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◈ 윤치호일기 (1921년) ◈

◇ 5월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 5월 1일

1
1st. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual.
3
Did I enjoy the Korean-Russian children's last night? Well, not being a musician I can't tell whether they played various instruments well or ill. Besides, they being mere school boys and girls, nobody would be inclined to criticize their performance. Then no Korean audience could hear them without the deepest sympathy. Those who should know such things told me that one of the boys played violin better than any Korean or Japanese violinist whom he had ever heard play in Seoul.
4
The children's dancing was all right enough. But the waltzes in which men and women danced together lacked decency and I couldn't help doubt the propriety of exhibiting such dances in a Y.M.C.A. hall.
 

2. 5월 2일

1
2nd. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Yi Pil soo(李弼秀) is the eldest son of my friend 李準鎰 who used to be the accountant of the Independence Office. After the death of his father, Yi Pil Soo went to Vladivostok and spent ten or 12 years in that and other towns in the extreme East Siberia. He tells that when he went there before the annexation, he found the Koreans all kindly disposed to one another. But as soon as An Chang Ho came to Vladivostok, the friendly relation between the Koreans of different provinces was changed into bitter sectional hatred. An Chang Ho started a crusade against Southern Koreans, inflaming by tongue and pen the sectional animosities of the North Western Koreans(西北人) . The feud was carried to the extent that 李相卨's life was attempted by the Pyong An Do men and that An Chang Ho would have nothing to do with Mr. 李. How strange! How sad! How foolish! Of all times is this the proper time to harbor such unworthy and unpatriotic sentiment?
3
6 p.m. attended a meeting of the Y.M.C.A. Directors―then a supper at Y. at 50 sen per person.
 

3. 5월 3일

1
3rd. Tuesday. Pretty.
 
2
Cloudy p.m. and windy. 4:30 p.m. went to □東館 where a Korean supper was given to the Koreans from Vladivostok by a number of Korean citizens. Actually five full hours. These Korean restaurants have become so dirty and so careless and so badly managed that they are a disgrace to the Korean population of the city.
 

4. 5월 4일

1
4th. Wednesday.
 
2
An ideal May weather―cool in the morning the air filled with sweet odors. Rumors say that Syngman Rhee has found it almost impossible to get the leaders in Shanghai to work together in co-operation and that he is so discouraged that he has decided to resign his position as the President. I believe this must be a sure enough fact. The Koreans mistake selfishness for independence and parasitism for mutual help. If they don't hang together, they may hang separately.
3
4:30 p.m. met Mr. Lutz, a schoolmate of Allen at the Ohio State University. From about 3 p.m. a refreshing rain―all the afternoon. Took supper at Mr. Brockman's. Bish. Welch, Dr. 江原素六, Dr. Avison present.
 

5. 5월 5일

1
5th. Thursday. Cloudy and cool.
 
2
Wrote to Allen. The mushroom companies which filled Seoul with promises and prospectus of all kinds of profitable business enterprises two years age have all gone to where mushrooms go. In their place charitable and public benefit(公益) associations are multiplying, each vying with another to see which can squeeze most money out of a few well to do Koreans. Some of them are 1. 朝鮮敎育會, 2. 女子敎育會, 3. 苦學生敎育會, 4. 避病院□□會, 5. 孤兒院, 6. 靑年會, 7. 貧民住宅□□會, 8. 敎會. Nobody can deny that every one of these is worthy of our unstinted help in sympathy and money. The only trouble is that the Koreans are not rich enough to finance all this. Besides there are so much dishonesty in the promoters of some of these schemes that one doesn't like to throw his money away.
 

6. 5월 6일

1
6th. Friday.
 
2
An ideal May day.
3
The Seoul Orphanage had its formal opening exercises from 4 p.m. Dr. Avisons reminiscent talk was very interesting. When he came to Korea 28 years ago his first home was the Korean house on the site now occupied by the Orphanage. His first medical work was to help the patients who were suffering from contagious diseases in straw tents which he found on these hills.
4
The pretty site on which the Orphanage stands now belong to Dr. Underwood. His son, Horace Underwood has been kind enough to let us use the site by saying for it in monthly instalment of 30 yen for ten years.
 

7. 5월 7일

1
7th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Beautiful. The official members of the 宗橋 Church had a picnic outside of the North Gate at my brother's villa. Wife, 庶母 and children went too. Was entertained by 金樂善 with his flute. He invented or rather improved a Korean flute so that it can produce all the notes of the Western scale. He is a genius in his line. When he studied in the A.K.S. he used up several bamboo broom-sticks to make his flutes.
3
Returned home about 5 p.m.
 

