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◈ 윤치호일기 (1921년) ◈

◇ 2월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권 3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 2월 1일

1
1st. Tuesday. Beautiful. 27°F. 8 a.m.
 
2
9 a.m. called on Mr. Tawara 俵 who used to be the Vice Minister of Education during the last years of the Yi Dynasty. He agreed with me that the raise of taxes had been too much and too sudden; and that some organ or opportunity be devised through which the needs and desires of the Korean people can be made known to the authorities without the interception of the distorting mediums. He said that 一視同仁 doesn't mean that the Korean and Japanese must have everything identically the same. To a father a grown son of 30 and a boy 3 years are objects of equal love. Is he therefore obliged to give his grown son identically the same kind of clothing of the same size and style that he gives to his baby boy? These were not his exact words but his idea of 一視同仁 was clear enough. But the 一視同仁 policy will never fool the Korean as long as he sees a step mother in the act of Japan.
 

2. 2월 2일

1
2nd. Wednesday. Beautiful. Cold. 9 a.m. 24°F.
 
2
The other day Mr. 劉猛 told me that the Government General is spending the income of ¥300,000.00 from the Confucian temple Endowment Fund in subsidizing the Peddlers' Organizations and the 國民協會. I don't know how far Mr. 劉 is correct but one thing is evident to all, that the Japanese leaves no stone unturned to discourage and checkmate the spread of Christianity in Korea.
3
Candler tells me that the secret emissaries of the P.G. of Shanghai are making Song Do an uneasy place to live in. Money famine, blackmailers, P.G. agents and police are keeping every Korean in constant fear and trembling. God give us courage and wisdom!
 

3. 2월 3일

1
3rd. Thursday. Cold.
 
2
In answer to certain interpolations in the Diet, now sitting in Tokyo, the Japanese Government said among other things in regard to Korea: "Accompanying the advancement of civilization and the readjustment of the administrative machinery to meet the changed conditions of the times, the increase of expenditure can not be avoided. But we do not notice any sign of exhaustion(困惡) in the economic capacity(能力) of the people." If other statements of the Government are on a par with this one concerning Korea, they are certainly worthless. For it is a fact undeniable that the people are suffering from a money famine that is crushing them worse than the crop famine last year and that the taxes are much in arrears inspite of the efforts of the officers often pitiless and conscienceless in their methods of collection.
 

4. 2월 4일

1
4th. Friday.
 
2
Reminiscence No.
3
About 15 or so years ago a rich man 徐 of Taiku started a National Debt Redemption Movement 國債報償. He proposed that we Korean should quit smoking contributing the money thus saved to the redemption of the debt which was about ¥13,000.000(00/100) The movement spread like a wild fire proving once more that we have more sentiment than sense. Money poured into the newspaper offices, then existing 帝國新聞, 皇城新聞 and 每日申報. The last paper being pronounced in anti Japanism under the editorship of Bethel an English Jew, was most trusted and patronized by the Korean public. People sent money of various amounts to Bethel's office. Women sent in their trinkets.
4
But when the people saw that ¥13,000.000(00/100) was not a joke to be gotten in a breath, their enthusiasm cooled off and the stream of money became mere tricking. A National Debt Redemption Committee was appointed and my father was elected its Chairman. Of the 80 thousand or more yen which had been sent to Bethel's office ¥40,000.00 was turned over to the Committee for safe keeping. My father gave receipts in his name. Soon it became evident that the money collected fell far short of the goal not only; but that the people had no power to prevent the Government from incurring a new debt even if the old debt were wiped out. What to do with the money, may be 20 thousand yen or more was a question. In the mean time Bethel persuaded father to give him ¥20,000(00/100) on the pretax or promise that he would invest the money at a good rate of interest. He(B) bought ¥16,000.00 worth of 遂安 mines stock and lent ¥4,000.00 to a French man named Martin. In the summer of 1909, the Il Chin Hoi mortigated or the Japanese demanded the money of my father.
 

5. 2월 6일

1
6th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshiped at 宗橋 Church as usual.
3
Received a letter from 洪永厚 which made me quite indignant. Last year―some time in January or February 洪永厚 asked me to help him to go to Tokyo to study music. I gave him ¥100.00. Sometime in September I sent him another cheque for ¥100.00. Later I gave him ¥50.00 more, thus making my contribution to his expenses a total of ¥250.00.
4
A month ago he wrote me and asked for ¥250.00 to buy a violin. As I would never have consented to my own son or brother to buy a ¥250.00 violin while studying I answered 洪, that I couldn't comply with his request. The idea of a young man studying on somebody's charity demanding a sum large enough to pay for his necessaries for nearly a whole year―the idea of a poor student, 苦學生, living a hand-to-mouth life wishing to possess a ¥250.00 violin is simply outrageous according to my sense of economy.
5
In his letter received today he gives a lecture on the vice of miserliness, denouncing the Korean rich who oppress the poor; be wiling the fate of the Korean geniuses and heroes 英雄 who have no means to develope their talents, declaring that the Bolsheviks and Communists are righteous robbers; threatening that the turn will soon come when the rich shall not enjoy their wealth alone. A beautiful specimen of advancing enlightenment and gratitude of a young Korean!
 

