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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 5월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 5월 1일

1
1st. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
8:30 a.m. called on Mr. 宇佐美. Repeated to him what I had told several other Japanese friends―among whom Genl. 宇都宮 is one―(1) that, as soon as the authorities feel safe to do so―the sooner the better―the Governor should issue a proclamation granting pardon to all―except those who are already in the hands of law officers―who may or may not have participated in the demonstrations; (2) and that the Korean people be invited to send in their complaints.
3
Had an interview with Mr. Gleason. Told him how and where I stand in regard to the Independence movement and that the wide-spread disaffection of the Korean people has been caused not so much by what Japan has actually done as by the impressions which the Jap. police has created in the mind of the Korean. The subsidized wholesale transplanting Japanese settlelers, the exclusion of K. from all offices, the suppression of press and speech―the red tape tricks and abominations―all have created the belief that Japan wants Korea and not the Koreans. If this is the real intention of Japan, well and good. If not as I believe it is not, then these false impressions ought to be removed by wise and sympathetic administration.
4
A tea party in honor of Gleason by 關屋 at 朝鮮 Hotel.
5
At 4:30 Sukiyaki supper at Mr. 丹羽's in honor of Mr. Gleason.
 

2. 5월 2일

1
2nd. Friday. Rain. East wind―cold―then welcome rain.
 
2
10 a.m. went outside of South Gate to say farewell to the remains of 韓長老 弼相. He has been ill for the last three years. He is now free from all mortal sufferings. Only a month ago he wept over the death of his mother. Vanity of vanities, all is vanity!
3
If it is a sign of virtue to be indifferent to the honors of office, certainly I am becoming very virtuous! Since I really am indifferent to any official honor, I realize more and more the emptyness of the pomp and circumstances of this world. I only wish I could retire to my country homes to enjoy the innocent pleasures of hills and rocks, of running streams and wild flowers. I am not strong enough to rough the tricks and turmoil of the city life.
 

3. 5월 3일

1
3rd. Saturday. Pretty―chilly.
 
2
來信: 郭書房 ¥200.
3
Went to Y.M.C.A. about 1 p.m. Mr. 金昶濟 came to the Building. He is one of the few Koreans who dared to tell the demonstrators not to demonstrate. He said that he couldn't countenance a movement, however patriotic, that was based on (1) speculation(投機) , (2) superstition(迷信) , (3) lie(謊說) , and (4) intrigues(陰謀) . "Some think that the voice of the multitude is the voice of God. Not always, for it was the demand of the multitude that crucified Christ. Nor is it true that the union of Chun Do Kyo and Christians signify the will of Heaven (天意) , for it was the union of the Pharisees and Herod that condemned the Son of God to death. I believe it is a sin on the part of the Christian pastors to have had this fellowship with the Chun Do Kyo people in their movement." Mr. 金 is a clear thinker and a forceful speaker.
 

4. 5월 4일

1
4th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Wife sick―dizziness―chills―9:30 went to Y. office. Mr. G. of the Peking Y.M.C.A. came to have a chat with me about the causes of recent disturbance in Korea. 11 a.m. called on Dr. Harada at 京城 Hotel. He asked me to take Japanese lunch with him. I gave him my views about the Korean situation. I told him that the leaders of the Japanese public opinion should study the Korean situation carefully to work out the solution. Until the public opinion in Japan takes a sympathetic and intelligent interest in the Korean affairs, the problem can never be satisfactorily solved.
3
7 a.m. by invitation of Mr. 宇 I went to Chosen Hotel for dinner.
4
Mr. Gleason was the chief guest. After dinner all the Japanese host and guests concentrated their efforts to explain and defend or justify some of the brutal acts committed by the Japanese soldiers. Regretted to hear Rev. Watase defend those acts.
 

5. 5월 5일

1
5th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Mr. 張 of the Peking Y.M.C.A. who is on his way to America with Mr. Yailey came to the Building. He couldn't speak English any better than I could mandarine so we were unable to have a satisfactory conversation. He said that he had met Mr. Son. J.D. in Peking, and that he had advised him to go to Shanghai as the Peking police couldn't protect him. Last night I learned that the foreigners in Seoul have organized a Suwon Relief Committee and that they have raised ¥ 3000 to buy utensils and clothing for the people in the burned district. The noble deeds of the foreigners in this respect can never be too highly appreciated.
 

