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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 2월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권 3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 2월 1일

1
1st. Sunday. Cloud thawing. Mild.
 
2
發信: Wrote to Candler/To 李鍾元
3
No rest last night. Wrote to Mr. 金漢奎, the Director of 韓一銀行 asking him if 吳尙殷 has really deposited ¥13,000.00 in his bank and if so, whether the 小口預金通帳 is genuine or not. In answer to these questions that the bank has already a legal claim on the deposit specified in the book and that I ought to have nothing to do, with or on, this deposit!
4
Mr. 金貞植 was sent for and when he heard me he tried to explain. I sent 尹明燮 to 吳尙殷 and demanded that the money be refunded at once or give me a real security. After much negotiation in which 金 or 吳 or 韓相羲 showed signs of real regret and begged me to pardon than offering any security I might demand. A new agreement was drawn up signed by a member of the Company.
 

2. 2월 2일

1
2nd. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Received letters from Mrs. Hardie and Dr. Hall.
3
A layer of snow last night. Snow has lain on the ground for over a month-one of the rarest thing in the way of snow, in Seoul.
4
5:30 p.m. entertained Mr. 岡本, 橋本, 森, 茂木 of the Police to a sukiyaki supper. Cost ¥22.70! ¥6.00 to ¥9.00 would have been the cost of similar supper a few years ago.
5
森警視 told me that when he was a police officer in Japan, he sent his wife away leaving a baby of two months, for having borrowed ¥5.00 from a gambler. He said that his then Confucian notion of official integrity couldn't tolerate anything that might disgrace his reputation, but that he would not have done so had he known, as he does now, something of the generosity of the western morality.
 

3. 2월 3일

1
3rd. Tuesday. Bright cold.
 
2
Mercury dropped down to 12℉. in the morning nearly 20° lower than day before yesterday.
3
The book on Turkey by Henry Morgenthaw, the American Ambassador, 1913 and 1916, is simply fascinating. The Turk is seen as he is not only but the wickedness of Mohammedanism as a religion is singularly laid bare. Some examples (illustration) follow. When the Am. Ambassador made a plea to Talaal the Ex-Democratic Dictator of Turkey (in Feb. 1915) that St. Sophia should be spared fr. destruction, the Turk said: "There are not six men in the Committee of Union and progress who care for anything old. We all like new things." Wanton Vandalism is as old as barbarism. Did Talaat think it a "new thing"? A man who doesn't see or understnad or know what is good, beautiful and true in the old is it likely the man who can see anything good or beautiful or true in the new.
 

4. 2월 4일

1
4th. Wednesday. Bright.
 
2
When a religion is bad, it is worse than no religion. In the Sultan's proclamation calling Mohammedans to a Holy War (in 1915) had this exhortation. "Know ye that the blood of infidels in the Islamic lands may be shed with impunity. The killing of infidels who rule over Islam has become a sacred duty whether you do it secretly or openly as the Korean decreed: "Take them and kill them whenever you find them." He who kills even one unbeliever of those who rule over us whether he does it secretly or openly shall be rewarded by God. Let every Moslem, in whatever part of the world he may be, swear a solemn oath to kill at least 2 or 4 of the infidels who rule over him for they are the enemies of God and of the Faith. Let every Moslem know that his reward for doing so shall be doubled by God who created heaven and earth." It is astounding that every religion so interprets the will of God as to suit its own fancy or doctrine.
 

5. 2월 5일

1
5th. Thursday. Cloudy a.m.
 
2
S.S. Convention Talk 7-8:30 P. Memorial.
3
The Turkish conception of God―a cruel monster―seems to lead only too logically to his conception of man. Ambassador says: "It became a common saying with the Turks that a horse or a camel was far more valuable than a man; these animals cost money whereas infidel Christians were plentifuly in the Ottoman Empire and could easily be forced to labor." "The common term applied by the Turk to the Christian is "dog." "The Turkish God enforced certain regulations which limited the freedom of action of the Christian. The building in which Christians lived should not be conspicuous and their churches should have no belfry. Christians could not ride a horse in the city for that was the exclusive right of the noble Moslem. The Turk had the right to test the sharpness of his sword upon the neck of the Christian."
 

