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◈ 윤치호일기 (1921년) ◈

◇ 3월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권 4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 3월 1일

1
1st. Tuesday. Cloud and sunshine.
 
2
Rained―thunder―all last night up to nearly 9 a.m. today.
3
In the p.m. 玄東完 the young fellow who has charge of the Physical Dept. of Central Y. came and asked me to fact the bill for the traveling expenses of the Basket Ball team to and from Shanghai. He said it would cost the team at least ¥3,000(00/100) I said that if this sum could be raised now it would be best to spend it in buying or fixing up a suitable athletic ground for Seoul. He told me that the promoters of the scheme has the ulterior object of seeing things in Shanghai other than the Olympic Games. He further informed me that Mr. Yi Sang Chai is going with the team. These fellows are very liberal with somebody else's money.
 

2. 3월 2일

1
2nd. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Today's papers are full of details connected with the arrest of 梁槿煥 the assassin of Min Won Sik. The young man is reported to be 28 years old and to have been a graduate from the 工業傳習所 of Seoul. A native of 延白 district. He has lived in Tokyo last 4 or 5 years, earning honest bread with hard work―even pulling "rickshaw" in the nights. He shows a fine strong face in the picture. His coolness and courage proved by his sound sleeping the night he was examined in the Nagasaki police station. What a pity a young man of such education, courage and devotion to a cause should end his youthful life as an assassin!
3
Mr. Hitch called this p.m. and gave me a message from Dr. Lambuth that he(Hitch) and I had been appointed delegates to the Ecumenical Council to be held in London Sept. next.
 

3. 3월 3일

1
3rd. Thursday. Beautiful. Windy. 26°F.
 
2
Wrote and mailed a letter to 致昌.
3
I asked 劉高原 if the Koreans would be contented to wait, should Japan promise them a home rule say 20 years hence and independence later. "No," said 劉 "simply because the Koreans wouldn't believe in the sincerity of Japan." That's where the whole trouble lies: the Koreans would not trust in the promises of Japan. If this is the opinion of 劉 who is as safe(穩健) as the Japanese could wish a Korean to be, one may well imagine the attitude of young Korea toward Japan. Yes, honesty is the best policy. Confucius was right when he said: "A nation may afford to be without an army or food. But a man can't stand without trustworthiness."
 

4. 3월 4일

1
4th. Friday. Beautiful. 25°F.
 
2
Independence is the ideal of the Korean race. The Koreans have shown that they are willing to die for this ideal. It is useless to argue about the profitableness or unprofitablence of the ideal. As water will never rest until it has found its level; as fire will never rest until it has found its upward current, so the Korean race will never rest until it has found its independence. The wisest thing Japan can do will be to recognize this truth as soon as possible so as to assure the Koreans their ultimate independence in course of time.
3
In the mean time let the Koreans learn how to use independence when they do get it.
 

5. 3월 5일

1
5th. Saturday. Pretty. Windy. 32°F.
 
2
The Japanese police system has once more proved its efficiency in spotting and arresting the assassin of Min Won Sik. According to reports Ryang Kun Whan was caught by a police power of observation. The signs that guided the policeman were (1) Ryang's head was flat at its back; (2) he opened his mouth too wide and talked too loud for a Japanese; (3) he had no smell of wood about his clothes and (4) his hands were too soft, considering this pretension that he was a carpenter.
3
What a pity such a young man should have thrown his life away on so little a game. Korea's independence can never be secured through or by assassinations.
 

6. 3월 6일

1
6th. Sunday. Pretty.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual. Pastor Ryang gave a good talk on the True Success. "One is successful who has (1) done his best, (2) fought to the possible last, (3) played the game fairly honorably and sportsman like. The result is a matter of secondary importance.
3
Took lunch at 洪義官's home where wife and children went this morning on a visit.
4
Called on Mr. Kim Yun Jung, the new Vice Governor of Kyeng Kui Do. His wife is one of the most energetic and sensible women I have seen. But for her able management Mr. Kim might have been homeless. Kim tells me that entertainment expense cut deep into his pocket every month and that his position is a hand to mouth living.
 

