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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 8월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권 9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 8월 1일

1
1st. Sunday. Rain.
 
2
Song Do home. It never rains but pours―seems to be the motto of this rainy season. Terrific down pours with short intermissions from early morning all through the day and the night.
3
Actually a year has past since the new Government General came with all kinds of promises and advertisements for reforms for the benefit of the Korean people, the dear children of the Imperial Majesty. Has any of the abuses been removed? Subsidized colonization is pushed on with feverish haste―driving hundreds of Korean families into certain destitution and death in Manchuria to make room for the Japanese farmers―Irrigation companies are literally confiscating valuable fields under the name of Right of Eminent Domain. Redtapism has grown worse. Where is the reform?
 

2. 8월 2일

1
2nd. Monday. Steamy. Rain.
 
2
Song Do home. Rain until 4 p.m. It is reported that the rain yesterday and today has flooded the streets in the West and South wards of the city and has caused much damage and suffering to the people.
3
Who runs the municipal affairs in Song Do? They levied money from 10 sen to ¥500 some years ago to build the 高麗橋. Some of the railing stones have been lying in the water for the last two years but nobody seems to take the trouble of putting them back in their places. Yet this is one of the 指完郡 and 指完郡 where the Kun Su and the 面長 are Japanese drawing salaries 4 or 5 times those of Korean officers of the same rank.
 

3. 8월 3일

1
3rd. Tuesday. Sunny and steamy.
 
2
Song Do home. Tremendous amount of rain all through last night. Candler left for Wonsan early this morning.
3
More than 1,000 houses in West ward were flooded water and mud standing 3 feet in the rooms. The calamity was so sudden that people barely had time to escape with their bodies alone. Household effects, food stuffs all soaked thoroughly. The young men of 高麗靑年會 did noble service in rescuing an distributing rice balls to the terrified people. They were however ordered by the Police not to distribute rice as the work was to be done by the 面所 or district office. The 面所, distributed rice only once―to save the face I suppose. The Police further demanded that any money contributed for the relief work should be turned over to 面 所. People simply quit contributing. What does the Police mean anyway?
 

4. 8월 4일

1
4th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Last night 8:30 p.m. the Negro Quartet composed of three negroes and one white women―very white and pretty―gave a concert. The quartet has had very popular receptions in Seoul. The Song Do people actually paying ¥1 and ¥0.50 a ticket to hear the comic songs of a negro quartet―what a change!
3
By the way Song Do is the only town in Korea which has so far held its ground against the aggressive invasion of the Japanese traders. Economically, Song Do is in a saner position than any city in Korea. This due to the fact that the Song Do people are a race of traders. They are the Jews of Korea.
 

5. 8월 5일

1
5th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Seoul papers are full of the reports of damages done by the recent rain. The Insa Street―the street that runs parallel to our street―the lower section of the East Gate street, the streets on both sides of the Water mark Bridge etc. etc. were flooded causing a great loss to property. The river in villages also sufferred heavily.
3
The Government General is so busy in hounding and examining the independence agitators―is spending so much money in keeping up the police and spy system on an ever enlarging scale that it seems to have neither time nor money to look after the drainage etc. of the city.
 

6. 8월 6일

1
6th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left Song Do by 11:50 a.m. train for Seoul. Arrived home nearly 3:30 p.m. All well at home, thank God.
3
To lose friends by death or separation is sad enough. But to lose friends by estrangement owing to difference of opinions in religion or in politics is sadder. Between these two causes I have lost almost all my early friends.
4
Isn't it possible to be friends though opinions may differ? Possible in theory but impossible in practice.
 

7. 8월 7일

1
7th. Saturday. Sunny and hot.
 
2
Seoul home. "A world safe for democracy" was the war cry of allies. Nearly two years have come and gone since the cessation of the great war. Is the world safe for anything today? The only safe worlds is, or will be, the world where unselfishness rules. As long as selfishness prevails in the councils of nations, great or small, so long will the world be unsafe.
3
The funniest thing in the world, if it were not the saddest, is that every nation pretends that it is the champion of justice and humanity.
 

