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◈ 윤치호일기 (1890년) ◈

◇ 3월 ◇

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1. 3월 1일 (음 2월 11일)

1
1st. (2d moon, 11th). Saturday. Very cold and cloudy. Little snow, much wind. 16° this morning and 13° F. evening.
 
2
Spent whole morning in writing out Dr. Hashimoto's missionary essay in English for him. Went down town with the Dr. this afternoon and bought 3 pairs of socks. It is amusing to see how Dr. Hashimoto, true to his national characteristic, endeavors, with pitiful anxiety, to make known to the boys here the service which he has rendered to the M.E.C.S. mission in Kobe. Certainly, frankness or manly straightforwardness is not a virtue of a Japanese-as a general rule. This remark is true of a Chinese as well as of a Corean.
 

2. 3월 2일 (음 2월 12일)

1
2nd. (12th). Sunday. Bright, cold 24° F
 
2
. Attended S.S. and came home to prepare a short speech on China to be delivered tonight. Taught the S.S. class in the Pen. Went to the Humphry Street Church to attend a missionary meeting. In my talk said "Every one agrees that China is an important and a difficult field. Important because to convert her is to convert nearly whole of Eastern Asia. As a heathen nation, China has exerted a vast influence in the East. Christianize her; she will exert nobler and greater influence on her neighbors. However, the very facts that make China so important make her a difficult field: the greatness of her population, the antiquity of her civilization, the conservatism of the people. Yet the difficulty of this field has been exaggerated. Nor is the difficulty-at present of the same magnitude and of the same nature as those half a century ago. Then the government permitted no missionaries to work in the interior. Now the authorities not only protect but often patronize a missionary and his labors. Then the people suspected the motives of a missionary. Now they trust him more than any other foreigner. Then the facilities for learning the language were unknown to a missionary. Now he has grammars and dictionaries. Then a native Christian met with cruel persecutions. Now he can worship his God without much molestation. Then a Morrison labored 7 tedious years to convert one. Now thousands are yearly added to the Church of Christ. Therefore it is as absurd to insist that China is the hardest field now because she was so half a century ago-as absurd, I repeat, to say this as to insist that Tennessee is a slave-state now because it was one 30 years ago." Then I dwelt on the need of reinforcement in the China Mission. Concluded by making some remarks on the custom and manners of the Chinese, and by showing some Chinese photographs to the audience.
3
Rev. Alford, the pastor, gave me a dollar as present. Refused it. There could be nothing wrong to accept it. But reason and pride said "No". That one dollar would injure my personal dignity without improving my financial condition.
4
Received a letter from Brother E. J. Poe.
 

3. 3월 3일 (음 2월 13일)

1
3rd. (13th). Monday. Warmer than yesterday. 34° F.
 
2
This morning read a very touching and interesting article under "A Minister-a Dog-a Chinaman" by Helen Clark. The substance of the story is this:
3
Rev. H. Clark was a Church of England's clergyman in Warwick, England. He was proud, begoted, and well-to-do. He despised the Chinese with all his soul and heart. He thought it degrading and needless to preach the gospel to a Chinaman. When Ah-Sin, a Chinese cook was, against his will, employed by his wife, this minister of the Gospel of love enjoyed the cooking, but hated the person, of the heathen (as he thought then) . To make the story brief, Rev. Dr. Clark had a dog which he loved. One day the beloved animal became mad and flew at the minister as he was watering his flowers opposite to the kitchen door. So terrified with the mortal danger he was in that the Dr. stood motionless and speechless. In another moment he was to receive a fatal bite from the dog. Then as a flash of light a dark figure dashed out from the kitchen and fell on the infuriated animal. A sharp struggle ensued. Then both the man and the dog lay unconscious. The dead dog was carried out while the Rev. Dr. bore the heroic but exhausted Ah-Sin-for it was the hated cook-into the room.
4
All human efforts and skill could not save Ah-Sin. He died after having made known to his now grateful, grieved and astonished employer, in regular pigin English how he "lobed Yesu", and how much and long he had cherished the hope of one day going home to preach the love of Yesu".
5
Soon after this Dr. Clark, his wife and Miss Harriet, his sister. who had always taken much interest in the conversion of China, took ship and went out to China. There they established a mission called Ah-Sin mission. All this took place about 4 years ago. Dr. Clark. in this article, said that five "precious souls" had already been added to the mission. I shall always remember Dr. Clark, his wife and his sister along with his mission in my prayers.
 

4. 3월 4일 (음 2월 14일)

1
4th. (14th). Tuesday. Fair, 47° to 50° F.
 
 

5. 3월 5일 (음 2월 15일)

1
5th. (15th). Wednesday.
 
