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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 10월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권 11권  12권  윤치호

1. 10월 1일

1
1st. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Today being the 始政紀念日 of the Government Genl., the Korean stores all closed―by order of the Police Dept. of the Provisional Government of Korea or Tai-han! The Japanese people and officials, are very much irritated because the both Koreans wouldn't put up the Japanese flags on holidays―whose name is Legion. They say it is an insult to the honor of the flag I am not opposed to hoisting the Japanese flag on state occasions―because as long as we are under the Japanese rule we must obey the orders of that rule. What's use of swallowing a camel yet straining at agnat?
3
On the other hand, the authorities should be magnanimous enough not to force the people to put up the flag―at present.
4
They, the authorities, forbid the use of the Korean national emblem even as an ornament. "We hate your flag but you must love our flag" is the Japanese motto in Korea.
 

2. 10월 2일

1
2nd. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Mailed letter to 永善.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The Osaka Mai Nichi is rather peevish about the Conference which the Gov. Genl. caused to have with the representatives of the Provinces, criticizing it as a failure and a mere waste of money―all because the Koreans wouldn't carry out the plan of propaganda, which was the main object of the Government Genl. in convening the conference. For the new Governor to have called together the representatives from the Provinces to hear their needs and desires, their complaints and aspirations―this was an act so wise and statesmanlike that it was worth all the time and money which the authorities put into it. To call it a failure because the Koreans refused to be used as tools for propaganda shows only the littleness of the critics. As a rule, the Japanese are certainly so narrow and too little. A few broad-minded men seem powerless.
 

3. 10월 3일

1
3rd. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 7:30 p.m. the 16th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Central Y.M.C.A. was celebrated in the Y. auditorium. The room was full. Rev. Billings gave a good talk on "Don't say I can't." A light program of musical entertainment was rendered. 金亨俊 sang Korean popular tunes with new words set to them. The hearty cheers and encores proved that the crowd enjoyed this part of the program more than any other. 李潤鉉 entertained the audience with a few old Korean stories. A refreshment followed. The evening passed off pleasantly.
 

4. 10월 4일

1
4th. Saturday. Cloud a.m.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The Japanese papers publish stories about the changed attitude of the Koreans toward the Japanese-self conceit showing itself in language, in manners, and even in rough acts of impoliteness. If all that is true, it is no truer than the fact that a pendulum always swings in one direction as far as it swung in the opposite direction. Had the Japanese treated the Koreans during the last ten years with consideration and politeness, the Koreans would have no reason to be impolite to the Japanese, now. In spite of all that I have no sympathy for any manners of word or conduct on the part of the Korean that may indicate conceit or uppishness or impudence. A Korean has no earthly reason to be conceited.
 

5. 10월 5일

1
5th. Sunday. Rain.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual. Mr. 張執 the new assistant preacher preached his first sermon.
3
3 p.m. Pastor Kim Pil Soo led the Gospel meeting in Y.M.C.A. As long as Japan insists on carrying out its subsidized colonization policy in Korea so long the Korean has right to doubt the sincerity of the Imperial promise to treat the Koreans with the same degree of benevolence as the Japaneses 一視同仁. If the Korean and the Japanese are the children of the same Imperial Father, why drive the Korean from his native land to make room for the Japanese settler? If the 19 demands or wishes which the representatives of the 13 Provinces presented, the abolition of the colonization policy is one that the Japanese press declares to be impossible. That settles the whole question. Koreans have no hope that Japan will make the well-being of the Koreans, the object of their administration.
 

6. 10월 6일

1
6th. Monday. Cloudy-rain hard several times, all through the day.
 
2
About 9:30 a.m. Mr. Kim Jung Sik called. He suggested that I might go to Shanghai for the purpose of uniting the Koreans abroad who seem to be divided into as many factions as there are leaders. I told him I see so little hope in the Independence Movement that I don't feel like frisking everything for a vision. He further asked what I thought of pursuading Mr. Yi Sang Chai to go. I had to tell him that I didn't think it right to ask another to do what I would not do myself.
3
K.J.S. thinks Yi Dong Hui and his men may invade Korea from the north not with any hope of driving out the Japanese but for the purpose of dying in fight to prove to the world the unwillingness of the Korean to be a slave to the Japanese.
 