8. 5월 8일

1
8th. Sunday. Cloudy.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church.
3
The test of a fair government of one race by another is not in the fair worded proclamations or promises; nor in the smooth and suave speeches of the apologist. Nor yet even in the frank criticisms and righteous indignations of a few broad minded men on behalf of the oppressed subject people; but in the sincerity of the rulers, in the kindness and considerateness of the lower officials, and in the thoughtfulness and fair play with which the dominant people treat the less favored race. The Japanese in Korea―can they stand the test?
 

9. 5월 9일

1
9th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
With mother, wife and children went to the Royal Garden 昌慶苑 for a walk. I haven't been there for the last five years. The pretty flowers, and the beautifully laid out gardens give me no pleasure―so oppressive becomes the feeling of sadness whenever I see the ancient properties of the Korean people owned or exploited by other races. Even the ticket sellers are Japanese. What a fine toothed comb the Japanese use to comb out every and any position that has a pay, however small, in it.
3
Returned home about 5 p.m. tired in body and in mind.
 

10. 5월 10일

1
10th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
The Educational Committee(敎育調査委員會) held its second session in Seoul. Its work was to approve and pass the draft of the new educational ordinance presented by the Government General. To safe the face, I suppose, they(the Committee) suggested the correction of a phrase or two making in all 21 letters including Japanese kanas. A paper remarks that it cost the Gov. General or the people of Korea ¥180,000(00/100) to have 21 unimportant letters corrected by the august body of learned men all the way from Tokyo, Japan. Each letter corrected cost ¥8,571(00/100) or thereabout.
 

11. 5월 11일

1
11th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
One of the burning questions. The Educational Committee was to settle was the use of the Korean language in the classrooms of primary schools. Except one or two men who favored it, the Japanese members voted it down on the ground that it is contrary to the national policy of Japan. I understand that of the 3 Korean members Mr. Yi Wan Yong opposed the use of the Korean language, Suk Jin Hyng kept silent on the subject, Ko Won Hoon alone fought for it.
3
The teaching of most of the subjects in Japanese language in a primary school is a serious evil as it burdens the little brains too much. If a Japanese complain that it is hard for him to study Japanese and Chinese characters in the school what must be too serious of a Korean child who is compelled to study in a foreign tongue!
 

12. 5월 12일

1
12th. Thursday. Cloudy.
 
2
Left for Song Do by 9:50 a.m. train in order to entertain the Korean scholars from Vladivostok expected to be the Song Do tonight. The guests having gone to 載寧 are expected to arrive at this city sometime tomorrow.
3
The Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shinbun has this to say about the use of Korean language in the primary school. "The national language of Korea is so feeble that the Koreans themselves rather use the Chines characters than their own 'Urnmoon.' Under such circumstances it would be more convenient to encourage the use of the Japanese language among the Koreans." The fool, whoever wrote this must have clean forgotten the fact that the Japanese are more dependent on the Chinese characters than the Koreans and that while it is impossible to write and extended article or a book in pure "katakana", whole books have been, and are being written and translated in pure unmixed urnmoon. Besides the weakness or strength of the language is not the question in point. The whole problem is: Is it right over tax the tender brains of little girls and boys by giving them primary, the most important, instructions in a language of which they can't understand a word.
 

13. 5월 13일

1
13th. Friday. Cloudy. Rain and thunder from 7 p.m.
 
2
Had a call from 劉元杓.
 

14. 5월 14일

1
14th. Saturday. Beautiful. Very cool.
 
2
Invited the Vladivostok Koreans to a Korean meal. They seemed to enjoy it. Returned to Seoul by 5:20 p.m. train.
 

15. 5월 15일

1
15th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Invited Mr. 李秉輝 to supper. He was my father's private secretary in 1882-1885. He snared with my father the perils of the summer of 1882(壬午軍變) when father had to flee for life to Japan. A great pity, that the diary of those stirring days of fateful events of which Mr. 李 had kept a faithful record was lost. He is now about 72―still hearty and strong.
3
Mr. Yi seems to believe the wild rumor that Prince Yi, now in Tokyo is to be made King of Korea with a Korean cabinet.
 

16. 5월 16일

1
16th. Monday. Cloudy.
 
2
Have the authorities done anything to relieve the financial stress of the people(Korean) ? Let us see: 1. They(the Government General) have raised taxation 10 even 20 fold inside of a year. 2. The great banks―the Bank of Chosen and the 殖産銀行―which are the official organs of the Government and other banks under the control of the Japanese have refused to lend money to the Korean merchants of good standing while they(the banks) advanced loans to the Japanese. The banks are known to transferred large sums of the Japanese market thus accumulating the distress of the Korean merchants. The Japanese program seems to aim at the utter economic exhaustion of the Korea so as to compel him to part with his land as cheap and as rapidly as possible.
 

