palace to pay my respect to the 成眼 ceremonies. The main Gate 大漢門 has witnessed, during the last six days and nights, the remarkable sight of thousands of mourners, old and young, men and women, prostrating, themselves on the ground wailing in sincere grief.
 

28. 1월 28일

1
28th. Tuesday. Bright and frosty. 10℃.
 
2
9 a.m. Mr. 李世稙 came and volunteered the information that the Japanese authorities have been astonished at the manifestation of loyalty toward the Ex-Emperor by the Korean population; that secret orders have been issued all over the country to local officials to be on the watch for any sign of uprising and that the funeral is to be hastened in order to remove as quick as possible from the sight and mind of the people, the object of their loyal sympathies. I don't know what he is talking about. He advised me to stay in the Y.M.C.A.尹秉熙 who did not hear Yi's talk after Mr. 李 had left the room cautioned me not to be deceived by the old man.
3
Y.M.C.A. from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. 李世稙 came agian and bored me for 3 hours. He asked me to lend him ¥500 or ¥ 300.
4
Went to Y.M.C.A. at 7 李世稙 came begging. I told him I would give him ¥ 50.
5
Mr. 崔南善 called on me and tried to persuade me to take a trip to Europe! He think we ought to do something! I held my peace.
 

29. 1월 29일

1
29th. Wednesday. Cloudy and cold. 7℃.
 
2
Some Koreans, like 崔南善, seem to think that all that is necessary to make Kor. independant is to let the Peace Conference know that we don't relish the Jap. require. Fools! Why? Because (1) The contract between the Kor. misgovernment and the efficient Jap. administration is so striking and well known that it would be practically impossible to convince the Conference that the Korean is worse off now than he was. (2) Korea being a life and death problem to Japan, the latter will not let the former go unless absolutely compelled by force of arms. Then is America or England going to war with Japan just to make dear little Korea independent? Inconceivable! (3) History gives no instance of a race or nation gaining its political independence without fighting for it. As long as the Koreans can't fight, it's no use talking about independence. Since we don't know how to be strong, let us learn how to be weak.
3
6:30 p.m. went to 太和館 to entertain a few English speaking friends at a supper. Present 申興雨, 宋彦用, 梁柱三, 吳兢善, 洪錫厚, 睦完洙, 白象圭.
 

30. 1월 30일

1
30th. Thursday. Pale―chilly. 6℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Brockman and Barnhart―in fact all the American in Korea, are pleasant enough as friend but often unbearable as colleagues. They expect you to consult them before you do anything, but they don't take the trouble to consult you except in the matter of getting money. The lower bath, which I strongly advised not to open until all details have been settled, was thrown open to the public the day before yesterday without my knowing anything about it. Today the bath is already damaged so that it can't be used. The thoughtless hurry which Barnhart shows without careful planning for any enterprize is one of the causes of his failure.
3
6:30 p.m. went to Family Hotel to entertain Mr. 相內 to a supper. The food and service at the Family Hotel have deteriorated very sensibly of late. The old Sontak system is gradually dying out.
 

31. 1월 31일

1
31st. Friday. Bright and cold. 8℃.
 
2
發信 to: 致旺.
3
Mailed letter to 致旺 with the Bill of Exchange on London for £240 sterling this morning. Y.M.C.A. as usual.
4
1. War seems to be the basic principle on which the universe is founded. 2. War is the means and ways―The only means and ways―through which and by which perfection is attained in physical, intellectual and spiritual lives. 3. Light against darkness, cleanliness against filth, diligence against laziness, virtue against vice-constant warfare. 4. No race or nation has made any progress except through warfare. Hence the war-like race is the only race that well survive. 5. Spirit of fight in right direction is the Holy Spirit―for no holiness possible without determined fight against sin. 6. Men have abused the war-like-spirit; but then they have abused everything else. 7. War-likeness awakens, developes and matures the qualities making for success, viz.: discipline, fortitude, fearlessness, watchfulness, thoroughness of planning and courage in action, love adventure, sense of honor. 8. Why has God so ordered it that the path of perfection lies through strength, conflict and war?
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