7. 10월 7일

1
7th. Tuesday. Cloud and sunshine.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Grace(恩姬) tooth-ached last night.
3
Couldn't sleep. With wife took Grace to the Japanese dentist in the morning.
4
Mr. 崔鎭 called at the Y. Office. He laid before me a plan for starting an association for the encouragement of agricultural, industrial and mercantile developement and improvement of the Korean people. I told him I heartily endorsed the plan as the 16 million of the people must be fed, clothed and housed whatever may be our political status. Mr. 崔 said that Prince Pak Yong Hyo had consented to become the President of the association to be named 殖産獎勵會.
5
I suggested 李商在 for the Vice President.
 

8. 10월 8일

1
8th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Heard for the first time, the frightful story of the double murder which the son of 趙主事 had committed the other night. The boy is about 20 years old. His naughtiness unmanageable temper, and prodigality have been a cause of the greatest sorrow to his father and stepmother who is my cousin. In transport of rage the boy often threatened to kill his father and mother. He was placed in care of the Government Hospital as insane. He ran away from the hospital sometime ago. The other night he killed his wife and child with a hatchet. My cousin, one of the sweetest and noblest women in Korea is suffering mental and nervous agonies beyond description. The boy was married by his grandfather when he was hardly 13. So the old fool is responsible for the murder―not that the early marriage made the boy insane but that the early marriage placed the wife and the child in the power of the murderer.
 

9. 10월 9일

1
9th. Thursday. Pretty day―A shower after dark.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. There was some years ago a Japanese bean curd maker in the town of 銻原邑. A Korean learned the trade and started his own shop, selling his bean curd 2 sen per "square" while the Japanese charged 4 sen for the same. The Japanese compelled the Korean to remove his shop outside of the town limits and make him to sign an agreement not to sell his curd inside of the town on the pain of paying ¥50 for violation of the agreement. But the customers went out of the town to buy the curd from the Korean, upon which the Japanese appealed to the court and the judge sustained the claim of the Japanese. So the Korean was ruined. When the Governor Yi Kyu Wan, burning with indignation reported the case to the Governor General and the Chief of Administration, 山縣伊五郞, the latter laughed while the Director of Agriculture 小原 upheld the judge at having done exactly right. It is acts of this kind that are responsible for the Korean hatred of the Japanese.
 

10. 10월 10일

1
10th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Stayed at home with a cold. The discrimination which the Japanese practice in offices is bad enough but it is nothing when compared with the trade discriminations which the railroads and other organizations of transportation―and the custom house deliberately practice against the Korean merchants.
3
It is a well known fact that the R.R. will keep back Korean freights until those of the Japanese are all cleared. A man went to Moukden last fall and bought several thousand yens' worth of bean cakes to be used as fertilizer in Spring. The goods were not delivered until the month of July. In the meantime the 三井物産會社's shipment of bean cakes had no delay. Instances of this nature are too many and too common to be noticed. The only kind of business which the Japanese want the Korean to do is that of a retail merchant. Japan must quit this meanness.
 

11. 10월 11일

1
11th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. A young fellow 鄭 called and begged me to get a salaried position in a business office. He said that he had during the last, year of two planted thousands of chestnut and other trees on the hills he owned, and that he being afraid of failure in agriculture, desireed to get a business position to support him until his trees bear fruit. In substance I said: "Young man, my advice to you is that you go home and stick to your farms―fruit culture, bee culture, sericulture, etc. You may fail in these, but then, you may fail in business, too. The very life of the Korean race depends on sticking to the land we have. Independent or otherwise, the 16 millions of my race must be fed and clothed. With land we have hope. Without it can a nation of beggars be independent? I give to my own sons the advice which I have given you. I can't give you any better. Go home and stick to your farms and hills".
 

12. 10월 12일

1
12th. Sunday. Rain.
 