6. 5월 6일

1
6th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Went to Y.M.C.A. in the afternoon.
3
They say that it took about or at least 9 million years to form the coal beds of the world. Well, for the sake of modesty let us say it took only one million year to do so. The oldest historical record of man's political existence doesn't go back further than sixty centuries. B.C. China is only about 40 centuries old while Japan is hardly half as old. In one sense, what an insignificant thing man is―with, or in spite of, all his pretentions about national and racial greatness, etc. etc. etc.
 

7. 5월 7일

1
7th. Wednesday. Cloudy and sultry.
 
2
8:30 a.m. went to Chosen Hotel to see Mr. 芳澤 from the Tokyo foreign office. Took breakfast tea with him. Gave him what I think to be the main causes of the Korean disaffection. He showed himself a good listener. He admitted that the subsidized and artificial colonization policy is a mistake and that Prince Ito was opposed to the formation of the Oriental Develop. Co. Y.M.C.A. until two p.m. 4 p.m. went to Pagoda Park wife and children.
3
Though today is one of the historical holidays among the Koreans―the birthday of Buddah―no sign of celebration―no lanterns and toys on the streets. The Korean population of Seoul seems to have lost interest in everything.
4
The awful thunderstorm―very little rain.
 

8. 5월 8일

1
8th. Thursday. Cloudy―sultry.
 
2
Went to Y.M.C.A. 9:30 a.m. Mr. 芳澤 of the Foreign Office came to have an interview with a student in order to find out the opinion of the student class. I introduced 鄭華基 to him. According to 鄭, what offends the Korean students in the Gov. Medical School most is: (1) The Japanese students keep themselves aloof from the Koreans whom they call Yobos. (2) The school authorities show racial discrimination in and out of the classrooms. (3) In the dissecting rooms the teacher constantly calls the attention of the Korean students to the supposed facts that the Koreans, from their very biological constitution are inferior to the Japanese. (4) During the hours when so called ethics are being taught the Japanese. professor everlastingly reminds the Korean students of the fact that Korea had never enjoyed the benefits of a good government until she was annexed to Japan; that the Koreans ought to be grateful to the Tenno Hyeka for the great sums of money he gave to Korea, etc.
 

9. 5월 9일

1
9th. Friday. Cloudy most of the day. Sultry.
 
2
Stayed at home. 南祖源's sensible remark. One day several landlords were talking about the dishonest of their tenants, 舍音 and 秋收官. Not one of them mentioned their own unfairness or miserliness. So Mr. 南 said to them "Friends, what you say about the dishonesty of 舍音 and 秋收官 is to a great extent true. It is however, your own business to appoint honest men to these posts. As for the poor tenants, I want you to remember that they deserve your consideration. I have heard of and seen many a rich man fail on acc't of dissipation and extravagance; but can you cite me a single instance where a rich man went bankrupt owing to the dishonesty of his tenants?
 

10. 5월 10일

1
10th. Saturday. Sultry-rain.
 
2
Rain all day and late into the night. Stayed at home. Some positive proofs that we Koreans are not yet ready for political independence. 1. In some places, when the country people were informed―(misinformed) that Korea regained her independence, the first thing they did was to cut down and pull up all the trees which the local officers had made them to plant. The ignorant people haven't sense enough to know that they must have trees and more trees when they become independent. 2. Students of the higher schools keep up their strike. These young men ought to have sense enough to realize that no state can exist without education―the more education the more independence you want. 3. Christian pastors at this stage of Koreans' spiritual and political advancement must have sense enough to let politics alone, devoting their time and energe to the moral elevation of the people.
 

11. 5월 11일

1
11th. Sunday. Cool-pretty.
 
2
Wife sick. Stayed at home. Rain not enough. After all is said and done, the world admires ideals but submits to facts. It would be more in harmoney with ideals of justice, if India with its 300 millions of people were left to its independence. But who can deny the fact that the British rule has done more during the last two centuries for the peace and prosperity of India than her native rulers could have accomplished? Theoretically it would have been just to have let the Red-Indians alone and independent in America. But the world is perfectly willing to throw theories to the four winds before the fact that the white man has turned the wild hunting grounds of the Red-Indian into one of the wealthiest and mightiest republics the world has been seen. The love belongs to him who can use it―theory or no theory mere sentiments against facts and mere fists against machine-guns―the world laughs and whirls on.
 

12. 5월 12일

1
12th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 10 a.m. 3:30 p.m. went to 貞洞 Methodist Church to see the wedding ceremony of cousin 致旿 and Miss 玄松子. The bridegroom is 51 years old while the bride is about 30 years younger. Can you imagine a young man of 21 who would love a maid 51 years old well enough to marry her? Yet it often happens that a man sixty years old marries a pretty girl of sixteen. The wonder of all this is that the girl actually loves and fondles her old husband as if he were a thing of beauty. What a wonderful provision of Nature―this!
3
My cousin seems to have the rare fortune of getting a good wife every time he marries.
 

