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◈ 윤치호일기 (1905년) ◈

◇ 9월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권 10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 9월 7일

1
7th.(9th of 8th Moon).Thursday.
 
2
Nine days and a half since we-the S.S. Manchuria-left Yokohama. The sentinel post-as it were-of the Hawaiian group was seen about 4 p.m. today.
 
3
So far very pleasant voyage. Some wandering thoughts.
4
1. I am glad Japan has beaten Russia. The islanders have gloriously vindicated the honors of the Yellow race. The white man has so long been the master of situation that he has kept the Oriental reces in over for centuries. For Japan to break this spell single handed, is grand in its very conception. Even if she had failed, the grandeur of her heroism would have been an eternal honor. Just think where would and could a Yellow man have lifted his face in this world had Japan been beaten!
5
I love and honor Japan as a member of the Yellow race; but hate her as a Korean from whom she is taking away everyting independence itself.
6
2. Most unexpectedly, met Chong Moon Bang 鍾文邦 one of ten schoolmates I had in Shanghai nearly 20 years ago. He is a doctor in the Chinese army. He is going to America to attend an international surgical convention. He recognized me through my name. Am glad to meet him.
7
3. There are five of us at our table, Mr. Swanzy, a London couple, a Captain and myself. The captain, who speaks eight languages, is the most ready talker I have ever seen. You can not touch any subject on men and things but that he knows a deal more about them than you. At least he talks like he does. His information or knowledge covers so large a space that it gets here and there very diaphanous. For example; there was some talk about the ponys of Korea, the Captain broke in and said "Oh, yes, the Korean horses are very fine." There he got so thin that he fell through. I did not correct him.
8
4. One evening the conversation turned on religion. The London couple suggested that Buddhism is the best while the Captain maintained that Mohammedanism is the finest in the world-what was their single test? It was even this; that the Buddhists in Burma or and the Mohammedans in Turkey, etc., would fall down on their knees and say prayers anywhere among any crowd, etc. They seem to ignore the fact that a Buddhist or a Mohammedan educated in the modern sense of the word does not observe the rituals of his creed in the presence of promiscuous gatherings.
 
9
I wonder if that London lady who is served and adored by her husband would have enjoyed or praised Buddhism as much had her husband been a Buddhist or a Mohammedan keeping his harem full of wives and concubines.
10
It is so good to see land after many days spent on the water. Never realized the significance of the words, "Mother Earth," until today. The land looks so restful, so loving, so inviting.
 

2. 9월 8일

1
8th. Friday.
 
2
About 5 a.m., the ship got into the harbor of Honolulu. Medical examinations and other red tape business gotten through about 9. Mr. Swanzy took me to the Royal Hawaiian Hotel and did not leave me until I was comfortably roomed.
3
At 11:30 Mr. Swanzy took me to see the Governor. I asked Mr. Swanzy just before going to the Executive Office if I had to wear a frock coat. "O, No," said he, "Not, necessary at all. we are very informal here. In fact, I have never bought a frock coat for myself." What a glorious country―not to bother one's head about where withal he shall be clothed!
4
Found Governor Carter in what now to be the Palace of the Hawaiian kings. He is a very young man. He said nice things about Korean.
5
The climate in Honolulu no hotter than in Tokio or Seoul this time of the Year. The trees, flowers, fruits, and shrubs all so strange to me.
6
Mr. Saito, the Japanese consul, called on me at 7:30 p.m. He is an old Do-min-sha man. At 8 went to the Methodist Chapel to address the Koreans staying in Honolulu. The sight of 80 or more Koreans so far away from home-some of them women and children-brought tears into my eyes. Happy to meet Mrs. Noble-She looks as good and beautiful as I found her in Pyungyang years ago.
7
Yu Han Ung, a brother of Yu Han Won and Yu Han Ik, is in Honolulu., living on meanness and treachery. These Yu's are a brood of vipers.
 

3. 9월 9일

1
9th. Saturday.
 
