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◈ 윤치호일기 (1905년) ◈

◇ 10월 ◇

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1. 10월 1일

1
1st. (3rd of 9th Moon). Sunday.
 
2
A shower then a beautiful rainbow just outside of my window on the seashore. A good omen, I hope.
3
At 8 a.m. Mr. H.P. Baldwin of the Punene plantation sent for me his automobile. A fine but dusty ride. Reaching his house about 9. I was sent to the Kihei plantation on a train to address about 57 Koreans. The Kihei plantation looked very dreary―no trees, no shades, no water―visible.
4
On the way to Mr. Baldwin house stopped at Camp 5 and talked to about 70 or 80 Koreans. They gave me a lunch. The crowd rather decent. The cabins the best I have seen. Reaching Mr. B's residence about 12:30, I went up to my room and rested until 4 p.m. When I addressed a group of Koreans numbering about 200, I am told that the policemen and the Lunas have been rather harsh in compelling Koreans to work. While the Koreans complain that they have been too roughly treated, their compulsory work helped them to earn money. An elderly man has saved over 500―$ 400 in bank. Two other men are carrying about 300 in their pockets. I did my best to persuade the men to keep their savings in the bank or in the office.
5
Mr. Baldwin is a good Christman while his wife is a remarkably young looking woman for the mother of six big young men.
 

2. 10월 2일

1
2nd. Monday.
 
2
Too nervous for a good rest. Up at 6 a.m. Talked to two Korean young men working in company not to enter into contract work without fully understanding the nature of the contract, but to carry it out to the finish loss or profit, once they sign it.
3
Just before leaving the place at 8:30 a.m. visited the hospital capacity for 54 patients. Two white nurses one very pretty and the other very good looking. But both had scornful and cynical expressions, which did not become hospital nurses. Their constant contact with patients whom they look upon as inferior beings, not only socially but racially may have given them those disdainful looks and airs. The doctor in charge is a handsome young man.
4
To Wailuku in a train, thence to the Lahaina plantation in a carriage, 25 miles. Reached Lahaina a little past 12. The manager, Mr. Scrimger away on business, but word was left with his bookkeeper to entertain me in his (Manager's) house. Lunch then a little rest. Mr. Scrimger returned home about 4 p.m.
5
The little town or village of Lahaina seems to be in the hands of Japanese. Hardly anybody else seen on the street and shops.
6
About 200 Koreans in two camps, Kannapali and Lahaina. After supper they came to the manager's house with flags and Korean lanterns. Gave them necessary exhortations. The Japanese on this plantation struck for higher wages. They first persuaded the Koreans to join the strike. Koreans not consenting, the Japanese threatened them. The manager had policemen to guard the Korean camps. I advised the Koreans not to strike as their inefficiency as workmen and the smallness of their number would cause the managers no inconvenience if they all struck.
7
The Kannapali men seemed to be the better set. They insisted to escort me to the boat. I had the hardest time of it to persuade them to go home. Finally they left 6 men with lanterns to see me off while the rest wnet away.
8
It was 12 when I went aboard the S.S. Moana Loa―a nice little boat.
 

3. 10월 3일

1
3rd. Tuesday.
 