13. 5월 13일

1
13th. Tuesday. Very cool-pretty.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. I asked a young Chinese scholar "How many times have you read Mencius" "Once" said he, "but I am trying to read it the second time. I am sorry the present edition has omitted the detailed commentary so that I can't understand many things which I read." "Never mind" said I, "You may not understand half of what you read, but if you practiced what you do understand in the teachings of Mencius, you will have more than enough to occupy your time. Confucius said. The gist of the 300 Odes, is to think no evil. It will take one whole three score and ten years to get to the place where he may think no evil. Whole libraries have been written about 性, 情, 理, 氣. All for nothing good. But everyone can understand what 己所不知 勿施於人. If we devoted all our efforts to the practice of this and this alone, we may very well afford not to know many other things."
 

14. 5월 14일

1
14th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
來信: 郭漢泳 信來.
3
Today being the birthday of my uncle, went to cousin 致昭's home for breakfast. Y.M.C.A. from 10 a.m. 4 a.m. we had the regular meeting of the Board of Directors.
4
When I intimated to Mr. Brockman my desire to resign after the Annual meeting in June, he begged me to stay until next January. He hopes by that time he can manage to get some Korean from the States to fill the position. From what I know, that will be very improbable―almost impossible. The other day Mr. 陸 hinted that Mr. Hugh Cynn, on his return from America sometime next Fall, might be persuaded to take the place which I desire to resign. As for me I like to settle the question before such possibilities―as the resignation of Mr. 陸 or the return of Mr. Brockman to America.
 

15. 5월 15일

1
15th. Thursday. Beautiful-cool.
 
2
Home until 3:30 p.m. Accepting invitation from Mr. 山縣五十雄 went to Chosen Hotel to meet Mr. 吉本 who has for many years past, devoted his time and money to the education of the blind. Dr. Avison, Mrs. Noble and Mr. Hi Miller were also present. Mr. Yoshimoto expressed his intention to do for the blind in Korea what he has done for those in Japan. He said that he failed when he relied on rich men for financial support for his work, but that trust in God did not fail him. He drew us close to him by his quiet and refined manner and sincere and unpretentious faith in God.
 

16. 5월 16일

1
16th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
致昌, 劉高原 and I went to 彰義門外亭子, taking our lunch with us. The excursion tired me very much. My health seems to be as a low ebb.
3
Oh for a wife who would be a joy instead of constant vexation; a help instead of a hindrance; a peace instead of a pain.
4
Germany is reported to be very mad against the Allies for the conditions of peace they propose to impose on her. Suppose the victorious allies had elected to partition the Empire of Germany as Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia and Austria.
5
The wicked Kaiser instigated the fearful revolution in Russia and that same revolution is ruining Germany as well. The Kaiser is no doubt one of the biggest sinners against humanity the world has known.
 

17. 5월 17일

1
17th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
With 致昌 went to 彰義門亭子. Felt a little stronger than I did yesterday. Returning home about 5 p.m. Went straight to Y.M.C.A. for a bath.
3
Got a card announcing the sudden death of 申勝熙, the detective. 邊壎 tells me that 申 was arrested by the gendarmes two nights ago at the Namtaimoon station on his arrival from Moukden where he had gone on a secret mission. His crime is said to be taking money by threat from a man. 申 swallowed a big dose of opium and committed suicide, in order to escape the disgrace that awaited him at the court. Whether all this is true or not, I am sorry he is dead under such circustances.
 

18. 5월 18일

1
18th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
At 12 p.m. went to Yang Wha Chin to pay my respect to the grave of my departed darling. The population of the cemetary grows gradually.
3
Returned about 4 p.m. Feel so tired.
4
An Osaka paper reports that on the 12th inst., a petition was handed to the Peace Conference at Versailles by the representative of Korea begging that Korea be delivered from the grip of Japan and that the treaty of 1910 be abrogated.
5
If the absence of ambition for worldly honors is a sign of virtue, then I must have become very virtuous. I can think of no worldly honors (official) from those of a King to those of a provincial governor that would tempt me to give up my private retirement.
 

19. 5월 19일

1
19th. Monday. Cloudy―most of the a.m.
 