2
Laid up with a cold in the morning. At 1 p.m. had to go to Mr. Brockman's home for lunch and to meet Dr. Norton, the religious editor of the Chicago Tribune. Was surprised to hear Miss Norton say that she was treated on the ferryboat from Shimonoseki to Fusan with marked slight on the part of the Japanese. She said that she had to ask the boy eight times to get a cup of tea. During the Great War the Japanese had the monopoly of the transpacific passenger trade. Not having a competitor they made no efforts to please the customers and let the service go from bad to worse. As soon as the peace restored Foreign lines of steamships, no one cares to travel on a Japanese boat if, he or she can help it. Could the bright Japanese be so short-sighted?
 

13. 10월 13일

1
13th. Monday. Beautiful day. Rain after dark.
 
2
Home in the morning. Y.M.C.A. afternoon. Received a note from the P.M. S.S. Co. Agent offering my brother a berth on the S.S. Ecuador to leave Yokohama on the 17th inst. The police through efforts of 邊壎 and 岡本警視 kindly got the passport for brother a day earlier than expected. The whole afternoon busy in getting things ready for 致昌 to start tomorrow morning.
3
Mr. 丹羽 tells me that the Korean language class in his Association is growing smaller every day. A little incidence in itself but a significant sign that the mutual antipathy between the two peoples is growing stronger.
4
Vindictiveness and revengefulness are two characteristics which the Japanese teach as virtues.
 

14. 10월 14일

1
14th. Tuesday. Beautiful day. Rain night.
 
2
Up at 5 a.m. to help 致昌 pack. Time fully occupied with getting a draft on New York, with buying the ticket from Yokohama to San Francisco, etc. By the Express Fusan train, 致昌 left the South Gate Station for Japan. May our God of mercy preserve him in strength of body, of mind and of spirit on land and sea; and in due time bring him back to us a well-educated strong man to do good and great work for himself and his people!
3
Y.M.C.A. in the afternoon. So sorry to hear that the Prince Yi Household Band has been disbanded. It can't be from economy but from the thievishness of the Household officials who want to put the money into their filthy pockets and also from the jealousy of the Japanese who do not want the Koreans to have anything which the foreigners may think better than what the Japanese have to show in the way of a military band.
 

15. 10월 15일

1
15th. Wednesday. Beautiful and cool.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. As sure as a man can not live on bread alone, so sure no race can live on politics alone. But the Korean's creed is "Thou shalt love politics with all thy heart, all thy mind and all thy might". He thinks the life is not worth living outside politics. The only and sole object of their education is to get into politics. One of the few blessings which the Japanese regime had brought to the Korea in disguise of course was the weavings of the Korean from politics. But the fever for politics is once more upon the Koreans and they neglect everything else. Of course, they don't call it politics but patriotism. Patriotism is the refuge of many a rogue. On this city of Seoul not a Korean photographer, and not a Korean public bath. Shoemaking is the only industry in which the Korean seems to hold his ground.
 

16. 10월 16일

1
16th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Brockman tells me that the Singer Sawing Machine people have received a telegram from their agents in 淸津 that about 20,000 Koreans armed to teeth are fighting with the Japanese. Mr. 金貞植 called and urged me to go to America to carry on the Independence campaign saying that I would be in great danger if I didn't. He doesn't seem to realize that I can add nothing to the campaign that Japan will never disgorge Korea unless she is compelled to and that neither I nor any other Korean by any sort of campaign can compel Japan.
3
5 p.m. called on Miss Bessie Hardie, now Mrs. Y. Fisher who had arrived at Seoul a few days ago. They told me that Helen speaks and has a better command of the English language than an average American girl of her age.
 

17. 10월 17일

1
17th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Beautiful day. About 10 a.m. went to Dr. Anderson's home to attend the meeting of the Executive Committee of the Centenary Commission. Lunch at Dr. A's. The meeting adjourned about 3 p.m. Mr. Stokes certainly speaks Korean well―almost without accent.
3
The armed disturbance in the North, if true, will hurt the Korean as much as it will help the Japanese. How? The fighting will devastate the district so that the Japanese can get the lands almost for nothing. Secondly Japan can suppress 20,000 armed agitators quicker and easier than 200 unarmed shouters of "Mansei". Just as the assassination of Prince Ito hastened the annexation, the so-called independent agitations hasten the Japanese grab of the lands and resources of Korea.
 