2
At 10, Mr. Swanzy took me to the Planters Association Room to meet the trustees. There a program of my itinerary in the Island of Oahu was made out-to begin this afternoon. Mr. Noble called―an unexpected pleasure. He had just returned from the Island of Hawaii. He said that, when he was in the States, he had seen the President and presented the claims of Korea and that the President promised he would do all he could to help Korea. The idea that the President of America should have time or desire to help that miserable ridden and―ruined Korea! There is none to help Korea out of the clutch of the despotism of the―and of the tyranny of the spoilers.
3
By 2:15 train went to the Ewa plantation, Mr. Noble accompanied me. Nearly 500 Koreans on the plantation. Manager Renton.
 

4. 9월 10일

1
10th. Sunday.
 
2
At 11 addressed a large crowd of Koreans in the Korean Church. Advised them to be industrious, clean, steady, faithful. Many of them own bicycles.
3
In the afternoon went to the Waialna plantation, manager Goodle absent. An undulating country―cool―very pretty hills on the back ground and blue sea with white beach in the front remind me of Wonsan―the climate more like the Korean autumn than the Korean spring. Addressed about 40 Koreans in one of the two camps: Put up for the night in the beautiful Hotel―Mr. Noble goes to Honolulu tomorrow a.m.
 

5. 9월 11일

1
11th. Monday.
 
2
At 8 a.m., went to the Korean camp at ( ) . Found the cabins very neatly kept―the people, about 30, all cleanly clothed. The best crowd seen yet.
3
Sent to the Kahuku plantation, manager Adams. At 7:30 addressed about 40 Koreans, in their Chapel on the hill. By the way, Hyon Soon, the son of Hyon Jei Chang, is a preacher for the Koreans.
4
In Mr. Adam's garden, I saw the Hawaiian lime in all the stages of flowering, of "fruitation, at one and the same time. There was the tiny bud, the full blown blossom, the little fruit just out of the womb of the flower, the green lime and the yellow ripe fruit. An emblem of the native Hawaiian history.
 

6. 9월 12일

1
12th. Tuesday.
 
2
Up at 4 a.m. At 5 left Kakuku for Honolulu. Arrived about 8 a.m. At 5 p.m, went on board of the S.S. Hall for the lsland of Kanai.
 

7. 9월 13일

1
13th. Wednesday.
 
2
After a nasty night in the Captain's room placed at my disposal by the kindness of Mr. Swanzy, I found myself in the Nawiliwii Bay at 4 a.m. Mr. Stodard, the manager of the MeBride Plantation, who had common the same beat took me in his buggy and drove through a beautiful country to his home in Elelle. The road good but dusty-red. The trees and shrubs on both sides just covered with thick coat of red dust.
3
Mrs. Stodard-a homely woman gave me the impression that she would rather welcome me out than in. After breakfast, addressed a crowd of Koreans-not very atractive or attentive.
4
At 3:15 p.m. Mr. S. took me to another camp of Koreans about 50 of them.
5
About 6 p.m., I was driven to Makawili, Mr. Baldwin manager-his home a most elegant place-a very pretty and winsome hostess. Nearly 390 Koreans on the plantation.
6
At 8 addressed, in the camp 4, a large crowd of Korean Christian element strong hence more orderly. The people seemed contented. They prepared a nice bed for me to stop over the night, but I had to return to Mr. B's place―an elegant cottage beautifully furnished. The place famous for red dust that sticks closer than a brother.
 

8. 9월 14일

1
14th. Wednesday.
 
2
After breakfast, bade farewell to the lovely and sweet hostess and her husband and took to the dusty road again. Reached Kakaha about noon. Mr. Faye, a Norwegian manager. About 90 Koreans. Nearly 30 lay off every day. Mr. Faye prefers Japanese and Koreans to the Chinese. He suggested the pass-book system to make the idlers among Koreans to work or to quit the country. The Koreans on the place mostly from Kyung Sang Do―dirty and noisy.
3
Lunch at the manager's house. Mrs. Faye, a good looking woman and hospitable.
4
I was driven, after lunch, to Koloa―just beyond the Hanapepe river, I was met by the team sent by the Koloa manager. Found Mr. McLain, a rough looking but a kindhearted man. He is the first manager whom I have yet met who has real kind things to say about Korea. He says that the Koreans are better workmen than Japanese when the latter first came; that the Koreans learn quicker to handle teams and machines than the Japanese; and that he has had no trouble with Koreans so far, nor does he expect any. Addressed an orderly and contented crowd of Koreans, who spoke kindly of the manager.
 