6. 2월 8일

1
8th. Tuesday.
 
2
Reminiscence No.
3
The story of the National Debt Redemption Fund.
4
My father was in trouble. He had signed away a large amount of people's money without any authorization from anybody. How mean Bethel was to have played such a trick on my father! When I asked Bethel why he had bought the stock with the money which was never intended for speculations and what he intended to do in case of the 遂安 Mines should fail, "Oh well, the money would have fed and clothed the Korean workmen any way" was the cheeky answer of this friend of Korea! I have a time of it to get the cash back, fortunately the Soo An Mining stock sold at premium and Coalbin gave back the money with 6% interest. The French man never paid back the money so far as I know. During the winter of 1909 various parties tried to get hold of the money. Some for this and others for that―all more or less plausible public enterprises. The cheekiest and meanest of these efforts to pocket the fund was the attempt of Bethel persuading father to give him the stocks which he would sell at profit. When one remembers the great risk which my father innocently ran by trusting too much the honesty and disinterestedness(?) of B. and the trouble and worry and humiliation I had to endure in order to get the ¥20,000(00/100) back, B's rascality and shamelessness are simply astounding.
5
Finally the Japanese authorities took the money and God alone knows what has become of it. What did the Koreans get for the money? They got poorer, sadder and―no wiser.
 

7. 2월 10일

1
10th. Thursday. Bright.
 
2
The money famine is getting worse and worse. There are only three classes of people in Korea today who doesn't care a fig whether the farm products are selling 1/3 or 1/4 of what they used to sell. All they care is to squeeze money out of somebody they are; 1 thoughtless wives; 2 insatiable parasites; 3 the "patriot" so called.
3
If the Provisional Government in Shanghai were really patriotic and sensible, they should issue a manifested denouncing the bandits like methods of extending money which its agents have been practicing all over the country making every Korean of any means tremble day and night for the security of his life and property. To demand money with a pistol aimed at one's throat is a robber or a bandit and not a government agent. The Koreans are poor enough. To single out a few so called rich Koreans and to either kill them for not giving money to the P.G. or to have them killed by the Japanese for having been forced to give money to the P.G. is to reduce the Koreans all to beggary. If that is patriotism, if that is serving the people, if that is independence, well, Heaven deliver us from them!
 

8. 2월 11일

1
11th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Stayed in bed with a cold.
 

9. 2월 12일

1
12th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Stayed in bed with a cold.
3
Reminiscence No.
4
In the Fall of 1907, I met Mr. 金永振 in the car between Song Do and Seoul. He said "Do you know that I saved your life once?" On my answering him "No," he proceeded thus. "In the year of 1898, when the independence club was at the hight of its power, you had one night an audience with His Majesty. As you were going out of the Palace gate―the inner gate―the Emperor told me to have you cut down. I had to disobey the Imperial order by telling him that to kill you then and there would hurt the Imperial dignity and might provoke a popular uprising." "Through many dangers, toils and snares I have already come; This grace hath brought me safe thus far, and grace will lead me home."
5
By the way, it was rather an ominous thing that the Ex-Emperor 高宗皇帝―hated the Independence Club so bitterly. He hated Independence and died a pensioner of Japan. Strange that the Japan in Korea are repeating the history of the Ex-Emperor. They hate the very word 독립 or independence with a deadly hatred. I wonder what all this means!
 

10. 2월 13일

1
13th. Sunday. Cloudy. Snow.
 