6. 2월 6일

1
6th. Friday. Pretty. Cold.
 
2
Ambassador Morgenthaw says that the Young Turks, passion for Turkifying the nation seemed to demand logically the extermination of all Christians―Greeks, Syrians and Armanian. In order words the Turks wanted to assimilate the Christians for having a homogenious nation. But failing this they resorted to the policy of extermination. Why didn't they organize an Oriental Development Company and buy out the noo-Moslem populations? Simply because the latter were more industrious and progressive and couldn't be bought out. However the fundamental principle of the Turkish and Jap. policies is identically the same.
 

7. 2월 7일

1
7th. Saturday. Very cold. Bright.
 
2
The Orphanage Association held its first meeting for organization at the Y.M.C.A. at 3 p.m. Of 400 or more members about 30 present. If their attendance signifies anything, it certainly gives very little encouragement to the hope that ¥200,000.00 could be raised for the enterprise.
3
7:30 p.m. the Koreans Church leaders in Seoul invited the members of the Japanese Christian Union to a tea-social. There were speeches mutual compliments etc―a little too much of them. A set and long speech always spoils such a gathering.
 

8. 2월 8일

1
8th. Sunday. Very cold.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. Why is a selfish person unhappy? Because: 1. He wants everybody to please him but he himself wouldn't turn the hand to please anybody. But since it is impossible to have everybody to please him he frets and fusses. 2. He is a prey to the passion of jealousy because he can't brook the idea that anybody should love some one besides him. 3. He is a prey to the passion of envy because he can't stand the thought somebody else should succeed better than he. 4. He is a slave to insatiable passion of covetousness and of ambition. 5. He is tormented with suspicion, with anger and with hatred―because everybody hates him. Thus selfishness carries its own punishment of being absolutely unhappy. Wife is a unexampled model in whom to study the shades and lights of absolute selfishness. She makes others unhappy and she succeeds admirably to make herself miserable.
 

9. 2월 9일

1
9th. Monday. Bright cold. 14℉.
 
2
4:30 p.m. the Y. Board of Directors met at Dr. Gregg's. A full attendance. The election of the Genl. Secretary the only business. Mr. Hugh Cynn only was nominated but no unanimity could be secured. By ballot Cynn got only 5 of the ten votes cast. At the second ballot the narrow majority of one elected him. I was surprised at this, a striking illustration how opinion can't be forced.
3
A young Doctor in the Severance Hospital said in my hearing today that there is much dissatisfaction among the employees in the Hospital and the College; that Dr. Avison is unfair in the treatment of his men; that he, (Dr. A) not only pays too little, but shows favoritism that estranges the affection of his men etc. etc. I feel sorry that there should be any dissatisfaction toward Dr. Avison for I believe him to be one of Korean's realest benefactors.
 

10. 2월 10일

1
10th. Tuesday. Very cold. Bright and windy. 6℉.
 
2
Talaat, the Turkish Dictator said to Ambassador M. in 1915 after the fearful massacre and deportation of from 600 thousand to 1 million Armenians: "The Armenians are not to be trusted What we do with them does not concern the U.S."
3
Did Talaat learn this language from our island friends or viceversa? Neither. It is the language of the wicked human-heart the world over. Oh the wickedness of the human heart!―What may be compared with it? Yet man thinks he is the noblest of all creatures!
 

11. 2월 11일

1
11th. Wednesday. Bitter cold bright, mild p.m. 4℉.
 
2
So beautiful the whole p.m. that I couldn't repress the desire for a walk. So I struck out and walked on toward the Small East Gate. Visited the North Temple of the War-God(北關王廟) -which I found to have been converted into a Buddist Middle School so called. The Empress Min (明成皇后) spent, I suppose, hundreds of thousand Yen of money (more or less ill gotten) to build the War God temple to protect her dynasty. The War God not only failed to protect her and her dynasty but failed as well to protect himself. If that brilliant and selfish woman served her people half as devotedly as she did the heathen deities, her dynasty might have been safe to this day.
 