2
The steamer reached Honolulu about 7 a.m. The Japanese fishing sampans with white sails bravely riding the waves here and there and everywhere made the entrance to the harbor. Went direct to the Hawaiian Hotel.
3
Well, in the 25 days since I landed on Honolulu, I have visited 32 plantations on the islands of Oahu, Kanai, Hawaii and Mani. Made 41 speeches to about 5,000 Koreans. My impressions:
4
1. Hawaii has certainly a charming climate. But I would miss the beauties and glories of a Korean autumn. The people in a tropical country live only one fourth of their lives in regard to seasons. I do not like that.
5
2. Where are the Hawaiians or Kanakas? They are dying out rapidly. Some tell me that it is the missionary and his teaching that are exterminating the native race by educating them away from their primitive healthy habits of life. Missionaries hold the alcoholism and other vices and diseases which bad whites have introduced to the islands responsible for the destruction of the Kanakas. To my mind, the latter is the likelier explanation of the two; but the main cause seems to be found in the incurable laziness of the kanaka himself, who proves himself unable to survive the struggle for life which the white and other races have imported. It interests and pains me to learn that some of the characteristics of the Kanaka are those of Koreans (1) Good nature (2) Hospitality―I am told a Kanaka lives upon his more fortunate friend or relative until the latter goes broke. They then move into another fellow's hut and sponge on him until he gets bankrupt, and so on. (3) Laziness. A kanaka would not work unless he is compelled by hunger. Then he works for a few dollars and as long as that lasts he is happy and lazy again.
6
Another great cause of the decrease of the natives is that their girls marry the Chinese or the whites or anybody rather than their own race. Thus the Kanakas are partly absorbed into other and stronger races.
7
3. I do not think I would care to live in Hawaii or any other American state. The whites make the racial discriminations so sharp and so galling that I would as soon live on a pin cushion as in America.
8
4. Most of the Koreans I have asked tell me that they were deceived by the recruiting agent. They (the emigrants) seem to have thought that gold dollars were blossoming on every bush in Hawaii, so that all they had to do to be rich was to pick the dollars into their pockets. But they have found written over the islands the eternal truth uttered by St. Paul, "If any would not work, let him not eat." Between the broad Pacific on one hand and starvation on the other, even a Korean has to work. Those who do work earn more than he could in Korea. A girl of 14 in Wailna earned 14 a month. The laborers on the Ewa plantation have more than a dozen of wheels. It made me mad to hear a big strong fellow whine that he could not make enough to pay his passage back.
9
5. Wherever I went the complaint was not so much against the plantation managers as against the loafers among the Koreans. These parasites go from one camp to another, carrying a pack of cards and with it disorganization and demoralization. I found the managers almost unanimous in favor of the pass-book system. In fact until some sort of system is adopted to compel the loafers to work or quit, the renewal of the emigration would be injurious to the Koreans who are already in the islands and disgraceful to Korea.
10
6. That the Korean does not save is the universal complaint everywhere. What is left to him after deducting his store debts is sucked dry by Japanese prostitutes, Japanese liquor dealers, and Japanese stage drivers. The first thing a Korean buys is a gold watch, so called. He does not know how to handle it even. A Japanese sharper would tell him to wind it only partly. The watch stops. The simple goose of a Korean goes to the Japanese and asks him to doctor it. The Japanese takes it, looks at it inside and out then winds it to its full. The watch goes all right again. The Korean pays 1.50 or 2.00 for this trick. At home or abroad, on the land or on the sea, the Korean is the meat and bread of the Japanese!
11
7. Japanese, so polite and agreeable in their own land, are so sour, rude and disagreeable when met abroad. One great attraction to a Korean in Hawaii is that he does not stand in awe of the Japanese.
12
8. Hawaii's population is composed of every race under heaven, the Kanakas, the negroes, the Chinese, the Japanese, the Koreans, the Portugese, the Puerto Ricans, the Scandinavians, the Russians etc., all ready to fly at each other's throat, but for the strong hand of Uncle Sam, which keeps everyone in his place. If the white man would withdraw from the islands, there is only one race that can take up the work and carry it on namely, the Japanese.
13
9. A Korean named 林 at Ewa gave me 10 for the Treasury Department, I tried to persuade him to send the money to the Y.M.C.A. or to a Hospital―but he would not listen to me―The god of a Korean is the government. though Moloch it be.
 
14
At 9 a.m. called on Mr. Saito and but no answer from Seoul. Made up my mind to leave Honolulu for Korea on the S.S. Manchuria which, sails at 5 p.m. At 10 a.m. called on Reverend Wadman, the earnest and kind friend of the Koreans. I advised him to give the managers the names of his helpers (Koreans) so that no wolf may go about preying on the lambs in sheepskin of Christian preachers.
15
At 1:30 p.m. went to the Planters Association Room to meet the members of that solid and able body. I strongly recommended the adoption of the pass-book system.
16
At 3 p.m. with 宋憲樹 went aboard the S.S. Manchuria, weighed anchor at 5:30. Good-bye to the land of liquid sunshine and solid hospitality.
 

4. 10월 14일

1
14th. Saturday.
 
2
After a voyage of 9 days and some hours, the great steamer arrived at Yokohama at 7 p.m. Some remarks on the voyage.
3
1. I shared my cabin with Mr. C.K. Ai, the Chinese who has the city Mill in Honolulu. He is a cousin of 種文邦. He speaks English well and seems a level headed man of forty.
4
2. Four Japanese among the passengers―one a nice looking youngman returning from England. But three of the four so puffed up that I thought they would burst like the frog which tried to look as big as the bull.
5
3. Mr. J. W. Bryan, the Democratic leader, was the lion of the ship. Mr. Pokotilov, the Russian Minister to Pekin, on board. He looked so dark and deep. I did not like him at all.
6
4. I was so ashamed of my nationality that I kept myself studiously alone. Dr. O'Neil, the Ship's Surgeon, was the only man who noticed me and said kind words to me. He wanted to come to Korea for medical work, but I told him frankly that it would not pay He told me that Mr. Swanzy had offered him the position in the Eleade plantation hospital and that he would take it after this trip. A kind friend in a crowd of haughty men and women is so refreshing.
7
5. Bryan asked me how it Korean liked the terms of the peace. I said "The weak nations of the earth have to take things as they come and not as they like." "That is well put," said the great Democrat leader. I thought one time of unburdening myself about the Japanese doings in Korea, but I held back. For, when Bryan shall visit Korea he will see for himself what good for nothings the Koreans are.
8
6. When I left the steamer, there were only two fine looking women who smiled me a farewell―two Jewesses, Heaven bless them.
 