9. 9월 15일

1
15th. (17th of 8th Moon). Friday.
 
2
After breakfast, I was sent to Lihee, manager, Weber. After lunch, postponing the meeting to tomorrow, I went to the Makee Plantation, Manager, Fairchild. Two Korean camps, Keala and Kapaa-about 200. Fairchild said the Koreans are the worst laborers he has.
3
Addressed a very disorderly discontented and dirty looking crowd, at 8 p.m. I am told Kapaa is a regular rendezvous for loafers, gamblers and roughs of every description. Fairchild does not seem to have the tact for managing a Korean crowd. He does not seem to be a man of heart. Remarkable that a kindly manager has as a rule, an orderly set. Returning from the meeting had a shower bath and mud bath all at the same time. A suit of clothes spoiled. My experience in Keala the most unpleasant I have had so far. Fortunately Mrs. Fairchild was away―judging from the condition of the room I slept in, and the behavior of the two little girls, who by the way, their mother had left to themselves for a month―from these facts I had the conception that Mrs. Fairchild must be a slovenly, haughty, unattractive woman. However she may be a perfect angel for all that, I am too miserably sensitive to enjoy the presence of any lady.
 

10. 9월 16일

1
16th. Saturday.
 
2
In the morning drove over to the Kilauea plantation, Manager Moore. About 25 Koreans―Mr. M. had a deal of trouble with Koreans on account of a bad interpreter whom he favored against the protest of the laborers. After talking to the Koreans, went back to the Makee plantation. Lunch over, drove to the Lihue plantation. About 50 Koreans addressed―Went on board of the S.S. Hall at 4:30. Left for Honolulu at 5. Tired, saturate with red, penetrating mud dust, I tumbled in as soon as I got on board of the rolling boat.
 

11. 9월 17일

1
17th. Sunday.
 
2
After a most unpleasant and sickly voyage, arrived at Honolulu at 7 a.m. To the Hawaiian Hotel-a refreshing bathrest.
 

12. 9월 18일

1
18th. Monday.
 
2
True to their national characteristic, the Koreans in Hawaii (Honolulu) are divided among themselves. There is a nasty viperous gang of bad eggs at the head of which stand Yu Han Yung, Kim Ik Sung, and Choi Yung Man. Kim Kyn Sup, who is now in jail for having embezzled some money belonging to a society now defunct, is another. It seems that some months back, a fool named Hong organized a Society called 殖民會 or Emigration Society; and that he made out, in fun, a list of names giving to each a portfolio in the Korean government. For instance, Soh Jai Pil, was to be the Prime Minister, I the Minister of Foreign Affairs, etc. Kim Kyn Sup and his gang saw their chance in this and denounced Hong and his friends as conspirators or 逆賊. As most of Hong's associates were or are professing Christians, Kim and Yu have been actively stirring up bad feelings among the Koreans that the Christians are plotting to overthrow the Korean government. As the word 'traitor' or 逆賊 has the most hateful and dreadful associations in the mind of the Korean; and as the youthful vipers have been circulating the report or lie that all those who return to Korea from the Islands are imprisoned or decapitated, a sort of panic has seized the ignorant people. Kim and Yu have associated 趙達九 etc. professional gamblers, going about among the Koreans, in the Kohala district stirring up the people against Christians and other comparatively more decent fellows. The Koreans in Kohala are badly disorganized, Kim Ik Sung had recently organized a Loyal Society or 忠義會 in the Kohala District asking the members to come to Honolulu on certain date for the purpose of punishing the conspirators, so called. These wretches are worthy imitators of the Peddlers and other rascals who got money and office by informing His Majesty against imaginary traitors.
3
By the 2:15 p.m. train went to Waipau to address a number of Koreans. Returned to Honolulu about 5 p.m.
4
At 8 went to the London Missionary Chapel to address the Honolulu Koreans over a hundred. The Bishop of the Episcopal Church was out with others who have been very kind to Koreans, trying to educate them.
 