7. 3월 7일

1
7th. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
Invited 洪秉璇 to supper. At 8 p.m. went to Central Y. to preside over the monthly social meeting. Mrs. Clark of Jun Joo 全州 having been advertised to sing for us, the large auditorium was packed to the last capacity. Her voice was certainly beautiful. The words of all her songs, except one, were Korean. She is certainly a charming woman.
3
Christianity has done an everlasting service to the Korean race by discovering for us three great treasures of inestimable value: (1) The Korean unmoon; (2) the woman; (3) the young people. Missionaries like Mrs. Clark has shown us that our language is as musical as any.
4
Inspite of all their blunders and mistakes and faults, missionaries are the best and the only friends we have. God bless them abundantly.
 

8. 3월 8일

1
8th. Tuesday. Pretty. Chilly.
 
2
This morning Kim Sang Kyo brought his eldest son, Kim Paik Hu to see me. Kim Sang Kyo is the son of my old teacher Mr. 金正浩. What knowledge of Chinese I have owe to that good man, I thank God that I have been able to help Kim S.K. to buy a house and later to get his boy out of the clutch of a Japanese usurer. K.P.H. has just returned home from a term of five years in prison for some felony. I do hope the young man has been thoroughly cured of his foolishness and will prove a worthy grandson of a worthy grandfather.
 

9. 3월 9일

1
9th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Exodus 23 : 28―30 "And I(Jehovah) will send the hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite. The Canaanite and the Hittite from before thee. I will not drive them out from before thee in one year, lest the land become desolate and the beasts of the field multiply against thee. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee thou be increased and inherit the land." If moses had said this as a statesman he did nothing worse than a host of statesmen of all ages have said and done. In modern histories Cromwell, Peter the great, Frederik the great, Bismark, William the Second and the Japanese of present generation have all been saying and doing precisely what Moses and his followers did say and do three thousand years ago. I mean I have no right to blame Moses for formulating such a cold blooded policy against other races of men. But to believe that God, the God the Father of all men, should have inculcated such a doctrine favoring one race against another―O how hard it is to believe this!
 

10. 3월 10일

1
10th. Thursday. Gloomy.
 
2
Man is such a confounded compound of good and evil thoughts and inclinations and his conscience and reason are so powerless against some overwhelming passion or appetite that it is fortunate that he is inconsistent. Because he is inconsistent, there has been lift some good deeds among men!
 

11. 3월 11일

1
11th. Friday.
 
2
Pale. A German professor once said to an American student "Why did Lord make more Chinese than Germans?" I suppose because the Germans have destroyed more lives and property in 5 years than the Chinese have done in 40 Centuries.
3
Disraeli said that people mistake comfort or civilization. Our Japanese friends seem to mistake convenience for the happiness. They everlastingly assert that they have promoted the happiness of Korean race by giving them the conveniences of modern means of communication and transportation. The truth is that convenience are neither happiness nor unhappiness. The man who walks a hundred li a day may be a happier man than he who makes it in an hour in the most luxurious auto or vice versa. I know many a person happier in their humble cottages than Yun Tuk Yung in his ¥170,000.00 mansion with glass ceilings.
4
Whatever happiness may be or may be not, it must have contentment, and peace. With these one may be happy in a cottage or in a palace.
 

12. 3월 12일

1
12th. Saturday. Cloudy pale sunshine now and them.
 
2
Left Seoul by 12:25 noon train for Song Do. Arrived Song Do home about 3:30 p.m. All well. Very could and windy.
 

13. 3월 13일

1
13th. Sunday.
 