8. 8월 8일

1
8th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Cholera is raging in the Kyong Sang Province. The dreadful epidemic is making a rapid progress in Seoul. The authorities through posters notices etc. are making laudable efforts for telling the people to observe strict sanitary regulations.
3
"Don't eat unripe fruits. Don't drink unboiled water. Don't eat raw vegitables etc. Destroy files." All very fine these very same authorities seem to take no steps for the rapid and effective removal of the night soil and rubbish which manufacture flies by the millions a day. All for show!
 

9. 8월 9일

1
9th. Monday. Beautiful. Very hot.
 
2
This morning a Japanese detective 河口 called and asked me if I knew of the preparations that are being made by the Koreans to welcome the party of American Congressmen. I told him that I, being one of the entertainment committee of 15, I ought to know something of the matter. But as a matter of fact, I didn't know what plants have been adopted by the committee since my absence from Seoul during the last week or two has prevented me from attending any of the meetings. He further asked me if it were true that the committee intend to present a written statement of the Korean situation to the American visitors. I told him that I hadn't heard of it. When I suggested that the alarming spread of cholera in Seoul might deter the Americans from visiting the city. He laughed―why―I don't understand.
3
By 11:50 train, left Seoul with mother, 庶母 and 善姬 for Song Do home. Arrived home about 3 p.m.
 

10. 8월 10일

1
10th. Tuesday. Sunny. Very hot.
 
2
Song Do home. If what the detective told me yesterday about the plan, on the part of the Reception Comm. of presenting a written statement of the Korean situation to the American visitors be true, I for one don't approve of the scheme. For lst, it is unnecessary, if the Americans wanted to know Japanese doings in Korea they could have gotten all the information they cared for in the pamphlets, and newspaper articles which the Korean patriots and their friends in America and in China have already published and distributed. 2nd, it is useless. Suppose these Americans were all sympathisers for the Koreans. They have neither the power nor the intention of risking a great war with Japan for the doubtful independence of Korea. An American is not an eccentric dreamer. 3rd. Why this unnecessary and useless stepping on the sore corns on the political foot of Japan? Just as Japan will never succeed in winning the Korean by persisting in anti-Korean language, anti-Korean policy and anti-Korean propaganda, Koreans will make the situation worse by uselessly antagonizing the Japanese. We must remember the proverb that the law is further away than the fist, and heed the shrewd advice not to bark until you can bite at the same time.
 

11. 8월 11일

1
11th. Wednesday. Cloudy and steamy.
 
2
恩姬 sick of fever.
3
Song Do home. Picnic at 帳幽台.
 

12. 8월 12일

1
12th. Thursday. Rain.
 
2
恩姬 sick.
3
Song Do home. Gentle showers from early morning. Very refreshing.
4
As a step toward local self-government the Gov. General proposes to introduce 面(District) 郡(County) 府(Prefecture) 道(Province) 協議會 or Consulting bodies. The members of the 面 or District Assembly are to be appointed by the District Headman or 面長 except in 指完面 or the District where the Headman is a Japanese. In the Prefectural and Provincial Assemblies of the members are to be appointed by the Prefect or the Governor while the East are to be elected by popular voter. The questions on which opinions of the so called assemblies are to be sought are confined to how to raise money in the 面 or the 郡 or the 府 or the 道 What a farce!
 

13. 8월 13일

1
13th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
恩姬 sick.
3
Song Do home. Mr. 劉元杓 called in the afternoon. He is an exceedingly clever man. He thinks and always tries to think and talk differently from others―ancient or modern. He says some bright things awfully conceited. He pretends that he is better than Confucius, Buddah and Christ. Had he been born in America or Europe he might have become a respectable philosopher. His everlasting bragging of his own learning and wisdom keeps people away from him. Being disgusted with the wordy emptiness of the Confucian scholars he insists that gain(利) and not morality(道德) should be our motive and object.
 