2
Snow covered the ground this morning an inch thick. Snowed all day. 25° p.m.
 

6. 3월 6일 (음 2월 16일)

1
6th. (16th). Thursday. Very cold. 15°. this a.m. A bright day.
 
2
This afternoon, laughed too much in the Elocution room. I find it hard to control myself in this respect specially among familiar friends. The slightest ridiculousness, either real or imaginary, tickles me. Laughter is a good thing, but don't abuse it.
 

7. 3월 7일 (음 2월 17일)

1
7th. (17th). Friday. Cold, snowed a little.
 
2
Had a hearty exercise in gymnasium. Sat up till 12:15 trying to write a short exercise on Nashville. Felt ashamed that I knew so little about this city. Make it a rule, wherever you may go, to learn the leading facts of the place in which you may sojourn.
3
Nashville on the left bank of the Cumberland.
4
1. Population 100,000 (1889)
5
2. Manufactories 275-capital8,000,000
6
3. Banks 11-capital6,000,000
7
4. Schools(of all grades) 26-(1888)
8
5. Churches 31-(in 1888)
9
6. Insane, Blind, Orphan asylums; a reformatory.
10
Nashville was first settled in 1780. This beautiful valley of the Cumberland was then the hunting ground of the Indians. What a wonderful transformation in a century! Palaces now occupy the places where wigwams once stood. Electric car and dummy lines branch out in all directions where, only a century ago, one might have found no roads but paths beaten by hunters' feet. The river is spanned by magnificent iron bridges; and steam boats have supplanted canoes.
11
Think again that this city, now noted for the number and excellence of its schools, colleges and universities, was a hundred years ago, inhabited by a race who had no characters to represent their thoughts. Their superstition, rude law, and cruel practices disgraced the land they unworthily possessed. Christianity, good government, and an enlightened people have turned a wild forest into the "Athens of the South".
12
Before, therefore, censuring the Americans for having deprived the Indian his hunting ground, ask whether it be wise to leave a fair territory in the hand of a savage to whom his rich land is of no more use than pearls to swine. True, the Americans have done the Indians many unjustifiable wrongs; but taking human nature as it is-selfish and wicked-we can not expect great transactions, between a strong and a weak race, altogether free from wrongs and injustices.
 

8. 3월 8일 (음 2월 18일)

1
8th. (18th). Saturday. Fair-cold 27° F. a.m. 34° p.m.
 
2
At 3 p.m. went down to Gym and saw the public exhibition of "class-works". My physical weakness always makes me to wish I had half as much strength as my father. With his uncommon strength and vigor of muscles and brains, with his will and ambition, had my father the advantages of education I have, what a powerful man he must have been made. In mind and body I am altogether so very, very, inferior to him that I can not help despising myself. Attended the Saturday class meeting in the Hall Chapel.
 

9. 3월 9일 (음 2월 19일)

1
9th. (19th). Sunday. Cold 46° F. at noon. A bright day.
 
2
Attended West End S.S. and the preaching by Dr. Tillet. One of his illustrations was this: A Paris woman, just before death, requested her friends to bury her with a diamond necklace of such value as no other woman of her condition had ever possessed. Nearly contemporary with this event, a young lady in Va., on her death bed, called her parents and brothers and sisters and formed a circle around the bed. Then she bade them a most touching farewell. In conclusion she offered a prayer, that the family circle of which she had been a link and which she was the first to break, would all meet in heaven to form a circle there never to be broken. The Dr. said he would die a poor man in such hopes and in such a circle rather than die a millionaire with diamond necklaces and without hope.
3
Taught the Pen. S.S.
 

10. 3월 10일 (음 2월 20일)

1
10th. (20th). Monday. Little colder than yesterday early in a.m. Pleasant temperature in the evening. Cloudy and windy. High wind.
 
2
Learnt that I got 1st grade in English in the Intermediate. Better than expected. Felt very weak all the day.
 

11. 3월 11일 (음 2월 21일)

1
11th. (21st). Tuesday. Cloudy, rather warm. Much wind-little rain 57° F.
 
 

12. 3월 12일 (음 2월 22일)

1
12th. (22d). Wednesday. Cloudy-warm 60° F. a.m.
 
2
Hitherto the change of temperature has been indicated by a thermometer, F., on the northern side of the Hall. From this day the degrees on the southern side will be recorded. Rained all day long with short intervals.
 

13. 3월 13일 (음 2월 23일)

1
13th. (23d). Thursday. Rained all the morning. 50° F. Intermittent showers.
 
2
Hair cut.
 

14. 3월 14일 (음 2월 24일)

1
14th. (24th). Friday. Fair-pleasant, 50° F.
 
2
On account of insufficient sleep, felt very bad all day long.
 

15. 3월 15일 (음 2월 25일)

1
15th. (25th). Saturday. Bright-very cold-30° F. early in the morning at the southern side. 60° at the southern and 21° at the northern side p.m.
 