9
At about 9 a.m. I gave my keys for my trunks to the Takano Hotel men to pass the customs and went ashore To the Hotel straight, then to the Specie Bank for cashing the draft and exchanging the U.S. dollars. When I returned to Takanoya, the trunks were all there. To me it is Japan and not Hawaii that is the paradise of the Pacific.
10
At 2 p.m. came to Tokio. The China Squadron of England is visiting Japan. Yokohama and Tokio, in fact the whole Island Empire, seems crazy with pride and delight.
11
Put up in the Kinsekwan. A splitting headache.
12
Minister Cho called on me at 7 p.m. From him, I learned that Yi Yong Ik had gone to France, that General Hasegawa had expelled Hyon Yung Woon and his wife from Seoul, and that Pak Jai Soon is the Minister of F.A.Korea is still a Dual Anarchy―the Korean Palace and government too corrupt and imbecile and impotent to enforce laws for the protection of the people while the Japanese prolongs and encourages this corruption, imbecility and impotence in order (1) to make Korean government stink, (2) to foment insurrections and disorder everywhere so as to give Japanese the pretext for military occupation; (3) and to enable the Japanese to grab land and houses everywhere under the shade of the confusion and disorganization.
 

5. 10월 15일

1
15th. (17th of 9th Moon). Sunday.
 
2
Wrote to Father and Mother.
3
Mr. Hayashi arrived at Tokio from Korea. Baron Komura expected to be in Tokio tomorrow. The popular feeling is still strong against Komura for what his political enemies call his diplomatic failure in giving up indemnity and part of Sagahlin in the peace negotiations.
4
Called on my cousin. He tells that in "1895" Pak Y.H. plotted with Woo P.A.O.Y.J., and K.Y.I. to depose the Queen and to compel His Majesty to abdicate in favor of Prince Ui-Wha.
 

6. 10월 16일

1
16th. Monday.
 
2
In the morning went with minister Cho to see Prince Ui-Wha, but absent. The Prince is wasting his money on the singing girls of Tokio. He is thoroughly hopeless.
3
Lunch at the Korean Legation.
4
The Maruzen Book Store tells me that the sets of the International Cyclopedior which they have sent through the Express Co. to my address in Seoul were lost when the ship carrying them sank a month ago near Chemulpo. Two new sets wee then sent, but no information as to their safe arrival.
5
At 7 p.m. dined with Mr. Stery and Denison in the Tokio Club. Nothing special from Mr. S. He said that he had been trying his best to modify and do away with the military rule in Korea. Well nothing about Korea now interests me. It is my firm belief that Japanese will keep on making trouble in Korea until they have annexed the hopeful peninsula. If they want examples, there are Hawaii, Cuba and the Trans Val Republic where American and English grabbers got these countries into difficulty just to give America and England excuses for swallowing them (the weaker countries) . Korea wa smade to enable Japanese to practice the meanness they have learned from their American and European teachers.
6
At about 7:30 Mr. Han Chi Yu of the Legation brought me a telegram from the Foreign Office, Seoul, to the following effect. "Yun's Mexican traveling expenses 600 Yen sent by the mail steamer. Start at once. (郵船便尹協辨墨西哥旅費六百元加撥卽爲發行外部“)
7
In answer I said: "Round ticket from Tokio to Mexico Yen 1, 164. Hotel expenses in Mexico Yen 400. Total Yen 1, 564. Yen 490 formerly received plus Yen 600 now coming, total Yen 1,090. Deficiency Yen 473. Better instruct Korean Legation Washington to investigate and reportreply.
8
The full text of the Peace is published in today's papers. Russia, recognizing the paramount political, military and economical interests Japan has in Korea, engages not to obstruct or interfere with any measure Japan may deem necessary to take for the guidance, 指導, protection 保護, and control 監理 of affairs in Korea.
9
The war is thus definitively ended. Russia got the lesson of it; Japan, the glory of it; Korea, the worst of it. Under the galling slavery of Japan, Koreans will learn that the despotism of their own rulers has been the stepping stone to the despotism of alien masters. If Koreans survive the fire of the Japanese tyranny, they will prove their fitness to exist. But if they succumb they are no better than the Hawaiians and do not deserve to exist. Future only will tell what Koreans can do under proper circumstances.
 