14. 8월 14일

1
14th. Saturday. Cloudy.
 
2
恩姬 a little better.
3
Song Do home.
4
Either let Japan say to Korea frankly and openly: "We have annexed Korea as the prize of two bloody wars. We can't and will not let you go independent. If you want independence fight us conquer us and drive us out. Till then, we will keep you by force."
5
Or let Japan say frankly and sincerely: "We need you Korea as a brother, but not as a slave. We will grant you self-government as soon as you are ready. Independence we will give you when you will have proved that you are able to manage it. Till then we will do our best to teach you, train you and enrich you." But the present policy of Japan is neither the one nor the other. Half hearted reforms insincere promises, sugar coated bitterness are driving the Koreans into discontentment, discouragement and despair.
6
On the other hand, the Koreans ought to quit useless agitations and devote time and energy to the mental and economical conditions of the people. Sheer beggars howling "manseis" will never bring independence to Korea. Worse still, when independence does come, ignorant and poverty stricken people can't keep it.
 

15. 8월 15일

1
15th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Worshipped at Northward Church. Preacher Kang Jo Won took a text and rode it all over the creation.
 

16. 8월 16일

1
16th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Cool mornings and pleasant evenings. Very hot during the day.
3
Sent 白雲◉ to Asan to distribute 50 bags of unhulled rice among the tenants.
4
Mr. 金永燦 called. I first met him at Chinnanpo in 1901 when he was the Post Master there. He is a son-in-law of 劉大痴 who, no doubt, was one of the leading plotters of the 1884 coupdetat. Mr. Kim suffered imprisonment for three long years and owes his life to the China―Japanese war.
5
Mr. Kim's son who was but a boy when I first saw him is a doctor in the city, having three nice children. How time flies.
 

17. 8월 17일

1
17th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Called on Mr. 劉元杓 in the forenoon.
3
Today's Dong-A-Il-po gives the news that the Police authorities are busy in searching, unearthing and arresting persons who are suspected of making plans for a grand demonstration on the occasion of the visit of the American legislators. One of the events in the program is to shout "mansei" and set up great wailing when the party arrives at the Seoul Station. Another is to kill a few of the visitors―in order to arouse anti-Japanese sentiment in America so as to hasten the American Japanese war! What silly things the Independence hotheads propose! Wailing is childish enough but any attempt at the life of the visitors would hurt the cause of Korea beyond measure.
 

18. 8월 18일

1
18th. Wednesday. Beautiful. Cool evening.
 
2
Song Do home. When Genl. Min Yong Whan's corpse was lying in state, the members of then diplomatic corps came to pay their respect to the memory of the patriot. Yun Chul Ku and Im Pyong Haing came to me and suggested that we, Koreans, should set up big wailing (痛哭) when the foreigners came I told them no amount of wailing would do any good, and that such puerile act would only advertise our weakness. If what the paper says is true, the Koreans are still in the silly belief that this world of iron and blood could be moved by childish wailing. By the way, the subsequent career of both Yun and Im proved their unworthiness.
 

19. 8월 19일

1
19th. Thursday. Sunny and breezy East wind―too much.
 
2
Song Do home. Papers report that the Chinese presented a petition to the American legislators begging them to help China against Japan. Shame on the Chinese! A nation of 400 millions of intelligent and industrious people―with a proud history of 40 centuries behind them―having neither sense or patriotious enough to organize a strong central government―actually begging others to help them while they keep their country in a helpless condition by internecine struggles between selfish leaders―a sight too pitiful, too contemptible to behold!
3
Had a visit from Dr. Koo just returned from America. He graduated M.D. from the Emory University.
 