2
Had a bad headache. Took a walk from 4:30 to 5:30. Attented a humorous lecture in the Hall Chapel by Professor Lane. His principal points were: the study of the Bible; the responsibility of a preacher as a teacher; our love to Christ; warning against sanctimoniousness; importance of knowing what we preach; careful preparation of sermons, etc. Each of these points he presented in and through exceedingly humorous illustrations.
 

16. 3월 16일 (음 2월 26일)

1
16th. (26th). Sunday. Bright and tolerably cold.
 
2
Attend W.E. S.S.
3
With Dr. Hashimoto and Jacob, dropped into a Catholic church; and when the to-us-meaningless service was over, came back to W.E. to hear Professor Lane preach. He said a boy, with great possibilities for good or evil latent in him, is a most curious object to contemplate on. Taught the S.S. class in the Pen. Read Macaulay's History in the night. It is a most fascinating refreshment to read Mac's History.
4
The characters I read tonight remind me of some of those whom I know. For instance:
5
1. The cool intrepidity, prudence, sagacity, resoluteness, keen and far-reaching insight into events, level-head-edness, cold appearance over a warm heart-these qualities of King William remind me the characteristics of my father. William was a hero in his sphere, so has been my father in his.
6
2. Whatever might the good qualities of James Ⅱ have been, he was, according to Macaulay, selfish, egotistic, perversely obstinate, ungrateful as a friend, implacable as an enemy. Add to this cowardice and pride and foolhardiness and bigotry and stinginess and cruelty and you have the portrait of His Ex. Y.I. Min.
7
3. The condition, moral and material, of the Irish in the time of William and Mary sadly reminds me of the condition of the Coreans.
 

17. 3월 17일 (음 2월 27일)

1
17th. (27th). Monday. Fair. 68° F. south. p.m.
 
2
A funny story about Jordan: sometime last week, Jordan notified Macarn that he wanted to send some articles to laundry this Monday. This morning Macarn expected to have a large bundle from Jordan for laundry when, behold! Jordan brought him one collar and said, "I intended to send two but have one on now". To notify his intention one week beforehand in sending one collar to a steam laundry! This is of a piece with the characteristic clownishness of Jordan. With all his awkwardness in everything he says or does, his greediness in matters of money or gain is astonishing. He is a good man however.
 

18. 3월 18일 (음 2월 28일)

1
18th. (28th). Tuesday. Cloudy windy and 61° F.
 
 

19. 3월 19일 (음 2월 29일)

1
19th. (29th). Wednesday. Fair
 
2
―No recitation in Logic today.
 

20. 3월 20일 (음 2월 30일)

1
20th. (30th). Thursday. Gloomy-high wind.
 
2
Met Mr. C.K. Marshall of Suchow. He has come as a delegate-from China Mission to the General Conference. Wrote to Spencer.
 

21. 3월 21일 (음 윤2월 1일)

1
21st. (1st of Intercalary moon). Friday. Very fine in the morning until noon. 62° to 72° F. From morning became cloudy and rainy.
 
2
This morning with Dr. Hashimoto called on Mr. Marshall in Maxwell House. From noon felt very bad, melancholy and fretful and weary.
3
Attended the W.H. Monthly Missionary Meeting. The subject was Mohammedanism. Whenever I can help it, I ought not to be absent from these meetings. My presence may do no good; but absence may contribute to make a meeting cold.
4
Dr. Hashimoto came up and talked more than an hour. His description of a Buddhist service in a private house in Japan was interesting and amusing. He has the gift of imitation.
 

22. 3월 22일 (음 윤2월 2일)

1
22nd. (2nd). Saturday. Rained hard all the morning. Cleared up later in the p.m.
 
2
In the night Mr. Marshall came and addressed the Hall boys on the work in China. He seems to be everywhere cordially received. he speaks the colloquial English better than book English.
 

23. 3월 23일 (음 윤2월 3일)

1
23rd. (3rd). Sunday. Fair and warm.
 
2
Attend W.E. S.S., after which took a short walk. Heard Mr. Marshall preach or rather address in the W.E. Church. Curiosity filled the Church with hearers. Mr. Marshall himself could not have been more anxious than I was for his success. His address seemed to betray lack of a thorough preparation; but on the whole he came out tolerably well.
3
Dined at Dr. Baskerville's. Miss Muse, Mr. Marshall and Mr. McTyiere were there. Taught the class in the Pen S.S. With Jacob took a delightful walk as to the West End Mission. This mission chapel was built out of the old material of the West End Church. When I came here first, the place where the new chapel stands was unoccupied. Now there are neat and coisy cottages scattered all over the once wild ground.
 