18. 10월 18일

1
18th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. About 10 a.m. called on Mr. S. Beck at the detached building(山亭) back of the American Consulate General. He has just returned from the States to wind up his affairs in Seoul. He gave me a letter from Miss Myers full of loving messages from Dr. Candler and Dr. R. Mr. B. said that the Koreans in America are determined to keep up the agitations until the realization of their dream: that he is willing to give all his spare time and talents to the cause of Korean independence; that he believes in the ultimate success of the cause as firmly as he believes in the justice of God; and that he expects to see Korea free and independent before he dies. I asked him no questions and told him not to tell me any secret as I don't want to have any secret to burden my already overburdened mind. Mr. B. fully agree with me as to the great folly of the armed agitations in the North.
 

19. 10월 19일

1
19th. Sunday. Cloud and thunder in the morning―passed away.
 
2
Worshipped at the 宗橋 Church as usual. A Chinese preacher conducted the service.
3
Simplicity and frugality, if practiced by choice, are two useful virtues. But when they are forced on the people by law, they become harmful habits killing out all useful and fine arts―as witnesses the Korean history. In fact virtue itself ceases to be such when no freedom of will is given its full play.
4
The old Korean Government in their mistaken policy of making the people live the lives of simplicity and of frugality succeeded too well in eradicating arts of every kind not only but the very desire for learning and the ambition for improving one's condition in life.
 

20. 10월 20일

1
20th. Monday. Cloud and sunshine.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Loose bowels―felt miserable whole day. Dr. Schofield, a Scotchman, is burning with indignation at the Japanese policy―the cool cruel policy of expelling Koreans from Korea to make room for the Japanese settlers and at the recent atrocities. He is indefatigable in collecting authentic facts for a book he is writing and fearless in denouncing the Japanese misdeeds face to face to the highest officials. So a missionary he is a little off his own track. But as a friend of the Koreans he deserves all praise and gratitude. The Japanese authorities here, like authorities all over the world, must have the restraint of a fearless criticism. Yet who in Korea is able to criticize them? The Japanese will not because they want to oppress and exploit the Koreans. The Koreans can not, because they are not allowed. Hence the all importance of foreign criticism.
 

21. 10월 21일

1
21st. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Laid up with diarrhea. An example how a prodigal spends his father's money. He goes to a restaurant with a number of "soldiers" 兵丁 as the followers are now called. He calls as many dancing girls as he can say 20 to 30 girls. They eat and drink until 2 a.m. Five or six automobiles are ordered―in that unearthly hour. They all ride to 洪陵 or the former Empress's grave. Thence they go to the Hankang Bridge. From there they go to Suwon and have breakfast in a restaurant. Then they return to the Seoul restaurant from which they had started. An auto charges ¥5.00 per hour. What senseless and wicked way of spending money. Yet the police pays no attention to these scoundrels.
 

22. 10월 22일

1
22nd. Wednesday. Beautiful―Heavy frost last night.
 
2
發信: Helen.
3
A little better today. Wife sick―of headache, etc.
4
A Korean farmer is afraid to have a Japanese farmer for a neighbor. No Korean merchant of any experience willingly goes into a partnership with a Japanese merchant. It is an open secret that the Koreans who own houses on the business thoroughfares―like the Bell Street for example―will not have the Japanese tenants, if they can possibly help it. The popular Korean opinion of the Japanese character is that it is tricky, unscrupulous, aggressive, revengeful, and deceitful. No matter what the Japanese promises, the Korean dares not trust, if it is anything good. The bureaucrats of Japan have done as much injustice to Korea as to Japan in that they have blackened the name of Japan in Korea more than all the fine proclamations could have white-washed her(Japan) .
 

23. 10월 23일

1
23rd. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. When a Korean student was told not to tear off pages from a magazine on the reading table in the Y.M.C.A. hall, the little fellow had the cheek to say: "Does the Y.M.C.A. Constitution forbid one from tearing off some pages from a magazine?" My niece, 善姬, now 7 years old, when told to take her tuition to her teacher indignantly said: "Am I a servant to take such things(내가 下人인가 그런 것 가지고 단니게?) " My maternal aunt, No. 2, is living the life of a parasite in my home―in spite of the fact she has her husband living, she wouldn't do a thing―but sit still or play dominoes all day long. Little fellows from 9 to 14 years old seem almost daily on their wedding trips in the streets of Seoul―in fact everywhere in Korea. Consider these things and you don't have to go far to find the causes of the ruin of Korea.
 