12. 2월 12일

1
12th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Talaat, the leader of the Turkish Democracy―Democracy?―after the fearful massacre of the unarmed Armenians of all ages and both sexes boasted: I have accomplished more toward solving the Armenian problem in three months than Abdul Hamid accomplished in 30 years. The English in Ireland; the Russians in Poland, and somebody else in Korea have tried Talaat's method of solving certain racial problems. Yet all failed. Will humanity never get wiser until force makes it to be?
 

13. 2월 13일

1
13th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Maild letter and Buy exchange to 致昌.
3
Enver Pasha, the coleague of Talaat, always resented any suggestion that American missionaries of the friends of the Armenians. should go to help or comfort the helpless Armenians. "They show altogether too much sympathy for them," said Enver over and over again. "We don't want the Americans to feed the Armenians That is one of the worst things that could happen to them. They (The Armenians) must never know that they have a friend in the U.S. that would absolutely ruin them. It is far better that they starve and in saying this I am really thinking of the welfare of the Armenians themselves." The welfare of the Armenians―the happiness of the Koreans are very similar expressions!
 

14. 2월 14일

1
14th. Saturday. Mild big snow from 11 a.m. till night.
 
2
Mailed letter to 致昌.
3
Snow again!
4
In 1919 as compared with 1913 the price of meat in U.S. advanced 58%; butter 160%; eggs 161%; flour 133%; bread 175%; rice 383%; potatoes 153%; coffee 164%; milk 88%; clothing 235%; house furnishing, 283%; building materials 153%. The average price of all the commodities showed an increase of 139%
5
The nation wide prohibition in America. What a wonderful moral victory! Certainly this victory is a greater fact on the part of the Americans than the allied victory over Germany.
 

15. 2월 15일

1
15th. Sunday. Cloudy.
 
2
東大門禮拜堂 E.L. talk 11 a.m.
3
11a.m. went to East Gate Church―I spoke on the Contrast between Herod the King and Christ, the Carpenter. The room was big and the audience was small. The subject is a magnificient one while the thought is capable of an eloquent development, yet I felt conscious of an utter failure to measure up to the subject.
4
1 p.m. attended a "meeting of the parents of the children" going to the Seoul Kindergarten. The Japanese principal is an elderly and attractive woman. She said that the school age of Korean children having been lowered to full six years, she would have to give up over 30 children; that her expenses for the up keep of the "Garden" had risen from2,000―a year to3,000; that her school receipt falls short of the expenditure by ¥1,000.00; that an endowment fund of ¥3,000.00 would place the garten on a solid basis.
 

16. 2월 16일

1
16th. Monday. Spring like. Bright.
 
2
發信: Wrote to 致昌韓□東ㆍ金承烈 Rev. McRal.
3
10 a.m. went to Y. to introduce formally Mr. Cynn, the new Genl. Secretary to the Y.M.C.A staff. My official connection with the Central Y.M.C.A is definitely relieved. I thank God that I have been able to hand the Institution over to my successor none the worse (at least) for the storms thru which it has passed during the last four years.
4
Wrote to brother 致昌 reminding him that I had sent him, by mistake, 1,100(00/100) instead of 550(00/100) ; that he should deposit half of the sum sent for the year of 1921. When he left Seoul in Oct. he carried with him 800.00 gold besides and above his passage to San Francisco. In his letter he said he would have spent all that money by March and that he must have more money to enter the H School. If he goes at that rate the 1,100.00 will not last him very long.
 

17. 2월 17일

1
17th. Tuesday. Cloudy―snow from 6 p.m.
 
2
Uncle arrived last night. From my 4th cousin 致昞 I learn that threatening blackmail letters, have become common in his district. Yi Uikwan and 5th cousin 致明 received such letter, the latter being asked to bring ¥50,000.00 to a certain place.
3
Suppose the Japanese were to take their hands off Korea. The fate of Russia of Turkey, of Mexico, of China will be the fate of Korea. To hate an alien regime is not in itself such a virtue. Man has that instinct in common, with the lower animals. No man or no nation can be really independent who doesn't realize the mutual dependence between men and nations and who fails to think more of the welfare of the whole than his individual interest.
 