17. 5월 17일

1
17th. Tuesday. Good rain from about 8 a.m. all through the day.
 
2
Goldsmith says in his Traveller, about the Italians
3
"Contrasted faults through all his manners reign,
4
Though poor, luxurious; though submissive, vain,
5
Though grave, yet trifling..."
6
How patly these lives express the condition of the Korean people today―especially of cities! The Korean is abnormally weak in putting on finer clothes than their warrant.
 

18. 5월 18일

1
18th. Wednesday. Cloud and sunshine decidedly cool.
 
2
Supper at Mr. Gregg's to meet Mr. and Mrs. Jessup from Egypt on their way to Canada. Mr. J. thinks Great Britain has been willing to give to Egypt everything in the way autonomy so far as it doesn't endanger the British interests, but that, the Egyptians mistaking the British concession for British weakness is trying to get too much. Mr. J. said that the Egyptians are not a nation but a conglomeration of races and religions.
 

19. 5월 19일

1
19th. Thursday. Cloudy-very cold.
 
2
The 朝鮮女子敎育會 held its annual meeting at Y.M.C.A. auditorium. To give an ocular proof of the need of such a work―the work of teaching the elements of necessary education―a woman of 48 who had joined a primary class was introduced to the audience. She bravely read from her primer 소가 간다. 말이 온다. etc. The scene was more pathetic than amusing. The hardships through which Kim Melissa and her associates, young girls, have so far conducted the night school sounds like a fiction and bespeaks volumes of the heroism and devotion of Korean woman.
 

20. 5월 20일

1
20th. Friday.
 
2
Had the pleasure of meeting Mr. P. Gillett at Y. Lunch at 明月館 at the invitation of Mr. Cynn. Messrs. F. Brockman. Yi S.C., and I were present besides Mr. Gillett who was the honored guest. Among other things he said about China today, it was interesting to hear that there are two chances for an ambitious Chinese young man to rise in this world―one is to join the army and the other to become a chief of bandits.
3
I privately told Mr. Gillett to tell Dr. R.S.M. to leave Shanghai, and to discontinue or have discontinued the questionable practice of the P.G. agents, of extorting money at the muzzle of a pilot―which is the act of a highway robber and not of an agent of a Government―even it were only provisional.
 

21. 5월 21일

1
21st. Saturday. Cloudy―warm.
 
2
Had a refreshing bath. Mr. 山縣悌三郞 told me today that Dr. Cram knows how to treat men: that he(Yamagata) couldn't find a cause for complaint if he wanted to; and that the Gov. General is so pleased with the management of the Song Do High School that it is regarded almost as a model school etc. Mr. Y. further said that Dr. Avison doesn't know how to treat people under him, and that the C.C.C. is so poorly manned and so inadequately equipped that it is hardly doing the work of a high school. Mr. Gillett left for Shanghai by 7:20 p.m. train. He seemed disappointed that nothing was sent to Dr. R.S.M.
 

22. 5월 22일

1
22nd. Sunday. Steamy―Rain until 10 a.m.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. 3 p.m. I talked to a full house at the Central Y. The crowd was remarkable for the conspicuous absence of old men.
3
Invited to a supper at 6 p.m. I went to Mr. 久保's. the manager of the Manchurian R.R. The supper party was given in honor to Mr. 松村 a well known speaker and writer in Japan. He is a samurai of the old type who, in directness and frankness of manner and talk, has attractions which is lacking in the roundabout politeness of modern sort. He said that there is no history in Japan properly speaking and that Commender Perry came to Japan with his fleet for seizing the land and not for treaty relations but that he(P) had to change his plans when he realized his mistake of having under rated the power of the Japanese people.
 

23. 5월 23일

1
23rd. Monday. Sunny and warm.
 
2
Left Seoul 抱川舊邑 per 9:30 a.m. train. Got off at 議政府 Station about 11 a.m. On auto for 抱川邑 where we arrived about 4 p.m. Put up at 金眞培's home―very tired. A nap but not refreshing. Spoke in the church at 9 p.m. The audience was small and cold. Steam was very low in me and I felt wretched in talking.
3
A Japanese named Takai runs an auto line between here and the 議政府 station. The authorities wouldn't give license to a Korean auto company though there are more passengers than Takai can handle. The Japanese literally beat the Korean 人力車 who tried to pick up the left-over passengers. The rikshaw coolies appealed to police in vain. Talk about 一視同仁!
 