20. 8월 20일

1
20th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Dr. Koo tells me that Bishop Candler is so strongly opposed to intercollegiate games that many a young man is turned away from the Emory University. That sounds like Dr. Shorty. He is a strong man but he is sometimes over strong to his own hurt. He can no more shut out intercollegiate games from his school than the Korean conservatives can shut up their girls as they used to. Conservatism dies hard; yet isn't it after all best that it is so? Too hasty innovations are often more dangerous than conservatism.
 

21. 8월 21일

1
21st. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. When I asked Dr. Koo why he didn't spend some years in a well equipped hospital in America as an intern to learn the practical applications of the theories of medicine he had studied in school, he said that the racial prejudice hence racial contempt is so strong in America that it would turn any man's stomach to be the object of the ceaseless slight and undisguised discrimination on the part of the nurses and doctors in a hospital toward an Asiatic. I know too well what he is talking about.
3
The late Mrs. Ha (河蘭史) in an address after she returned from her last visit to America said: "When I lived in America as a student so absorbed I was in studies that I didn't realize the racial prejudice of the people. But this time wherever I went I was made to feel it so much so that I regretted many, many a time that I even consented to visit America again."
 

22. 8월 22일

1
22nd. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Worshipped at 北部禮拜堂. Mrs. Hong P.S. preached. He is a good speaker but his voice is a little too harsh.
3
Racial pride, like water seeks lower level. As long as there is inferiority any where racial pride will flow toward it as sure as water runs down and never up. No use wining; no use fretting; no use hating. If we Koreans want to be treated like other people we ought to become like other people. Not until thatched huts are replaced by sky scrapers; dirty alleys, by magnificent streets and boulevards, ignorance, by intelligence; poverty, by wealth, weakness by strength; not until then may we hope to be treated as we treat the American.
 

23. 8월 23일

1
23th. Monday. Cloud and sunshine.
 
2
Song Do home. A vigorous down pour between 9 and 10:30. Mother and party left for Seoul by 2:30 p.m. train.
3
Japan seems to be playing a dangerous game in China and Siberia, pitting one political party against another. This game succeeded only too well in Korea. The Japs are certainly a wonderful people. Pity their heart is not as great as their head is clever. Many a Korean thinks that the harsh and unpopular policies which the Japanese are carrying out in Korea is rather a blessing in disguise so far as the Koreans' future is concerned.
 

24. 8월 24일

1
24th. Tuesday. Steamy.
 
2
Song Do home. Occasional showers.
3
A letter from Mr. H. Cynn―strongly urges me to be present at the reception to be given to the American Congressional Party Thursday p.m. He says: Personally I hope very much that you will deem it wise to return to Seoul and be here during their stay whether such a reception is given or not... the people are unnecessarily over nervous and sensitive and it will be good things for everybody concerned if you can be in Seoul at this time." I think I shall go.
 

25. 8월 25일

1
25th. Wednesday. Steamy.
 
2
Left Song Do for Seoul by the 11:50 a.m. train. Rain just as I got into the car. It rained hard when I got off at Ryong San about 3:30 p.m. Took tram for Jong No. When we got to Kurikai or 黃金町 we were told that we had to get off as the car wouldn't go to Jong No―which was a great surprise to me. While I walked on to Jong No, I asked someone the reason for this sudden stop of the cars and I was told it was because of the reception of the American party in Y. at 3:30! I went straight to Y. and found the lobby full of people who informed me that the reception had just been called off by the order of the police.
3
Unexpectedly Mr. H. of California came to the building. The large auditorium was immediately filled. Mr. H. when he rose to say something in the way of apology the crowed rose en mass shouting hurrahs. I interpreted for Mr. H. Then Mr. Y.S.C. spoke. The police came in by scores and ordered the crowed to remain seated until further notice.
 

26. 8월 26일

1
26th. Thursday. Cloud and sunshine.
 