18. 2월 18일

1
18th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
發信: Wrote 白雲□.
3
張執 is charged with the duty of looking after 尹信媛, the girl who was redeemed from a brothel in 新町. The girl is going to the Bible School for Women. 張 tells me that the school has no heating facilities so that the girls have to sleep on the cold floor. Neither is there any lights in the rooms. The girl, I suppose, can't help contrasting the warmth and lights of the brothel with the cold and darkness in the house of Bible. Now, I say it is wrong to build a fine school house―then to leave it in cold and darkness. No money? Why have the school at all? Don't start a school unless you are ready or willing to equip it―so far as to make the building reasonably comfortable.
4
Supper at Dr. Schoffield's room, 8 p.m. Mr. Brockman gave a reception to Mr. Cynn.
 

19. 2월 19일

1
19th. Thursday. Bright.
 
2
11 a.m. yesterday by appointment I went to the Governor's office. I was asked to participate in a 宣傳 or propaganda work as was planned last Sept., when the representatives of the 13 provinces were called to Seoul to hear the explanations of the authorities concerning the proposed reforms. I told the Governor that I was opposed to 宣傳 or pro-Government propaganda at the meeting of the representatives, I had no reason to change my opinion and that it would be best for all parties concerned to drop the "Propaganda" business for good. The best propagandists are real reforms.
3
李世稙 button holed me this evening and said that he had been detailed to watch over 韓奎卨, 李商在 and me; that his life insurance term will mature next August when he will get money enough to make him richer than 閔泳徽. What a liar! He is most dangerous he happens to tell a truth.
 

20. 2월 20일

1
20th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Today being the New Year's day according to the Old Calendar the streets are gay with little children in their colorful dresses.
3
In the afternoon three automobiles were seen going about in the streets with a band in the front one while the two behind it had a number of men with red crosses on their left arms. Each auto had a banner with "禁酒大會“ or Temperance mass-meeting on it. They distributed tracts inviting people to join the meeting or association. The tract was signed by a dozen men none of whose names was familiar to me. No place was named I wonder who is back of this. All very good but so indefinite and shapeless.
 

21. 2월 21일

1
21st. Saturday. Gloomy and chilly.
 
2
Called on Mr. 山縣五十雄 who had just returned from Tokyo. He is the only Japanese-perhaps except Mr. Niwa,―with whom I feel free to talk frankly about the situation.
3
興瑞 received a card from my son, Candler in song Do telling him to cancel the auto ticket to 洪川 owing to a bad cold which Candler has. Candle intimates that he had sent a telegram to that effect; but the card came before the telegram. The delays of letters and telegrams are becoming scandal. Rev. Bunker received on the 30th, Oct. 1918 a note written by a friend in Seoul and mailed in Sept. 1905.
4
Entertained my friends of the Y.M.C.A. staff at a supper at 長春館. The restaurants of Seoul are becoming notoriously dirty and careless.
 

22. 2월 22일

1
22nd. Sunday. Gloomy and chilly.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual. Pastor Ryang gave a very fine sermon on "What is Christianity?" Church, Bible, Creed, Miracles―Theology are all important in themselves, but none or even all of them constitute Christianity. The spirit of Christ and that alone is Christianity.
3
Sent 興瑞 to Song Do to see how seriously ill my Candler might be.
4
金魯善 who is in the Post Office tells me that the spirit of strike and of sabbotage is so rampant among the clerks and postmen in the office that the authorities dare not inforce discipline; hence the disorganized state―the delays etc―of the mail delivery.
 

23. 2월 23일

1
23rd. Monday. Snow all the a.m.
 
2
Prantically snow all the day long.
3
By the kind consent of F.M.B. I have secured a room on the second floor―the room which used to be the library―for my office.
4
I find it very hard to concentrate my time and thought on any mental work in my room at home as a few visitors will sit through the whole day smoking and talking about things which I don't care to hear.
5
In Japan there are 548 licensed quarters; 45 thousand 公娼 or public prostitutes; 50 thousand 酌歸; 50 thousand 私娼 or private prostitutes. These institution are so woven into the the fabric of the Japanese society that nothing but heroism itself on the part of the people will abolish these evils.
 