2
Stayed in bed.
 

11. 2월 14일

1
14th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Stayed in bed.
3
For the first time in ten years, an inter school game of foot ball, was allowed to be held in Seoul. Nearly 18 foot ball teams participated. Two significant facts in regard to the game. 1. The authorities of Government Schools would not and did not allow their students to participated in the contest. That's foolish. The Government School authorities should encourage the desire for the spirit of sport―to win the good will of the boys, if not for nothing higher.
4
2. The contesting parties in their eagerness to win, forgot the spirit of sport. They quarrelled with other teams and went so far as to beat the umpire and compelled him to sign a statement that his decision had been wrong. The Pyong Yang boys are reported to have behaved very ugly. They obstructed the progress of the game when they said that they were hopeless to get the championship banner. What not patriotic enough to be gentleman in a foot ball game! No wonder the members of P.G. of Shanghai are not gentlemen enough to be patriots―to sink personal and selfish ambitions for a great common end. The Koreans seem united. in one thing and one thing only, viz; their hatred of the Japanese. But hatred is a passion and a passion is very risky thing to build a union on; for the cause of the passion once removed, the union will fall to pieces. Example: The common fear and hatred of Germany kept the allies in union. That fear and hatred gone, they are dogs and cats again.
 

12. 2월 15일

1
15th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
 

13. 2월 16일

1
16th. Wednesday. Bright.
 
2
A little better. Still in bed.
3
The Keijo Nippo published this evening, the starting news that Min Won Sik(閔元植) , the advocate of New-Japanism 新日本主義 had been stabbed to death by a Korean young man between 9 and 10 a.m. in his room at the Station Hotel Tokyo. He went there with three or more other Koreans to present petition to the Diet praying that the Koreans be given a representation in the Parliament. He insisted that we Koreans should make the most of our situation by being thoroughly Japanized of course that aroused the wrath and indignation of the independents who regard him as a traitor to Korea.
4
While I have no respect for Min Won Sik as a man, nor much sympathy for his political principles, I don't believe he deserved the fate he had met with. His idea was not to sell out the Korean independence being to get the best of our present situation. If anybody doesn't agree with him―that is all; no use killing everybody who doesn't think as we do. The sad fact is that the Korean history especial of the last five centuries is almost an unbroken and disgraceful record of the mutual butchery of political factions. "Kill him, if he doesn't agree with us"―has been the motto of Korean politicians. The young Korea of today is simply repeating the evil practices of its political ancestors.
 

14. 2월 17일

1
17th. Thursday.
 
2
Still in bed.
 

15. 2월 18일

1
18th. Friday.
 
2
Kept in bed.
3
The Japanese both in Tokyo and in Korea are making much fuss about Min Won Sik's death. They almost canonize him as a martyr to a principled, 主義の殉節士. No wonder, for the world loves its own. If he is a martyr to a principle to be editorialized to be eulogized and to be herofied, how about the hundreds of brave boys and heroic women who have during the last two years risked their all―their lives in many cases―to which they regard as principles―certainly higher and nobler than Mins'?
4
The Koreans demand independence, pure and simple which the Japanese will not and can not give. Japan wants to assimilate the Koreans which they regard as impossible. Between these two extremes what is the golden medium? I don't know; nobody seems to know. But this one thing I do know: we must learn, learn, and learn. We must learn to be clean; learn to be industrious; learn to be efficient, learn to stick together; learn to obey; learn to wait; learn to master freedom and not to be mastered by it―good as freedom is. Many a Korean seems to think and talk as if to hate the Japanese were the whole dirty of man. Hatred is bad because we can't learn if we hate.
 

16. 2월 19일

1
19th. Saturday.
 
2
Out of the bed first time in ten days. Feel still weak.
 

17. 2월 20일

1
20th. Sunday. Bright. Cold.
 
2
Stayed home.
3
A sense of loveliness and weariness come on me often with overwhelming power―especially when I lie awake in the nights. Due much to following reasons, I guess. 1. Many of my friends are gone not only themselves but also the world they lived in―its ideas, its traditions and its ways. 2. I have lost many friends through difference of opinions in religion and politics. 3. I have one wife but one too many, in her thoughtlessness, in her heartlessness and in her mannerlessness. I yearn for a loving woman who can encourage me in noble aspirations, smooth me in vexations, and counsel me in difficulties. 4. The darkness of future of the Korean people. They may be roughly divided into 4 classes. (a) The Rip Van Wincle class… composed of old scholars and ancient official fossils who sit smoking with their faces to the dead past and their backs to the living future. (b) The dense ignorant class whose only god is their belly. (c) The student class which like fire flies, are attracted by lamp lights of new thoughts which rather destroy than enlighten them. (d) Helpless class who, like myself, have sane ideas about independence etc. but who lack the courage and energy to put themselves out as leaders of unpopular thoughts. Who will lift me out of this mire of loneliness?
 

18. 2월 21일

1
21st Monday. Bright.
 
2
Stayed home.
 

19. 2월 22일

1
22nd. Tuesday. Bright. Cold.
 