24. 3월 24일 (음 윤2월 4일)

1
24th. (4th). Monday. A beautiful day.
 
2
Felt weak and sickly all day long. This morning I was perfectly disgusted by the plague of this floor-the everlasting whistle of Browder; had to go somewhere else to shun this torment. Pope's theology gets drier than ever-on the subject of Eschatology. Little cold in the evening. Read an article of Rev. Ross, a missionary in New Chang, on the introduction of Christianity through the "Corean Gate" some years before the opening of the country to foreign intercourse. Rev. Ross learned Corean from a native whom accident-failure in business-compelled to teach the language to a foreigner. when the missionary was anxious but unable to get a Corean to print the Bible, another accident brought him one who turned out, afterward, to be a faithful colporter. Some refugees from the Corean capital by accident went to the station of Rev. Ross. There they were converted. On returning to their homes they made converts in the capital; and these Christians-some of them at least-joined the Presbyterian Church in Seoul. May great and good and permanent results come from these providential accidents to the glory of God and the salvation of Corea!
 

25. 3월 25일 (음 윤2월 5일)

1
25th. (5th). Tuesday. A beautiful and warm day. 57° in the morning and 75° F. in the evening.
 
2
Feel weak and drowsy. Yesterday and today read an old-4 years old-letter of my once-but-now-no-more-mine Chungdong girls, over and over. Even this old letter, by awakening tender recollections, refreshes me somewhat in times of gloominess. Mr. Marshall addressed the boys in the the Hall. I like what he said tonight better than his former speech here: He honestly told the boys the discouragement and difficulties a missionary meets with in China, the readiness of the people to hear the gospel, and the want of men and means for the work. He emphasized the fact that a missionary should be made by love of God and man not by human persuation. Mr. Marshall has experience; and experience can make a talk earnest and effective. The boys, however, are too much prejudiced for the comparatively easy-going Japan to heed the appeal of a Chinaman.
 

26. 3월 26일 (음 윤2월 6일)

1
26th. (6th). Wednesday. Beautiful and warm 93° F. at noon on the sunny side.
 
2
Felt very drowsy and feeble and weary. Slept from 4 to 6:30 p.m. In the night Mr. Betterton came up to my room and said that the article on Corea by Rev. Ross so much interested him that the would like to go there as a missionary. I thank him for his interest in my poor Corea. Yet Betterton seems to me the last man who would go to Corea for life-long work; he has not the very first qualification of a missionary-a vigorous health. Besides, he does not know what filthy places the so-called towns and cities of Corea are. If he did, this neat, little theologian would not have even dreamt of going there.
3
Received a letter from Spencer.
 

27. 3월 27일 (음 윤2월 7일)

1
27th. (7th). Thursday. Cloudy, very high wind all day long.
 
2
Wrote to Professor Bonnell. I said "We studied, a few days ago, various theories on the Premillennial Advent. The whole question of millennialism has, to my mind, no practical value. We do not know what will happen tomorrow. Why need we bother ourselves about things that will happen thousands of years hence? 'Sufficient unto the day is evil there of.' When Millennialism comes it will take care of itself." Had lightening, and stormy wind which shook the building in the night.
 

28. 3월 28일 (음 윤2월 8일)

1
28th. (8th). Friday. Bright day.
 
2
DR. Hashimoto gave me a coat Thanks.
 

29. 3월 29일 (음 윤2월 9일)

1
29th. (9th). Saturday. A beautiful spring day.
 
2
AT 3 p.m. saw Dr. Hashimoto to the Depot on his way to Lebanon. Then went down town and bought some under clothes. Came back exceeding tired.
 

30. 3월 30일 (음 윤2월 10일)

1
30th. (10th). Sunday. A bright but rather cold day.
 
2
Attended S.S.; then went with Jacob to an Episcopalian Church. As in a Romish Church, ritualism preponderated in the Episcopalian worship. The priest, with white surplice on, read prayers, bowed before a cross and etc. for an hour, than closed the service with a short sermon.
3
Dined a Dr. Hoss'. Mr. Marshall was there. Taught the S.S, class in the Pen At 7 p.m. went to a small Baptist chapel to hear Downer preach. Very windy in the night.
4
This evening, in the W.H. missionary meeting, Brockman said that, some years ago when Miss Haygood was preparing to go to China, he blessed the Lord that He did not call him to go there. "But," he said, "Now pray the Lord that He may give me grace to carry the gospel to China".
 

31. 3월 31일 (음 윤2월 11일)

1
31st. (11th). Monday. Cold, rainy. 40° F. to 46° F.
 
2
Received 5 letters this morning from Dr. Allen, Professor Bonnell, Miss Hamilton, Tsong Kia Tsun and Nagami. Had two examinations in Pope and Logic.
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