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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 9월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권 10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 9월 1일

1
1st. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. According to Dr. Hardie things in America are not all that one's heart might wish them to be. Domestic helps are so hard to get that people are rapidly adopting hotel life thus breaking up homes. Profiteering by trusts is carried on to the extent that potatoes, for instance, rot on the farms while poor people have to pay 25 cents per pound. A department store charged1,800 gold for a pair of ladies' shoes for which they, the store, paid600 only to the shoe manufacturer. Worse than all these is the closing down schools for want of teachers everywhere. A garbage collector is paid better than a college president.
3
Autocracy would certainly be the best form of government if every autocrat were a wise and good man.
 

2. 9월 2일

1
2nd.Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. I have been delighted with Carpenter's Geographical Readers―on Northern Europe and on Africa.
3
1. The natives of Central Africa use cowries (shells) as the medium of exchange. The difference between them and the beautiful gold coins of civilized countries is that of day and night. Yet the idea or principle that underlies the cowry and the gold coins is identically the same.
4
2. The brass, iron, glass and shell ornaments which the native Africans use to beautify their persons are very different from the wonderful jewels which civilized people in Europe and America use. Yet the idea or instinct or principle which makes the rude ornaments of the African popular is identically the same idea or instinct or principle that makes the European or American proud of his or her jewels.
5
The love of finery which the native Africans evince; the terrible pains which they gladly endure, the absurd modes of hair dressing―all in the name of fashion and of beauty―isn't it all too pitiful and ridiculous? Yet the ever changing fashions of dress and hats; the hair splitting niceties of court etiquette; the ridiculous styles of evening dresses of both sexes-are these any less absurd or any less pitiful in civilized countries?
 

3. 9월 3일

1
3rd. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home.
 

4. 9월 4일

1
4th. Saturday. Hot.
 
2
Song Do home.
3
The African hathen bows down to a fetish―some horrid looking likeness of man or beast which his hands have carved This must appear very barbarous to my friend Mr.
4
池雲英 the noted painter who worships a beautiful Kwan Um Bosal which he painted himself and to which he offers white cooked rice three times a day. A Catholic who worships a beautiful image of Virgin thinks he is far superior to Mr. 池. A Protestant Christian looks down all these with disdain, saying we must worship God in spirit. Yet the idea or instinct or principle which actuates the Christian to worship his God is identically the same instinct or principle which makes the African to worship his fetish; viz.: man's realization of his utter helplessness in the presence of forces of nature and Providence.
 

5. 9월 5일

1
5th. Sunday. Very hot.
 
2
Song Do home. Stayed home with a badly swollen right hand, having been stung by a been last night on the thumb. I got sting by one of the bees which I tried to protect from a couple of wasps, attacking them. The little bee didn't have sense enough to be grateful to its best friend. Yet men, individuals and nations, are oftener than not, no wiser than the bees.
3
The sting of a bee is bad enough but it is nothing compared with the sting of the tongue of a selfish scold. A bee dies after its sting is discharged. What a pity a wicked woman's tongue wasn't made so that when a sting is discharged the tongue would become harmless ever after.
 

6. 9월 6일

1
6th. Monday. Sunny Steamy.
 
2
Song Do home. Had a visit from Mr. Won, 元敎師 a teacher in the Song Do High School. He graduated in the Agriculture School at Suwon and came to Song Do to take charge of the agriculture class in the High School. He is now made to teach Japanese language and botany, zoology, and geology and if fact everything but agriculture for which he was engaged at first. He tells me that the school suffers from imperfect equipment and lack of teachers. He believes that the Holston Girl School is even worse off than the Song Do High School in the matter of equipment and teachers.
 

7. 9월 7일

1
7th. Tuesday. Rain and cold. Clear evening.
 
2
Song Do home. Rain from midnight until 12 morning today. Rather refreshing after the steamy days we had.
3
I told Bishop Lambuth (then Dr.) 13 years ago and have repeated to many a missionary friend on various occasions that while missionaries would not be blamed for not carrying on educational work, they would be blamed for carrying on educational work with schools poorly equipped and weakly manned. Rather have a primary school the best of its kind in the place, than a high school of such a low standard as to expose it and the church to the contempt and ridicule of the outsiders. I have never met a bishop or a missionary who didn't approve of my opinion, neither have I met a bishop or a missionary who practiced it.
 

8. 9월 8일

1
8th. Wednesday. Beautiful after yesterday's rain.
 