7. 10월 19일

1
19th.
 
2
Lunch at the Tokio Club with Stevens. Mr. Hayashi was of the party. "I received", said Hayashi, "many a letter from Koreans threatening to kill me. But I never paid them any attention. I know Koreans have no courage to do that." At the suggestion of Hayashi, Stevens sent a telegram to Seoul advising the Foreign Office not to send me to Mexico.
 

8. 10월 21일

1
21.st.
 
2
Prince Wi-wha called on me about 3 p.m. like a good Korean, he lamented the unhapy condition of Korea, blamed those who have sold the country, and praised Yi Yong Ik for the stand he had recently made against japan. The Prince informed me that the Korean government had wired the Legation in Paris not to receive Yi Yong Ik. “I have" said the Prince, "telegraphed to the Palace to do something to prevent Japan from assuming protectorships over Korea and to keep the Foreign Legations in Seoul. Good men ought to be sent to America and Europe to enlist public opinion on behalf of the Korean independence. To do that, I must have money.
3
But His Majesty would not give me a cent for that. What do you think of my scheme?"
4
I said: "Your Highness has been long in America, hence must know its opinions. But to my mind it is absurd to think of independence without good internal government. During the ten years between the China-Japan war and the present one, Korea was as independent as England.
5
What did we do? Your Highness knows well enough how these ten years had been spent. Now, let bygones be bygones. Suppose the President of the U.S., desiring and willing to help us, should ask you to guarantee that Korea would from this day on honestly strive for a thorough internal reformation, would you guarantee it?"
6
The Prince, smiling, replied. "No, I can not guarantee that" "Then," said I, "I do not think anybody will help us."
 

9. 10월 25일

1
25th.
 
2
Tokio and Yokohama have been ablaze with colors by day and illuminations by night. these three days. There was the naval review in Shinagawa on the 23rd and the triumphal entry of Admiral Togo on the 25th. Japanese have good reasons to be elated and jubilant, But I hate the very sight of the Japanese colors. I hate their songs. I hate to hear their rejoicings.
3
Bryan has been accorded a flattering reception by the Japanese. B in return, has been flattering Japaneses skyhigh. I am glad I did not say a word to B. about Japanes.
4
Stevens phoned me this morning that Pak Jai Soon had answered his telegram, insisting that I should go to Mexico. I sent another long message insisting that I should be in Seoul. So far as I am concerned I am willing enough to go, if I had money enough.
5
The Tokio weather, since I have been here, has been miserable. Rainy, gloomy, and chilly―like the Japanese in their attitude to Korea.
6
In a letter to Stevens under the date of Oct. 23rd, 1905. I said: "It is interesting that I used, in our last conversation, identically the same expression as you had been using, viz.: It is high time that Japan should quit flirting with the Emperor and win back the confidence of the people."
7
This can be done by giving the people what they have been sighing for the security of life and property. In this respect, the Korean is positively worse off now than even before the war. Then he had only Korean officials to fear. Now he is tyranized and terrorized by the Japanese coolies, whose hame is Legion, and who are amenable to no laws, either Korean, which can not touch them; or Japanese, which do not reach them. A Dual Anarchy reigns under which no Korean is safe but a beggar. This won't do.
 
8
1. Separate the P. from politics.
9
2. Let Yi Chi Yong, Yi K.T.Yi Bong Nai and all the rest of the thieves go. Put honest men in the Home, the Law and the Police Department.
10
3. Force no more concessions or agreements or treaties on Korea. The paramount interests of Japan are fully secured by what she has already gotten in Korea.
11
4. When a Japanese is caught wronging a Korean, let him (the Japanese) be punished to the full extent of law. I have noticed that the Japanese authorities seem to be guided by two axioms in dealing with complaints which a Korean brings against a Japanese, etc., (1st) that a Japanese can do no wrong; and (2nd) that if he, by the merest accident, happens to do wrong, it is the bounden duty of the Japanese of icial to cover it up. These clannish maxims and practice may have been necessary in Japan‘s weaker days, but now She is strong enough to be just, if not magnanimous, to the Korean who has been made to give up everything to Japan’s safe keeping.
 