2
Seoul home. Yesterday p.m. incidents: the police politely asked Mr. H. to leave the building and return to his hotel. Mr. Gregg was also asked by the police to retire from the auditorium as "the police had some matter to attend to in regard to the meeting." Mr. G. retired without protest. But when Mr. H. said how things looked threatening, he flatly refused to budge a step until the crowd be let out, saying that it was he and not the Koreans, that was responsible for the meeting. The police was nonplussed; so after a brief consultation among themselves, they agreed to let the crowd go on the simple condition that we, Mr. Yi S.C. and I, would testify that the crowd did not shout "manseis."
3
But for the presence of mind on the part of Mr. H. and his firm attitude, we would have had no little trouble with the police.
 

27. 8월 27일

1
27th. Friday. Sun and cloud.
 
2
About 10 a.m. called on Dr. and Mrs. Hardie who had returned to Seoul a week or so ago. Good reports about Helen. Took lunch at Dr. Hardies.
3
Mr. Hobb tells me that the Y. building was surrounded by double cordons of policemen fully armed the day before yesterday; that when a young fellow attempted to break through the cordon he was set up on by seven policemen and beaten so savagely that Mrs. Hobb wept at the sight of this display of "Yamato damashi."
4
Left Seoul by 4:20 p.m. train for Song Do. Reached home about 8 p.m.
 

28. 8월 28일

1
28th. Saturday. Rain. Steamy.
 
2
Song Do home. The American Congressional Party came and went. The Japanese authorities succeeded only to a limitted degree, in making cholera and Korean bombs a scarecrow to frighten away the party. The police should have let the Koreans yell "manseis" to their heart's content. They would have advertized the Korean's anti-J. feelings to the American party far less than the excessive and oppressive police measures which were taken to prevent the popular manifestations of Korea's discontent. In the course of their entire trip, the American visitors could nowhere have received a more interesting and exciting reception than Seoul from the Korean population.
 

29. 8월 29일

1
29th. Sunday. Rain and steamy a.m. Beautiful p.m.
 
2
Song Do home. Between 2 and 8 a.m. tremendous down pours with short intervals of rest. Beautiful evening. Worshipped at Northward Church. I spoke in the evening service. Took my text from the last portion of Act 27th Chapter where it is recorded that Paul by keeping his senses by not running into panic saved not only himself but 270 fellow passengers. A Korean proverb says "He who keeps his sense will not die even in the mouth of a tiger." □狼 일 물려가도 精神만 일치아느면 산다. In this age of universal revolutions in politics, in education, in economics and in religion, it is most important that we keep our senses. Don't let our passions run away without reason.
 

30. 8월 30일

1
30th. Monday. Steamy a.m. Rainy p.m.
 
2
Song Do home. Mr. 兪星濬 and 徐光世 took lunch at our home. They seemed to enjoy the place.
3
Mr. 兪 who is the Vice Gov. of Kyong Kui Province tells me that the Japanese consult him even less after the Independence Movement began than before.
4
I have heard time and again that Mr. An Chang Ho is so sectional in his sentiment that he thinks independence itself not worth having if it were secured through the efforts of the Central and Southern Koreans. The North Western Kor. have deep seated enmity against the Central and Southern people, but I can hardly believe that a leader like An could entertain any sectional prejudices. If he does that one single fact proves that the Koreans are not ready for independence yet.
 

31. 8월 31일

1
31st. Tuesday. Cloudy.
 
2
Song Do home. Our darling Moonhui left Song Do for Seoul by 2:30 p.m. train as her opens tomorrow. I shall miss her so much. She is a beautiful child and very intelligent. I wish she had a mother who should and might have been a model for intelligence and sweetness, instead of being only for coarseness and ill tempered frivolity.
3
Margaret (明姬) is a bright and lovable little thing showing in her childish ways a spirit of generosity and of sympathy, not so common in other children. But she has been all through the summer troubled with little sores making her fretful. Grace, 恩姬, is delicate and affectionate. Our baby boy 璋善 is our joy.
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

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