2
Sleepless night―from insomnia. No appetite. Feel wretched in body and in mind.
3
A wave of ingratitude seems to be rising and spreading over the young Korea. A young Korean seems to think it not only unnecessary but positively uncivilized to be grateful for favors received. Koo Ja Ok is one of them―I am sorry to say. I gave him ¥200.00 to help him paying his passage to America. Not a card since he left Korea a month or two ago.
4
When I help a young man he not only shows no sign of gratitude for the favor but seems and actually says in so many words that I am wrong in not giving him more. The age long parasitism of the Korean society has crystallized into hard, unlovable and unloving ingratitude.
5
German philosophy of Nazi type translated through the heartless medium of modern Japan is turning the young Korean into an impossible creature. Gratitude is the basis of all private and public virtues. Filial piety of which we Orientals make so much, loyalty 忠 faithfulness of friends all lose their meaning without gratitude. Religion itself is based on our gratitude to God.
 

20. 2월 23일

1
23th. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Insomnia and no appetite as usual.
 

21. 2월 24일

1
24th. Thursday. Cloudy.
 
2
Up at 5 a.m. Began snowing. Left Seoul by 7:20 a.m. train for 天安. Snow, wind, chilly disagreeable weather all the way. Arrived at 天安 about 9 a.m. Got on one of those disreputable looking auto all dirt, mud and tatter for 溫泉's Hot Springs. The auto got out of fix every few minutes making passengers very cold. Took 3 hours for the trip, arriving at the Hot Springs about 12:15. Put up at 尹成伯's inn. Very tired and cold. Shocked to hear that 李胄相 passes away yesterday. What a sudden death!
3
Had to wait 3 solid hours for a meal.
 

22. 2월 25일

1
25th. Friday. Pretty.
 
2
No improvement in insomnia. Enjoyed an early bath. About 11 a.m. left the Springs for 東邊里. The road was muddy and sticky but the weather ideal. After visiting father's grave, went to cousin 李咸悅's home to pay my respect to the mortal remains of the elder son of my paternal aunt. He was a level headed good man. His sudden departure is bemoaned by a large circle of friends and relatives who sincerely loved and respected him.
3
Returned to the Spring about 3:30 p.m.
 

23. 2월 26일

1
26th. Saturday. Windy. Cold.
 
2
Up early for a refreshing bath!
3
This Hot Spring was honored by occasional visits of the King of Yi Dynasty. There used to be a wall surrounding the Spring area with four gates. A "Palace" was the most conspicuous building. Fifty three cottages each named after one of the 53 magistracies were situated inside of the wall. When a King visited the Spring the magistrates of 53 counties came and ministered to his needs and comforts. In other words the whole area was a royal property. About 16 or 17 years ago Min Byong Suk, Ye Jong Suk, and Kwon Jong Suk took bribes and sold the whole business to a Japanese for the trifling sum of ¥20,000.00! The rascals would no doubt excuse themselves for the dirty transaction by saying that the Hot Spring would have been seized by the omnivorous Government General any way and that they had therefor sold really a Japanese property and not a Korean royal estate. "If I didn't do it some other rascal would have done so" has been the most popular and convenient formula of justification of those Koreans who have sold out every natural and political right in Korea.
4
Of the 53 cottages, only 3 stand now. The one in which I am stopping now was called the 保寧 house. These three cottages are to be demolished soon. The "Palace" has become a Japanese inn. As a railroad is being built to connect this Spring with the main Fusan―Seoul line, this little village is bound to become a great resort of the Japanese.
5
A disagreeable weather―strong and cold wind all day long.
 

24. 2월 27일

1
27th. Sunday. Cloudy. Mild.
 
2
Left Hot Spring 9 a.m. Left 天安 12:50. Arrived Seoul 5:30 p.m. All well at home.
 

25. 2월 28일

1
28th. Monday. Cloudy. Chilly.
 
2
The good appetite I gained while I stayed at the Hot Springs seems almost gone no sooner than I returned to Seoul.
3
Was summoned by the local court to give my interpretation of the word, should in an agreement between W.W. Tailor and a Korean bicycle dealer. W.W.T. promised to sell 100 bicycles, to 申德鉉, of a shipment of 250 wheels "which should arrive within two months." The court asked me if the word "should" meant 必ズ or 確實. I said so far as I could make it out the clause meant 二個月ノ內ニ到着スベキ, and not a guaranty that the wheels would come within two months. It looks W.W.T. took rather an unfair advantage of the simplicity of the Korean by making out an agreement which bound the Korean but which didn't blind him(W.W.T.) to carry out the terms in case the shipment should fail to arrive within two months. Began rain 4 p.m.
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