24. 2월 24일

1
24th. Tuesday. Pale. Chilly.
 
2
Wrote 白雲□
3
Every well-to-do family in Seoul has a list, more or less long, of parasites. I have one, of course. The common characteristics of a parasite are their insatiability and ingratitude―they want, they demand to be fed and supported for no other consideration that they have been coming to my house for the last 20 or 30 years. To live on others is a habit that has become the second nature of the average Korean. He is too proud to dig but not proud enough to beg. This detestable habit or instinct has been produced and matured by "functionarism" or love of office; for to be an officer is to be a parasite in disguise of high sounding titles.
 

25. 2월 25일

1
25th. Wednesday. Pale sun. Chilly. 24℉.
 
2
Felt unwell whole day. Stayed at home. 7:30 p.m. went to Y. to attend the preaching service that has been carried on under the auspices of the Preaching Band 傳道團. The nightly collections: Sunday evening ¥219.61. Mond. night ¥191.67 1/2. Tuesd. night ¥330.03. Tonight ¥257.76. Total so far ¥999.07 1/2. This is the most unlooked for phenomenon, when we remember how hard it is to scrape up even a few Yen in a church collection. What does this mean―this surprising spirit of generocity? Who is giving all this?
3
From all indications, the Korean mind is singularly susceptible to religious influences just now―possibly not unmixed with political motives. I wish a Moody or a Whitfield would rise from among the Koreans to take the fullest advantage of the ripeness of the time for a nation-wide evangelization! God grant it! Amen.
 

26. 2월 26일

1
26th. Thursday. Snow all p.m.
 
2
Shane Lestie writes: "The secret of English misrule is that only Irishmen can understand the Irish. England would not be what she is without Ireland. For good of for bad, for sunshine or for rain (chiefly the latter) England and Ireland seem doomed to cross entanglement with their present continually marred for the future by each other's past. Motley said 50 years ago: "Justice, truth and faith are immutable. Imagine that Ireland had been always dealt with since the days of the Plantagenets in accordance with these principles. Would there have been an Irish question at this moment striking down to the foundations of the Empire?" Would to God that Japan were wise enough to be profited by the Irish lessons of England!
 

27. 2월 27일

1
27th. Friday. Cloudy-chilly.
 
2
Pastor 崔炳鉉 who has just returned from Peking where he went to attend the Eastern Asia Methodist Conference gave me some of his impressions as follows: He met Pastor Hyon and Pastor Sohn. The former seemed to have no official connection with the P.G. in Shanghai and seemed to be in financial stress. Sohn seemed to be better off. Quarrels and factions in the P.G. regular Korean fashion. The Conference was attended by delegates from seven annual conferences in China; but the Chinese members seemed to have no guiding hand in it. No printed program even. Everything was done under the direction of foreigners. The Chinese members seemed in a stupor. The only lively thing he noticed among the Chinese bretheren was their anti-Japanese sentiment and attitude.
3
Supper at the Chosen Hotel at the invitation of Mr. 山縣五十雄. His brother and 金東成 were present.
 

28. 2월 28일

1
28th. Saturday. Pale sun.
 
2
The whole p.m. at my office. The preaching service of the Preaching Band came to close tonight. The auditorium was packed to the limit of its capacity and when the collection bags brought in their harvest, ¥644,40 was reported. Somebody had put in ¥300(00/100) in an envelop. The sum total of the nightly offerings―for seven evenings―is ¥2266.90 or ¥323.85 on an average per night. The thing is so marvelous that no hypothesis can explain it―but the simple admission that it is the work of God. How to spend this money to the best advantage is the next question.
 

29. 2월 29일

1
29th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual. Kyong Sunie, my 1st cousin's daughter is one of the finest characters in Korean womanhood. She is fair, clever, virtuous. Yet because she is over age (23) no suitable bridegroom has presented himself or rather no parents care to take her for their sons. On the other hand my 1st cousin is so absurd and obstinate in his notions that some desirable candidate have been refused for trivial reasons―such as over age, second marriage etc. Now she desires to go to Tokyo to study music. I approve or her decision and offered to go half with second cousin in defraying her expenses.
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

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