2
Spoke to the graduating class of the former Anglo-Korean School at the Southward Church 11―12. Had an attentive full house. In my address I divided the class into two sections, the one composed of many young men who couldn't go to higher schools and the other of a few fortunate boys who might seek a higher education in Seoul and elsewhere. To the former group I advised courage and self culture giving examples from history and life of those who made themselves great with very little education. To the second group I recommended humility and preferring some 實業 or practical education looking toward the industrial, commercial and agricultural development of Korea to purely literary or liberal education―like literature, economics, philosophy, law etc. To both I recommended the now unfashionable virtue of gratitude to teachers, to the Alma Matters etc. Took lunch at Dr. Cram's.
 

14. 3월 14일

1
14th. Monday.
 
2
Exceedingly cold and disagreeable. Left Song Do by 1:50 p.m. train for Seoul. Arrived home about 4:30 p.m. ill and tired. Found 文姬 sick and 恩姬 with a bad cold.
 

15. 3월 15일

1
15th. Tuesday.
 
2
Exceedingly cold and disagreeable. In the afternoon called on my old friend 韓世鎭. He is a devoted Buddhist, spending or having spent his entire life in contemplation and doing nothing. Said he: 世上에 난 것이 恨일세. 英雄은 무엇이며 帝王은 무엇인가. 世上에 나면 苦生이니, 남을 위하야 苦生인가. 나를 위하야 苦生인가? (I regret only that I have been born into this world. Heroes, what are they? Princes, they are nothing but vanity. We suffer the moment we are born. Do we suffer for the sake of others or for that of ourselves?"
3
All too true. But can we mend anything by wasting our lives in fruitless contemplations and equally fruitless wailing? Compared to this kind of hopeless and helpless view of life how noble and how sane the teachings of Christ are: namely to fight the devil the flesh and the world in order to leave the world better―in ever so little degree―than we found it.
 

16. 3월 16일

1
16th. Wednesday.
 
2
Wife sick―her sickness is 9/10 due to her own making. Anybody whose ideal of life is to do nothing but to have everything done for her by a host of servants―such a life can not help being sick.
 

17. 3월 17일

1
17th. Thursday.
 
2
Snow last night.
3
Some 14 or 15 years ago the leading lights of Song Do organized an agriculture association. Under its auspices the grounds of the ancient palace(滿月坮) were turned into an orchard. Last Autumn the orchard was sold to a Japanese land purchasing syndicate(黃海□) for ¥4,000.00. It is said that the syndicate realize ¥10,000(00/100) in single season of fruits. Now isn't it a sad fact that the Song Do people many of whom could have paid down ¥4,000(00/100) in spit cash without feeling any pinch; should let the orchard slip into the hands of the Japanese. The Song Do people cares nothing profitable but lending money at usurious rules of interest.
 

18. 3월 18일

1
18th. Friday. Pale. Chilly.
 
2
In the afternoon a young fellow looking rather seedy and saucy came in and introduced himself as 宋秉玉. He betrayed Pyong An Do accent. Point blank, he asked me to lend him a sum to pay his traveling expenses to America(!) I told him that I had so many demands on may slender purse that I could not comply not comply with his request. He was silent for a minute or two then asked: "무엇에 쓰시나오 or "On what are you spending your money?" I was so disgusted that I answered with a little heat "What right have you to inquire into the ways I spend my money?" After spluttering some sort of apology the insolent hopeful left me.
 

19. 3월 19일

1
19th. Saturday. Cloudy.
 
2
Called on Dr. Avison who had recently returned from a long trip to America. He said that in Honolulu the Koreans are doing fine supporting their own schools and churches in a way that have elicited from the Americans resident in Hawaii the encomium that the Korean represents the highest type of the Orientals in the Island. The Koreans are noted there for industry, dependableness and liberality. It did me good to hear that.
 

20. 3월 20일

1
20th. Sunday.
 
2
Pale-no rest last night, from a bad cold.
3
Read in a paper the statement of Mr. F.A. McKenzie to the following effect. "The Japanese publicist is helped by the fact that the great body of British Press feels itself bound because of the Alliance to interpret everything in the view most friendly to Japan. The Times 2 or 3 weeks ago, printed an exceedingly one sided article from it correspondent in Tokyo on Korea. I wrote to the editor pointing out in the most modest language some of the mistakes of his correspondent. He would not print it. Quite recently my Canadian friends sent me a mass of first hand information about the outrages of Chientao, but the news papers here would not print anything."
 