2
Song Do home. Under the heading "How the Emancipated Teuton Reacts to His New Freedom" a writer has this to say among other things: Every German has had a raise in wages or salary and to every man the increase has meant the luxury of at least one cigar a day. So with the fragrant Havana between his teeth, the citizen sallies forth to jostle and push his discourteous way through the crowds and to perpetrate any inconsiderateness that may best express his emancipated creed. He even takes it into the over crowded subway cars reserved for non-smokers. It makes no difference to him if he singes the expensive furs of the women or burns holes in dresses impossible to replace. One (a woman) stood out as champion of the law and her rights, calling the attention of the transgressor to the sign Non-smoker. That's nothing to me," he answered "Freiheit reigns and I can do as I like." "If that is your idea of freedom, then I will show you mine" and with that she took the burning cigar out of his mouth and cast it out of the window! This reminds me the yong Koreans who, when someone told them to be quiet while a speaker addressed a large audience in the Central Y., replied "It's our freedom to talk what right have you to stop us?" The universality of human meanness or goodness is well shown here!
 

9. 9월 9일

1
9th. Thursday. Cool.
 
2
Song Do home. Moon Hui came this afternoon with 뒤방 할머니, to our delight. The child has unwell for the past two days and she looks paler than when she left here ten days ago.
 

10. 9월 10일

1
10th. Friday. Sunny and hot.
 
2
Song Do home. Bishop Lambuth, Dr. Dickenson arrived at Song Do in the morning. Supper at Mr. Anderson's. A number of young men called on Bish. Lambuth and begged him to help them build a suitable home for the young men of Song Do. The gist of petition was this: There is already a young men's Association with nearly four hundred members. They are all more or less favorably incline toward Christianity. If the Church built a hall for a Christian Y.M. Association there is a great probability of absorbing the secular association thus bringing the young men of the town within the influence of the church.
 

11. 9월 11일

1
11th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. What surprises me is that the Korean is not the only man who doesn't understand the restrictions of freedom. Liberty is not doing as I please, for it may run into license. Nor is it not to do as I please because it may mean slavery liberty is, whether I do as I please or not, doing what my conscience and judgment and experience tell me to be promotive of the glory of God and the good of our fellow men. A man may not believe in God but he can't pretend that the welfare of his neighbors is nothing to him. But since so many people mistake liberty for license, restrictive laws are highly necessary. Then the most important question concerning any law is not "Is it restrictive?" but "Is it restrictive of our bad action?"
 

12. 9월 12일

1
12th. Sunday. Cloudy.
 
2
Song Do home. Worshipped at Northward Church, Interpreted for Bish. Lambuth.
3
Today being wife's birthday (according to Korean calendar) we had a few friends to take noon meals with us. By the way this is the first time in ten years that wife's birthday has been celebrated in our Song Do home.
4
Mr. Hong Choong Hyon left for Seoul. He is so uneducated that he can hardly sign his own name in urnmoon, yet he behaves himself in such dignified manner that nobody would suspect his crass ignorance. He is shrewd business man and have far less trouble with two wives than I with one.
 

13. 9월 13일

1
13th. Monday. Rain.
 
2
Rain all the morning. Left Song Do with 文姬 and 庶母 for Seoul by 2:30 p.m. train. Arrived Seoul about 5:30. All well at home. Thank God.
3
Many a Korean wish for the invasion of Korea by Bolshivism. They hope that it will drive the Japanese out, not only but that it will enable them to plunder those who have some more bags of rice than they need. As a matter of fact Korea has been practicing the worst form of communism from time immemorial. Is there any Korean who has some more rice than his neighbors, yet who hasn't got a host of idle, good for nothing relatives and friends whom he has to support?
 

14. 9월 14일

1
14th. Tuesday. Cloudy.
 
2
Seoul home. Some Koreans think next year will witness some radical change in the political status of Korea. They base this expectation on the so called prophecy or oracle contained in 鄭鑑錄 viz.: 無土二年 假鄭(政) 三年 and 眞鄭(?) 三年. Counting from 大正元年(1912) to 大正 三年, It was three years of 無王 or Kingless (so far as Koreans sovereigns are concerned.) 假정 三年 is regarded to have foretold the 假政府 or Provisional Government which will have reached its third year next year. Then 3 years 眞정 will begin. All so foolish and puerile yet many believe it.
 

15. 9월 15일

1
15th. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Seoul home. The Annual Conference of the Korean branch of the Southern Methodism began its sessions at 宗橋 Church from 9 a.m. Reports from various changes were very encouraging . Increase in membership and collections.
3
When the Independence Agitations began last year Christianity became a subject of unceasing, suspicion and dislike to the authorities. Thousands of its adherents have been made to feel that there is no love lost between the powers that be and the Church of Christ in Korea. Yet people have joined the church by the thousands. What does it mean?
 