5
I told the Koreans among other things.
 
6
1. That they should teach the more ignorant brethren in the plantations, the habit of industriousness, of thriftiness, of cleanliness and of steadiness.
7
2. That the little paper 新朝新聞, instead of reporting always the quarrels between this and that man or between this and that denomination, should devote its columns to instructing the people in matters useful to them, such as the history of the Islands, the use of banks etc.
8
3. That the word ꡐtraitor,ꡑor ꡐYuk-Juk,ꡑ has been used by wicked men during the last ten years to kill patriotic men and to purchase the imperial favor for selfish ends; that these so called loyal men, but real traitors, have brought Korea to the present state of degradation and desolation; that whoever calls another Korean a traitor or conspirator against the government is himself worse than any traitor can be; that those who try to injure their fellow countrymen by digging this damnable pitfall are vipers, and that whoever carries about in his person a list of ministerial candidates in order to accuse some one of treasonable plot are themselves the most dastardly cowards and traitors and liars.
9
4. That Christians should not quarrel over denominational questions.
10
5. That collections should not be levied on the people for this and that and other undertakings without being able to carry anyone single project in to satisfactory effect.
11
6. That the most cordial relations be kept up with the Japanese and other fellow orientals. When I got through, the Bishop had the very bad taste to ask me to interprete for him. As my refusal would give a cue to the crowd to start an anti-Episcopal feeling I quietly consented.
 
12
By the way, this morning Mr. Saito came and showed me a telegram from F.O. Seoul which ran thus: "Get 490 Yen from Specie Bank Yun Chi Ho travelling expenses Mexico, Foreign Office Seoul"
13
Mr. Saito went with me to the Bank and cashes the money 490 Yen-$242. Mr. Swanzy found out from a man who had been to Mexico that the trip to and from Yukatan would take four weeks and cost360 in travelling expenses alone.
 

13. 9월 19일

1
19th. Tuesday.
 
2
At 9 a.m. called on Mr. Saito and after consulting him sent to following cablegram to Seoul.
3
"490 Yen received. 300 American dollars more for Mexico Yun." The message cost me18.48!
4
At 12 m. went on board of the S.S. "Kinan" which left the port very soon after. Went to the bunk at once.
 

14. 9월 20일

1
20th. Wednesday.
 
2
At 5:30 a.m. landed on Mahukova, Mr. Wadman and Min Chang Ho came on the same boat. At the landing several Koreans met me -among whom I was surprised and glad to see Kang Man Soo 姜萬壽 who, as a 使令 in the Kamni Office of Wonsan, used to give me a lot of trouble by gamblings etc. He is here with his family.
3
After swallowing a cup of coffee we drove to the Hawi plantation, about 35 Koreans, Johnhind Manager. This being the Kohala district the centre of disaffection and of anti Christian agitations, I had to take special pains to advise to reprove and to warn the people. Two camps before lunch which I took at the club. In the Union Mill, the Manager was absent but found the headluna pleased with his Koreans. He said "Oh, the Koreans are awful good workmen." The people-about 30-seemed contented and said that the agitators had not been tolerated in their camp.
4
Then to the Kohala plantation, manager Oling, a heavyman with a charming little woman who made me feel as easy as any woman can make me. After dinner went to the church where nearly 200 Koreans were gathered. Was surprised to find a good looking young Korean woman in the meeting-the wife of a Korean preacher, 林. The crowd struck me as rather rowdy.
5
위로 이동
 

15. 9월 21일

1
21st. Thursday.
 
2
After breakfast, visited and talked to the Koreans on Dr. White's private plantation and at Niulii, manager Mr. Hall. Mr. Hall has about 30 Koreans with whom he is well pleased. The people seem to be contented.
3
Lunch at Mr. Hall's. Then changing horses at the club, we struck out for Waimea about 1:30 p.m. The climate became colder and colder as we approached Waimea until late in the evening a fur coat would have been welcome. In fact the well provided traveler in these islands ought to be wrapped about like an onion-first a summer suit, then a raincoat-all these to be peeled on and off as the shower or dust or sun or chill dominates in turn. We were cold and hungry when we got into the village of Waimea. The Alkona hotel, kept by a Chino-Hawaiian, was unpretentious but clean. Had the best beefsteak I had tasted for years. The meat actually melted in the mouth. In the fine homes of the managers I never enjoy the meals I do not feel easy enough for that. But in the hotel of Waimea, I felt at home―no ceremonies to stand on, no tormenting questin to evade or to answer, no curious female eyes to watch, no thanks for this or thanks for that-I was the monarch of all I surveyed on the table. Oh, how I wish I could stay in Waimea for a month, to feast upon its bracing air, on its pretty surroundings and on its delicious beef. Besides, Chinese seem to be kinder to Koreans than Japanese.
 