21. 3월 21일

1
21st. Monday. Cloudy.
 
2
Miserably disagreeable day.
3
Mrs. Melissa Kim called and lectured on her pet theme. The Women's Education Association(女子敎育會) . The aim of this association is to teach those who hasn't had the opportunity of attending schools. Many of them are married women. The work is exceedingly commendable; but is not the only good work for the Koreans. Besides as Miss Myers has bought the spacious house, 太□館 to be devoted to all kinds of good work for women, there is no reason why Mrs.
4
Kim shouldn't co-operate with Mrs. Myers. She(Mrs. K.) needs not worry herself and others to raise ¥10,000.00.100 for a house. Again a house alone can't do the work. How is she going to provide for the heavy current expenses? She says she doesn't care to work for a missionary.
 

22. 3월 22일

1
22nd. Tuesday. Fine and cold.
 
2
First bright day after two weeks of wretched weather. Left Seoul by 12:20 p.m. train for 天安 with 文姬, 善姬, 恩姬, and 明姬 to give them the benefit of the hot springs of 溫陽. Candler accompanied us. Except the bitterly cold wind and the constant breaking down of the auto, making the trip between the 天安 station and the hot springs a tedious ride of 3 hours, we had a fairly good day. Put up at the inn kept by 金□□. The rooms are not as clean as we want but they are the best we can get here. Glad to see the children like the change.
3
The hot springs of 溫陽 are bound to become a favorite resort of the people of Seoul.
4
The Japanese are making every effort to boom the town. The Koreans seem to be sleeping.
 

23. 3월 23일

1
23rd. Wednesday. Beautiful. Cold.
 
2
Happy to see the children enjoy the bath. Pain at heart to see that all vantage grounds―mines, springs, harbors―in fact everything and anything that have in it any gain present or future are being rapidly appropriated, by means fair or foul, by the Japanese. It is sickening to see the Koreans selling out their birthrights for mere nothings―lands, hills, homes without any thought for tomorrow. It is sad to see how the Koreans persist not only but actually glory in their ignorance and incompetency by absolutely refusing to learn and imitate the good traits of the Japanese.
3
In a place like this there is not a Korean inn clean enough for a decent man to sleep in.
 

24. 3월 24일

1
24th. Thursday. Cloudy and chilly.
 
2
Visited father's gave.
3
文姬 asks me: "Why don't the Korean inn keepers of the place unite to have a decent inn?" Simply because the Koreans can't unite for anything.
4
In 平山, a Korean magistrate tried to persuade the elders of the village where fine hot springs are located to own them as the property of the village for its future prosperity. The elders said: "그것을 해 무엇합녯가" The 郡守 was so disgusted that he threw a wooden pillow at them. Now the 平山 springs are operated by the Japanese and villagers get no profit out of them.
5
Can we blame the Japanese who openly say that Korea is the happy land for the Japanese because its soil is rich, its climate is good and its people are lazy and ignorant?
 

25. 3월 25일

1
25th. Friday. Rain a.m.
 
2
It looks like the winter is going to chill the lap of May with its lingering cold.
3
The Japanese here seem to be more intolerably insolent.
4
The old fellow who receive the bath tickets hardly recognizes my polite salutations. The ticket seller is actually rude. I suppose they are so not only because they are the baser sort of the Japanese but because they associate or deal with the lowest grade of the Koreans here―who seem to be dirty, spiritless and lazy to an astonishing degree.
5
The yangbanism of this section of Korea has actually brutalized the common people.
 

26. 3월 26일

1
26th. Saturday. Pretty and cold.
 