16. 9월 16일

1
16th. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
The money drought is becoming more and more serious throughout the Peninsula. Rice the only money making source of the Koreans―has fallen in price 50%. Other articles keep their prices where they got to during the war. In the mean time the banks are contracting the circulation of money by withholding loans and by withdrawing pager money. Arable lands and hills are becoming cheap in some places, fields are offered for sale at the rate of 5 or 6 sen a tsubo while wooded hills are sold for 5 rin per tsubo. Heaven and earth seem to conspire to help the Japanese to buy out Korea dirt cheap. Supper at Dr. Hardies.
 

17. 9월 17일

1
17th. Friday. Pretty.
 
2
8 a.m. called on Mr. Phelps at F.M. B.'s home. His Siberian stories exceedingly interesting. Among what he said: The Japanese military officers managed to make themselves disliked by everybody in Siberia. The intense anti-Japanese sentiment now raging in the Western States of America is largely due to the bad impressions of the Japanese militarism which the U.S. soldiers in Siberia carried home with them. On the other hand, everybody liked the Japanese civil officers. The Checko-slovacs in 350 years of Austrian oppression concentrated their racial efforts on 1 music 2 physical fitness and 3 hanging together. When the opportunity came they were ready to avail themselves of it in a manner that centuries of preparation only could have done.
 

18. 9월 18일

1
18th. Saturday. Pretty.
 
2
From ten a.m. attended the Annual Conference at 宗橋 Church. The present list of the Southern Methodist preachers contains except Mr. Ryang, hardly and man who has a modern education. Yet would they have been any more faithful and useful had they received a better education? However times are rapidly changing and the demand of the heares is becoming so exacting that mere faithfulness without education can not satisfy the needs of the modern pulpit even in Korea. The Southern Methodist Churches of Seoul gave a tea party to the members of the conference at the Y.M.C.A. at 4 p.m. Supper to the Korean bretheren at the Theological Seminary, 6 p.m.
 

19. 9월 19일

1
19th. Sunday. Pretty.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. I interpreted for Bish. Lambuth.
3
At evening service Mr. Steward preached I interpreted. His moralization was a little far fetched comparing the conflict between the angles and the dragon in the verse of 12th Chapter of Revelation with our conflict with sins. Through an interpreter the sermon lost much of its significance. Mr. S. is a fine speaker with a good voice and clear enunciation.
4
The Annual conference closed tonight with appointments read out.
 

20. 9월 20일

1
20th. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
Wrote to Dr. F. and Helen.
3
Decidedly cool in the morning. Remitted500.00 to Dr. Fisher for Helen. Cost ¥985,22 and 50 sen making ¥985,72 in all.
4
The most pronounced pro-Korean missionary who literally weeps with them (Koreans) who weep and rejoices with them who rejoice, will not deposit his money in a Korean bank. A telling proof that people are more careful with their pocketbooks than with their sympathies.
5
The Orphanage Association or rather the B. of Managers met at Y. and decided to start the work in the buildings which Mr. Underwood had kindly consented to let the Association use at the rent of ¥3.000 per month.
 

21. 9월 21일

1
21th. Tuesday. Cloudy and cool. Rain in night.
 
2
8:30 a.m. called on Bishop Lambuth at Mr. Hitch's home. Went to Station with them to see the Bishop and his party off for Japan.
3
Today being the anniversary of the death of my father, our family had a little memorial service, as usual. By the way Presbyterians regard even such a service as violating the 3rd, 4th and 5th Commandment. They go so far as to say that it is idolatry to bow before the graves of our ancestors. An American takes off his hat before the tomb of Washington. Is that idolatry Dr. Candler takes off his hat before the bust of his departed father? Is he thereof, violating the 5th Commandment?
 

22. 9월 22일

1
22nd. Wednesday. Rain on and off all day.
 
2
The Seoul Press yesterday has an article by a correspondent of New York Times on Japan's Beneficent Work in Chosen or words to that effect. Improved roads forestation, good public buildings etc., the stereotyped arguments of the Japanese apologists for the Japanese regime are reproduced. The writer cites the fact that the Koreans have left the 3 upper stories of the Seoul pagoda on the ground where the Japanese invaders left them 300 years ago as a conclusive proof of the lack of energy and efficiency of the Korean race. That's certainly a good point.
3
Left Seoul by 4:20 p.m. train for Song Do. Rain all the way, Arrived home 9 p.m.
 