16. 9월 22일

1
22nd. Friday.
 
2
Had to move on. So, after breakfast, bade a reluctant farewell to the Waimea hotel and drove on to the Pacific Inger Mill; manager, Mr. Forbes. After lunch had a talk with his Koreans, over 150. There is a Korean, No. 702, who is a habitual lay-offer, but Mr. Forbes dares not fire him, because he might cause a general exodus of his men.
3
Honokae Ingar Mill, with 120 Koreans; manager, Mr. Gjerdrum. Found him a sturdy Swede. Addressed his Koreans after dinner.
 

17. 9월 23일

1
23rd. Saturday.
 
2
In the morning visited the Paauhan plantation, manager, Mr. Gibb. About 28 Koreans. Lunch with Mr. Gibb then to the Hamakua Mill, manager, Mr. Lydgate. Over 100 Koreans. Found Mr. Lydgate the sourest host I have so far met with. Mr. Lydgate is a good story teller. One day Mr. Hall came to see him for the first time in 20 years. As Hall was tying his horse to the post in front of the office, Lydgate, to open up a conversation, said. "Mr. Hall, you have a fine horse there," "Yes," said Hall, I thought you would recognize him, because I had ridden his mother to your home 20 years ago.
3
Addressed the Koreans in the Japanese school. By the way, the Japanese have schools on almost all the large plantations. Their children attend the English school in the morning and the Japanese school in the afternoon. In some places, they have their temples, too.
4
Mrs. Lydgate is the only American woman I have yet seen, who said she did not have the slightest desire to see Japan.
 

18. 9월 24일

1
24th. Sunday.
 
2
After breakfast Mr. Lydgate drove us to the Kukaiau plantation. Mr. Horner, manager. About 60 Koreans addressed. Horner said that in 25 years of his experience he has not seen better workmen than the Koreans. Of the 60, from 40 to 55 go to work every day. Horner told me there used to be a bad egg who organized a society among the Koreans for the purpose of finishing 2 from every man who worked more than the laziest. The rascal was expelled from the camp and the trouble ceased.
3
Lunch at the Dokala plantation. The manager, Walker, took me to the Korean camp near his house. He had made no arrangement to assemble the Koreans from different camps together. So after the lunch I had to visit another group. Walker and his headluna seem to be hard men. At least, the Koreans do not like them. The Japanese in the Ookala plantation had the "Peace" celebrations for three days running.
4
Mr. McLennan, the manager of the Lanpahoehoe met us at Walker's place and drove us to his home. The government road runs around the edge of the hills facing the sea. The scenery along the route is often very charming. The gulches or valleys are very pretty with streams rushing to the sea and trees and ferns bedecking the hillsides.
5
McLennan has about Bokor.
6
McLennan is a fine specimen of Britishers―sturdy, conservative, shrewd, yet warm-hearted. He said it was sad to see the Hawaiian race die out. "They are a fine people, these Hawaiian," said he, "They regret that they did not all die when their chiefs died."
7
Mr. McLennan worked himself up from the hoe. His house is very tastefully furnished.
 

19. 9월 25일

1
25th. Monday.
 
2
After breakfast addressed the Koreans. Then to the Hakalan plantation. Mr. Ross, the manager. Nearly 100 Koreans. The best cabins I have seen. Mr. Ross is well pleased with the Koreans. He said they excel in cutting and loading. Mrs. Ross, a nice young woman. By the way from the Pacific Mill down most of the managers are Canadians or Scotch.
3
The next plantation, Honomu Sugar Co. has no Koreans. So we pressed forward to the Pepee Keo Sugar Co. Found the manager, Mr. Webster, the most disagreeable host I have so far met. He had two or three Koreans, but they all had left him: no wonder. His wife is a pleasant woman.
 