12
"As an individual Korean I thank you as an individual American and friend, for the efforts, you have been making for the amelioration of the condition of Koreans. But past experience tells me not to entertain too high a hope for your success. I have always believed and I see no reason to change my belief, that justice has been the dream of the weak, but tyranny, the practice of the strong. If Koreans writhe under the double tyranny now and possibly a worse one hereafter, they have none to blame but their own weakness."
13
In Pak Jei Soon's telegram to Stevens, the Yen 600 was said to have been given by His Majesty. Stevens thinks that he Palace is anxious to send me to Mexico not out of any solicitude for the Koreans in Yucatan but of some political motive to show the foreign nations that the Korean government is managing its own foreign affairs. In either case I do not think the Palace is wrong for this once.
 

10. 10월 27일

1
27th. Friday.
 
2
The first really beautiful day I have seen since I came to Tokio. Met Prince Wui-wha at the Legation. Yi Kui Hyon, the interpreter of the british Legation, Seoul, is said to have been given Yen 5,000 to work for the independence of Korea in London!
3
At the invitation of Minister Cho, and Mr. Han, we dined in the Chinese restaurant 偕樂亭 managed by a Japanese. The food was a cross between the Chinese and the Japanese cuisine―very good, too.
 

11. 10월 28일

1
28th. Saturday.
 
2
This morning's paper reports that Yi Kui Hyon was arrested by the Japanese gendarmes at Chemulpo, as he was going to leave the wharf for a Chinese steamer. The heads of the refugees used to be the article to get which sealawags, both Korean and Japanese, were paid by His Majesty incredible sums of money, though he never saw a sign of the goods. Now, independence is the commodity for which His Majesty seems to be pying handsomely, though he will never get the article. Am told Hulbert and Martel have been sent to America and France respectively to pick up an independence for Korea in the streets of Washington and of Paris. Martel is a character who would stoop to any kind of dirty tricks if there is money in it; but that Mr. H. should join the crowd I can not believe.
3
Telegram to Foreign Office, Seoul, "Traveling expense for Mexico not come. Shall I return? Answer." This is the 3rd message I have sent.
4
At the invitation of Baron Canda, 神田乃武, attended the monthly meeting of the English Speaking Society 英語會 held in the Takaradei 寶亭. The society composed of the Japanese who speak English―over a hundred members. Nothing but English used in the meeting. A few English and Americans. After the dinner Baron Kanda gave a paper on the effects of the War on the Society of Japan. It was a well written paper. Unquestionably the Baron is a great master of the English language. I met him in 1882 He taught me the A.B.C. of the English language for a week. He is one of the few Japanese gentlemen whom I remember with pleasure. I called on him a few days ago and left my card in his absence. He returned my call promptyl.
5
Returning from the meeting I found a message from Seoul telling me to return.
 

12. 10월 29일

1
29th. Sunday.
 
2
Mr. Han Chi Yu of the Korean Legation came to see me early this morning. He told me that Prince Wi-Wha is trying to sell a copper mine, 3,000,000 Tsubos, in Kap-san to a Japanese for one million Yen. The copy of the contract says that the Prince had already received Yen 10,000 of the sum; that the balance of 900,000 Yen will be paid in 3 instalments of 300,000 Yen each; that in case the contract is broken by the Korean government, the Prince will have to pay ten times the amount he as already received, etc. one million Yen, as indemnity, that all the legal cost for any litigation about the mines between the Korean government and the concessionaire is to be paid by the Prince.
3
The Japanese who got this precious contract is trying to sell it to an English firm in Yokohama. Mr. Kirby, asked Mr. Han about the legality of the transaction. Hence this discovery. The Prince is certainly a worthy son of the sire. The little hopeful is a prince of darkness all right enough. He is one of the rottenest eggs I have ever struck.
4
At 8 a.m., accompanied by Mr. O-ba of the Transoceanic Emigration Co., I went to the villa of Mr. Den, the vice-minister of Communication. Electric car to 新宿. Rail-Road to 目黑. Rickshaw about 6 1/2 miles to the villa, on the Tamagawa river. Over ten thousand Tsubo of ground, beautifully laid out. The property originally belonged to the Minister of Hawaii. During the course of lunch, Mr. Den gave a most interesting account of the affair between 池建永 and 金玉均 when the former attempted to assassinate the latter. Returned by the 6.40 train. Without exception, the most pleasant day I have spent in my sojourn of 50 days in Tokio. The day was lovely, The ride refreshing through the country. The host charming. The villa beautiful.
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