23. 9월 23일

1
23rd. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. A favorite argument of a pro-Japanese writer is that in the Philippines neither Filipino nor Spanish is taught in the school. Thus trying to prove that Japan is more generous than the U.S. since the Korean language is taught in Korean schools. These apologists seem to forget the fact that as the U.S. has decided to make the Philippines independent as soon as practicable, it doesn't matter what language they teach in the schools. Besides it is not the study of the Japanese language in the school that we object to but the system of compelling the little children to learn everything in Japanese. Thus burdening the little brains with the heavy load of learning three languages, Korean, Chinese, Japanese, all at one and the same time.
 

24. 9월 24일

1
24th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. The nights of this season are indescribably beautiful in this village snugly located among the foot hills of the venerable Song Ak San. As the silvery beams of the moon play hide and seek through the leaves of trees that shade the walks on our property―as I take solitary saunters along these quiet paths, I am often seized by the solemn but not unpleasant thought that, in the course of nature, when I shall have left this world of sin and changes my spirit might―would―be delighted to haunt these beautiful lanes to see how my children enjoy their lives.
 

25. 9월 25일

1
25th. Saturday. Pale sunshine. Pretty.
 
2
Song Do home. I am informed that in the Government Medical School, the Japanese and the Korean students don't mix any more than oil and water. So much so that they don't exchange even the simplest forms of common courtesies like "Ohayo or Konichiwa," when they meet, in the school or on the street. Absolutely no comrade feeling between the two. Here the Japanese are more in the wrong because, they being of the ruling class, should break the ice first. I understand that the relation between the Japanese and the Korean students has become more strained than ever before since the March 1st 1919.
 

26. 9월 26일

1
26th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Last night I had a frank talk with wife. Told her not to be so snappy in temper, violent in tongue, impatient in manner. I said in brief: "I can be angry too.―I would not and could not stand any such impolite and angry temper and tongue from anybody else. I have been enduring your snappy and often unbearably impudent language without showing any sign in word or action. Simply for the sake of my aged mother and of our precious children. Don't spurn my advice, for I have no earthly reason to wish for your harm. Be patient and gentle for the sake of our dear children. She seemed to understand me, though it is to much to expect that she would change her habit of 30 years in a day.
 

27. 9월 27일

1
27th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left Song Do with wife and children per 2:30 p.m. train for Seoul. Home about 6 p.m. All well.
3
I learn that the Tong-A Il-Po (東亞日報) was suppressed on the 25th inst. The immediate reasons for this action on the part of the authorities were (1) discourteous criticism of the British rule in India, and (2) disrespectful reference to Shindoism, classifying its Mirror Jewel and Sword with idols. On the whole I think the young fellows who ran the paper acted very foolishly in making anti J. attacks the end and not the means of helping the Korean people. Such bitter attacks may gratify the passion of hatred indulged in the name of patriotism, but they defeat the very purpose for which the paper was started viz.: to enlighten and educate the Korean public in all things that make for intelligent citizenship which is certainly more than hatred on the Japanese.
 

28. 9월 28일

1
28th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
My 樂峴 property standing, as it does, right on the new road that is being built for the new South Gate Station, is more than ever valuable. I sacrificed, along with hundreds of other Koreans who lived on the land which the R.R.Co. chose for the new Station, 133 tsubos to the heartless godess of 土地收用令 or Right of Eminent Domain. A few days ago I was notified that 316 more tsubos are to be grabbed by the 土木局 at the rate of ¥900 per tsubo! I had beg them not to rob me of my land in this way agreeing that I would let them deal with the loose soil of the hill or which my former house stands, anyway they pleased the authorities condescended to give me some ¥800.00 to defray the expenses for removing the houses. All this abuse of the Right of Eminent Domain is bad enough. But here is something worse than that. The Japanese, two families, to whom I rented the house for last ten years at almost nominal rents, positively refuse to give up the house unless I pay them indemnity! Any wonder that the Koreans hate to have any dealings with the Japanese as tenants? The Japanese who are in Korea are making themselves so disagreable that we fear them as vipers.
 

29. 9월 29일

1
29th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
I feel as weak as if I had just gotten up from a long illness. The summer has been hard on me physically and morally.
 

30. 9월 30일

1
30th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
The unhulled rice which sold for 13 sen per kin (斤) hardly finds a purchaser at the distressing rate of 5 sen per kin in A-san, Onyang etc. If this state of things continue the Koreans will suffer such a dire money famine that Korea has seldom in its recent history. A farmer who borrowed a bag of Chinese millet last Spring for ¥1.600 (including interest and transportation etc.) will have to sell two or more bags of unhulled rice to repay the debt. That means his ruin. There is nobody who will be profited by this condition of affairs but the Japanese land grabbers.
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