20. 9월 26일

1
26th. Tuesday.
 
2
After breakfast, I was glad to leave Webster's place. He drove us to Waialcea plantation, where we met 4 Koreans. Thence to the town of Hilo. Lunch in the Hotel Demosthenes. At 2:30 p.m. we took train to the Olaa plantation, Mr. Watt, the manager, met us at the station near his office. He had 338 in August. His house elegantly furnished. His wife a quiet but well bred woman.
3
Addressed a portion of the Koreans at the 9¹/₂mile camp.
4
Heavy but short showers very frequent.
 

21. 9월 27일

1
27th. Wednesday.
 
2
After breakfast went by the train to the 17 mile camp to meet about 60 or more Koreans. The Olaa plantation has a mill that has cost the Company 800,000, 1,500 employees on the payroll, 24 miles of flume. Seven millions have been spent on the plantation already since its beginning some years ago.
3
Back to Hilo by train. Put up in the Hotel Demosthenes. The "Hawaii" plantations where Koreans are within reachable distances have all been visited. Thank God I shall have two days of rest before resuming the trying work on the lsland of Mani.
 

22. 9월 28일

1
28th. Thursday.
 
2
There are 3 Korean young men located in the town of Hilo. Yang Jai Hyong 梁在亨 in the Lyman Boarding School, Kim Moon Sung, who acts as interpreter in the court; Kim Jung Bok, who works in a private residence. Yang hails from the Island of Quelpart. Kim Jung Bok seems to be a decent fellow. Kim Moon Sung is a regular scamp. He tells lies by the years without the least efforts. He served his terms three times in the Hilo jail. He pretends to speak Japanese, Russian and English. He cheated an old man out of over a hundred dollars. The old man, Moon Suk Yong, begged me to get back the money for him. I asked the young fellow about it, but he denied that he had ever touched a cent of the old man's money. As I am just passing through here without any power of law in my hand I had to quiely drop the whole subject, hoping to see the sheriff of the town about it.
3
I have made the record for being the only traveler who came and stayed in Hilo two days without paying his respects to the famous volacano-house. I have no desire for sightseeing.
 

23. 9월 29일

1
29th. Friday.
 
2
Before leaving the town at 9 a.m. for the S.S. Kinan I saw the Deputy Sheriff, Mr. Fetter, and asked him to help the old man to get the money back from the scamp, Kim Moon Sung.
3
The steamer left the port of Hilo at 10 a.m. Rolled terribly. To bed at once. Better by 5 p.m. Touched at the Kawaihae Bay. A Major in the Salvation Army who was a fellow passenger pointed out to me that the now deserted and bleak and barren shore of the bay was once a large Hawaiian town with the temple and fort of the Napoleon of the Hawaiian Islands, King Kamehameha I. Not a Hawaiian hut, not a Hawaiian, not a tree, not a shrub to mark the site of the ancient Hawaiian capital. A few Chinese and Japanese cottages along the edge of the shore.
 

24. 9월 30일

1
30th. Saturday.
 
2
At 1:30 a.m. the most unearthly hour, the steamer arrived at the Bay of Maalaea. With a few other passengers I went on shore. The cool but not disagreeable breeze, the bright stars of the tropical sky, the stillness of the night broken only by the sound of the Hawaiian oars, the few twinkling lights on the desolate landing―in all this there was a touch of sadness and Ioneliness. I was met by a man sent from the Wailuku plantation with a hack. The road was good and the span of horses fine. At 2:30 I found myself in the house of Mr. Wells, the manager. Went to bed at once.
3
In the morning, I was welcomed by the manager and his good wife. After breakfast Mr. Wells took me in his buggy to the fields, giving me a chance to talk to two groups of Koreans. The country flat, and dry―ditches and irrigation―red dust and kept cool by constant breeze. About 60 Koreans.
4
At 11 a.m. I went to the Paia plantation on a special train. Mr. A. Baldwin, the manager met me at the station and took me to his lovely house, presided over by a fine looking wife. By the way, the Baldwins are the descendants of missionaries from New England.
5
Rested whole p.m. At 7:30 met and addressed over two hundred Koreans. So tired that I could hardly speak. About 270 Koreans.
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