24. 5월 24일

1
24th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Early breakfast. Left 抱川舊邑 about 8:30 for 龍翔洞 where we arrived 9:30 a.m. Met at the point where the main road passes the avenue leading to 龍翔洞. Mr. 金準祺 who brought the boys of the church school, 同明學校 to welcome me. 龍翔洞 is a nice village at the foot of a mountain with some trees on the ravines. The land of the whole village belongs to a 李廣均 or rather his son. The church and the school are situated on his land. The church was started some 16 or 17 years ago when the people in this district were frightened by the rumor that the Koreans were to be shipped to Hawaii, and that those embraced Christianity were to be exempted from that calamity. About 150 persons professed to be converts only to return to heathenism as soon as they found out the rumor was groundless. Only 2 or 3 stuck to the new faith and the church has now about 80 members. The school is leading a precarious life on account of the poverty of the people.
3
This village was originally called 龍床洞 or throne village owing to the fact that 李太祖 used to sleep over here on his way to and from 咸興. Spoke to an appreciative audience 11-12 noon. Left 龍床洞 8 p.m. for 議政府 station. Taking the 9:55 train arrived Seoul home nearly 12. Too sleepy to eat anything.
 

25. 5월 25일

1
25th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left Seoul by 12:25 noon train for Song Do to get a 乳母 for Washington. Arrived Song Do home almost about 3:30 p.m.
 

26. 5월 26일

1
26th. Thursday.
 
2
Rather a restless night―don't feel fresh this morning. A nap after lunch. I enjoy the beauties of this place and the quietness so much that I wish I could spend a month here among my books and flowers.
3
A Japanese publicist, in a long article, after having denounced the hypocrisy, the racial prejudice and the militaristic aggressiveness of Uncle Sam, says: "We Japanese don't like to talk about justice and humanity or to repeat the formula of universal love and liberty. But we like to practice these thing."
4
Like individuals, nations behold the mote that is in their neighbors' eye but consider not the beam that is in their own eyes. The fact is just as no man is all bad or all good, so no nations is wholly righteous or wholly wicked. All that we can of nations is that some are more or less wicked than others. The weakest nation is always the most righteous but as soon as it becomes strong enough to oppress others it becomes as bad as the worst of them. The sad truth is that all nations are sinful as all men are sinful. The only difference is the degree of sinfulness in individuals.
 

27. 5월 27일

1
27th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Left Song Do by 9:55 a.m. train with a 乳母 for Seoul. It took 4 1/2 hours to get to Seoul.
3
Attended Y.M.C.A. B. of Directors' meeting and took supper at Y.
 

28. 5월 28일

1
28th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
The authorities sometime ago declared war against flies offering to pay 3 rin for a dead fly brought to the Mayor's office. Dead flies came in such numbers that the payment had to be declared off. If it was foolish to offer such a high reward for a fly; it was more so to break a promise to the public without due notice. Anyway a crusade against flies is well and good. But in the streets where Koreans live thickest, the night soils and garbage are left to accumulate to overflowing for weeks and weeks together. Do the authorities think they can fool the world by this kind of policy―the policy of offering reward for killing flies but leaving untouched the causes of fly breeding?
 

29. 5월 29일

1
29th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church.
3
On my way to Church called on Mr. 尹忠求. He has been sick for over two weeks and he thinks he is dying. He is as poor as a man may well be. When I see the suffering of humanity―without the power to relieve them―I can't help wondering how many of the 16 hundred millions of human being can have good reasons to thank their stars be gods for having been born in the world where sin and suffering so overwhelmingly outweighs righteousness and happiness.
4
Wrote Allen.
 

30. 5월 30일

1
30th. Monday. Pale―Steamy. Passing showers between 2 and 4 p.m.
 
2
With Mother, wife and children went to 城北洞 for picnic. The civilized authorities who realize the disease spreading dangers of flies to the extent of paying or rather promise of paying 3 "rin" per fly, have actually made the pretty valley of 城北洞 a fly nursery by dumping the garbage of the town right on the road as you enter the valley. In propaganda literature, our civilized masters will draw special attention of the credulous public to the crusade against flies undertaken for the health and happiness of the Korean people. As long as this insincerity forms the basis of the Japanese policy it is simply useless to talk about 日鮮融化 or the heart-to-heart reconciliation and friendship between the Japanese and the Koreans.
 

31. 5월 31일

1
31st. Tuesday. Cloudy.
 
2
The other day the members of 啓明 Club had a long discussion on the subject of making school boys use polite or 하오 form of language among themselves. One of the speakers went so far as advocate the use of 하오 form in our homes to our servants and to our children! This is rather a advanced theory. Mr. 劉高原 remonstrates with me for using 하오 form to 洪秉善 a man of ripe age and of good standing. These two extremes of old and new notions are struggling for supremacy among the Koreans today.
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