2
來信: 李鍾元 and money.
3
Y.M.C.A. from 1 to 5 p.m. Mr. Barnhart tells me that the procurator (public) has brought up a suit against Rev. Bell of for man slaughted through criminal negligence. Strange! Mr. Bell about a month ago had his auto overset by a train killing instantly his wife and another missionary. Is this action of the procurator intended to prevent Rev. Bell from filing a complaint against the Rail―road Office or to ventilate the strong anti-American and anti-missionary spirit that prevails in the legal circles of Seoul―or both?
4
While the day classes in the English dept. of the Y. are thinly patronized, the night classes are more crowded than ever before.
 

20. 5월 20일

1
20th. Tuesday. Rain all day and night.
 
2
Stayed at home. 邊壎 came this morning and volunteered the information that a plan is on foot to have another rousing demonstration on the 23d inst. and that Baron Kim Ka Chin(金嘉鎭) is reported to be the leader. Hardly possible. The agitators must have sense enough, by this time, to know that it is practically useless to fool with the independence movement.
3
According to the papers anti-Japanese tide seems to be rising high in China. To whine and fuss about diplomatic failures when they haven't got sense enough to set up a strong, unified government is like whinning about mosquitoes when your house stands in a stagnant filthy ponds.
 

21. 5월 21일

1
21st. Wednesday. Rain in the morning.
 
2
發信: To 禹仁亨. To 白南奎.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual in the afternoon. Mr. Fujizawa is a young Japanese in the Br. and F. Bible Society of Seoul. He has a room on the floor (in the B. and F.B.S.) where Mr. Gregg has his suite of rooms. Mr. F. tells me that he was a schoolmate of Mr. 李一 ; that he had advised Yi not to go to 龍川 when he did; and that he (F) had lent Yi the money for the trip. He talks as if he were in sympathy with the Korean independence movement.
4
So far this year seems to be a record year for big fires in Japan. 3,300 houses burnt in Yokohama; nearly a 1,000 houses in 福岡; 700 houses in 北海道; and a few days ago nearly 1,400 houses in 米澤. Some Koreans think it is a sort of retribution for the crime of having burnt so many villages by the Japanese soldiers. I think it is always presumptuous to apply our interpretations to the (supposed) acts of Heaven.
 

22. 5월 22일

1
22nd. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. betw. 1 and 4 p.m. The official summary of the recent disturbances. 1. Origin: The Korean students in Tokyo petitioned in Feb. the Diet ssession for Kor. independence. 2. Principal movers―the leaders of the Chun Do Kyo and of the Christian Church. 3. Duration of the agitation 58 days. 4. Localities where disturbance occurred 579 places. 5. In 310 places serious crowds. 6. Riotous acts committed 113 places. 7. Result in death and injury 111 places. 8. Rioters dead 399; injured 838. 9. Police and the dead 8; injured 106. 10. 面事務所 attacked 47―police offices attacked 45―Post office and schools 24. No mention is made of the hundreds of Korean houses burnt by the officers of law.
 

23. 5월 23일

1
23rd. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
邊壎 tells me that a printing press hidden in a closet was discovered yesterday, that a stack of printed matters was seized; that the owner and runner of the printing affair is said to be a 李純雨, the uncle of 李相協 of the 京城日報社; a plan of general uprising scheduled to take place today was forstalled by this discovery and that a number of peers are suspected to be in the move. The main streets are heavily guarded by soldiers and gendarmes.
 

24. 5월 24일

1
224th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Called on Dr. Gale in the morning at the request of cousin 致昭 to ask if the Dr. would kindly take some money to cousin's son now studying in Shanghai. Dr. G. consented to do so. He said that he used to think that the Japanese were courageous while the Koreans were cowardly but that he had to revise his opinion the other way. He further said that the Japanese nation is composed of three strata, the Germans at the top, the Bolshivics at the bottom with a minority of wise and liberal viewed persons in the middle.
3
With wife and babies called on Mrs. Hardie. Everybody is of the opinion that the suit against Rev. Bell for accidental homicide is just a trick to save the R.R from being said for damage.
 

25. 5월 25일

1
25th. Sunday. Beautiful-very cool.
 
2
Visited uncle―then an hour in Y.M.C.A. for reading. In the afternoon, went outside of the South Gate. With 劉高原 to inspect the houses to be pulled down for new streets and the South Gate Station. More than seven hundred Korean houses are to be demolished to make room for the station and its accessory buildings. All this improvement is necessary. But the Government should pay the poor Koreans most of whom lose all they have when they lose the little houses they are now giving up―I say the Gov. should pay these Koreans, if not the full value of the land, at least enough to get new houses somewhere else. The So. Manchuiran R.R. Co.―a big profit making business concern robbing the poor Korean under the cover of the Right of Eminent Domain―This is not the best way to make the Korean feel grateful.
 