2
Morning bath as usual. I am told that the Japanese, as soon as they, by bribing 閔丙奭 etc, bought the hot spring area―included inside of a wall―seized every available hill and house site around the hot springs without any pretense of compensation to the owners. The Korean who helped the Japanese in this dirty work and who got rich there is the old bath-keeper(湯直) 河□洙.
3
One of the favorite methods used by the Japanese to seize the land of a Korean was to stake off a piece of land on the pretext that the Government or some big company would confiscate it. That would scare the owner out of his wit. Then a Japanese would step in as a mediator and open negotiations with the frightened Korean to buy his land at 1/10 or less of the actual value of the property. The Korean could do nothing but to sell out being only glad that he should get something for his land. God only knows how much of the Korean's land has thus been robbed by the civilized Japanese.
 

27. 3월 27일

1
27th. Sunday. Pretty. Windy.
 
2
Refreshing bath as usual. In my dream I saw 崔萬春, an old servant of my father. He(崔萬春) was a wonderful walker. As a horse groom for father, he used to make "Saimal," 180 li from Seoul, easily in a day―in a winter day at that. The greatest feat he performed was his walk from 北靑 to Seoul 980 li in 3 days―of course walking the nights too, I saw him last in the winter of 1884. I dreamed that he tried to train a horse!
3
I wonder if our brains are something like the phonograph records so that when something like the phone needed touches the brain-record, old scenes are reproduced. But then our dreams are not always alike. O the wonder of wonders!
 

28. 3월 28일

1
28th. Monday. Cloud and sunshine.
 
2
Early bath as usual. Left 溫泉 at 8:30 a.m. in rickshaws with children. Wind bitterly cold―hard on dear 明姬. Arrived 天安 station about 10:30 a.m. Found the room in the Korean inn so intolerably dirty that I had to take the children to the station waiting nearly two hours for the train. Arrived Seoul home 6:30 p.m. All well, thank God.
 

29. 3월 29일

1
29th. Tuesday. Cloudy a.m.
 
2
Gloomy a.m. Windy and cold.
3
"Vanity of vanities, all is vanity" says the preacher. Isn't it so because beauties, pleasures and virtues are all skin deep? The most glorious beauties of women or of natural scenery―scratch off the surface covering either of a fair skin from the former or of the trees and flowers from the latter―what have you left but repulsive frame work? Pleasures, so called are pains sugar coated. Then, virtues! How much of our boasted private or public virtues can stand the inspection of our own conscience, let alone the eyes of God? Selfishness, meanness, vainness are only thinly disguised by what passes for virtues.
 

30. 3월 30일

1
30th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Mother, wife and children all want to see the 府太庙 procession. That is the tablets of the Ex-Emperor and Ex-Empress are to be placed in the Royal Ancestral Shrine. The crowd was immense. Came home tired.
3
Some sad thoughts suggested by the procession. (1) The love of official titles is root of many evils in Korea. This occasion has been profitably utilized by the corrupt 李王職 to distribute and sell the titles of 滲奉 hundreds of fools―some of them mere boys of 12 or 13! (2) In the appointment of the □□官, the old factional spirit fought over its old battles between the 老論, 小論, 南人, 北人, I am told the 西北人 were left out. (3) The eyes of the Japanese nation is now fixed on the European trip of their crown Prince―which is full of living problems of world importance. The Korean peoples' mind has been occupied with the childish show of placing a dead wooden tablet in a royal spirit. Japan is looking forward Korea is busy with burying the dead. What a difference!!!
 

31. 3월 31일

1
31st. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
After a refreshment called on Mr: 金潤晶. He was away but found his wife busy in housekeeping. She is a remarkable intelligent and active woman. She unbosomed to me her troubles. According to her words her husband begged her to return to Korea, when the Korean legation at Washington was closed promising that he would treat her like an American wife etc. But only a few months after his return to Korea he forgot his promises and have been as indifferent to her as any Korean husband could have been. She works like a slave to keep her children and husband neatly dressed. She looks after even the shinning of his shoes. But he never shows any sign of appreciation coming home from 1 to 4 a.m. Seeming to care nothing for her, etc. etc. Thus we are under the smiles of outward contentment each heart has its own sorrows!
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