26. 5월 26일

1
26th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual from 9:30 to 12 p.m. It is reported that the Independence prisoners in the West Gate prison shouted Mansei making the the welkin ring a few nights ago. While they are very foolish one can't help admiring their courage. The treatment of these prisoners is not of the sort to soften their feelings toward their jailors.
3
An Osaka paper reports that the Peace Conference has rejected the petition of the Koreans on the ground that the Korean question had no bearing on the Great War.Ⅰ told you so.
4
The Japan Advertiser reports that a plot to murder the Gov. Genl. and Count Yi Wan Yong was disclosed, early this month, and that the leader is a Yi Taku living in Kanto.
 

27. 5월 27일

1
27th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Prof. Har Dayal, once one of the bitterest opponents to the Britich rule in India, has been converted into a strong believer in the mission of the British Empire to promote the happiness of mankind. In eulogyzing the English language he said among other things, "'You can not argue a man into slavery in the English language'. A primer of English history is worth more than all the history of Asia with their sickening record of sultans, massacres, slavery, empires and dejuracy." I can't help endorsing this opinion, strong as it sounds. Certainly a primer of English history is healthier and more ennobling reading than a whole library of Korean history or history of any of the Eastern Kingdom with its sickening notions of loyalty of womanhood and of government.
 

28. 5월 28일

1
28th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. At 3 p.m. Rev. 石坂 Mr. 川上勇 and Mr. Bowles, representing the Japanese Federation of Churches, came to the Building to meet some Koreans whose opinion they desire to hear on the Korean question. After giving them my views, I introduced Mr. 金昶濟 to them.
3
There used to be two lawyers' associations, one for the Japanese lawyers and another for the Korean. The Japanese so impatient of giving any independent organization to the Korean, amalgamated the two into one in spite of the protest of the Korean lawyers. The Japanese having everything their way, as expected, the Korean members used to absent themselves from the meetings of the association. This year, however, the Koreans were in the majority out the annual meeting and a Korean was elected the Chairman. The Japanese members got mad and appealed to the public procurator, who however, sustained the Korean side. A beautiful illustration. How the two races could get along in an "amalgamated" state.
 

29. 5월 29일

1
29th. Thursday. Cloudy-sultry.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. A Japanese writer says: "The difference between the spirit of a soldier and that of a merchant is that the former's object is to live and kill (his opponents) while the ideal or interest of the merchant is to live and let live. The Japanese is a nation of soldiers, hence their utter disregard of the interest of other people, even a merchant―a Japanese―looks upon his profit in the light of spoils of war." Well said! I have always been of the opinion that the virtues of the Japanese nation are the virtues of a soldier―an Oriental soldier―brave, watchful, thorough, sensitive, quick and capable of a high degree of disciples. On the other hand their vices are also those of a soldier cruel, cunning, suspicious, revengeful, impatient and unscrupulous.
 

30. 5월 30일

1
30th. Friday. Cloudy and sultry.
 
2
發信: 洪川郭漢永.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Learned today from Mr. Wasson that Bishop Hoss had passed away a month ago. His good wife preceded him only about a year. One of the most vivid and indelible pictures in my memory is the picture of Mrs. Hoss, in the glory of her mature beauty, stopping at the front of the Wesley Hall in her buggy with her two boys on her lap. She was returning home on the Campus from the Advocate Office one afternoon and called me out to say something―which I have forgotten. Now she is gone―her beautiy, her ability, her friendship and all. So is her husband, the good Doctor. God bless their surviving children!
4
洪, a student in the C.C.C., one of the handsomest Korean I know of, called on me this morning and said that there is man from Kando (that) to solicit subscriptions for the support of a military school there, and asked me when I might see him. I told him plainly that I didn't want to see him as the interview would be very embarrassing to both of us.
 

31. 5월 31일

1
31st. Saturday. Cloudy.
 
2
Stayed at home the whole a.m. About 11 a.m. seven or eight men waving Korean banners yelled "mansei" at the Bell Square. When the police rushed one of them cut his own throat with a pocket knife while the rest was marched into the Police Station. However much one may disapporove the folly of any further demonstration, none can help admiring the courage of these men for rushing into a veritable hell, with eyes open, for what they believe to be right.
3
The ability of the Koreans to keep the secret, the calmness and skill with which they have conducted their campaign of passive resistance and the courage they have displayed, have opened the eyes of foreigners and Japanese to moral qualities which they once thought extinct in the Korean.
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