24. 10월 24일

1
24th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual Today's paper has it that the Municipal Council of the French Settlement in Shanghai ordered on the 17th inst., the closure of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, located in that Settlement. I hope the Independence agitators see or realize the prematureness of their work; that the more they agitate the better promoted the designs of Japan in Korea; that Heaven and earth seem to conspire to prosper anything Japan undertakes to do. Did a great war literally drench Europe in human blood devastating many a flourishing empire? That very war made Japan a Narikin nation. Is Korea writhing in one of the direct famines she has ever known? Why, Japan has a record-breaking good harvest. Political disturbance, military atrocities, drought, flood, wind, halation, cholera have vied with each other to make the Koreans as miserable. But these very unfortunes Korea only help Japan to consummate her plan of dispossessing the Koreans of their lands. All things work together for the good of Japan.
 

25. 10월 25일

1
25th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. 3 to 5 p.m. In the morning from 9:30 a.m. went to 齋洞女子普通學校 to see the outdoor exercises and races of the little girls. Our girl Mary did well. My 3rd cousin 致晠's daughter was married today, the ceremony taking place in the 安洞 Church.
3
I have a positive proof that the school authorities of the Gov. Medical School recruit spies from among its students (Korean) . How can they (the authorities) talk about manhood and morality to the boys when they encourage, ney, teach the nefarious practice (and habit) of espionage on the part of the students?
4
Somehow I feel fatigued in body and mind.
 

26. 10월 26일

1
26th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshipped at the 宗橋 Church as usual. Mr. Ryang preached a good sermon.
3
A young man, Nam Kung Byuk, in a letter asking for my help to continue his studies in Tokyo, says that he must study philosophy ten years more, to find out the causes that have brought the Korean race to its present condition! What nonsense! I can tell him without studying philosophy that one of the principal causes for the miserable condition of the Korean race, is that our intellectual leaders for centuries, wasted their time and energy in vain philosophical speculations about Confucian ethics and Budhistic dreams to the utter neglect of the useful arts and practical morality. I have no sympathy for any Korean student who tells me that he studies philosophy in Tokyo or anywhere.
 

27. 10월 27일

1
27. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 6 p.m. went to the 京城 Hotel at the invitation of Mr. 工勝, the new Governor of Kyen Ki Do. Had to hurry back to the Y. building as Mr. Burt, the President of the Chicago Training School for Y.M.C.A. Secretaries had been scheduled to speak. He failing to arrive this morning, Mr. Brockman asked Mr. Twing to speak before Mr. B. comes on cigarette smoking, etc. Mr. T. gave a very good talk on the vices of opium, cigarette, of liquor to a crowded audience. Mr. Burt, coming to the Building right from the station made a speech―but as he was tired and unprepared his talk was a comparative failure.
3
This morning attended the funeral service of Pastor 李源兢. Twenty seven years ago he was so anti-Christian that he prepared a memorial to the King praying that an edict might be issued to prohibit the Western Religion(西學) . Today he goes to his grave as the Pastor(牧師) of a Christian Church. He was converted in the prison.
 

28. 10월 28일

1
28th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 9:30 to 10:30 a.m. Mr. Burt held a conference with the secretaries of the Central Y. at the home of Mr. Gregg. All that Mr. B. said was good―such as how to solicit contributions from business men; how to make menbership campaign, etc. But to the Korean ears these suggestions sounded pretty much like an advice to a sickman lying helpless on his bed to take a trip to the Diamond Mountains. Until the Koreans are given freedom of action and speech―until the close and annoying police surveillance is lifted from our work, no amount of good advice or suggestions from Dr. Mott himself can and will do any practical good. 6 p.m. went to 太和館 to a supper the Korean citizens of Seoul gave to the new governor of Kyeng Ki Do.
3
7:30 a musical concert given in Y. for the benefit of the Free Night School. The room packed. Nearly ¥200.00 from the sale of tickets. Mrs. H. Miller said to me: "The Japs have done some mean things in Korea; but the disbanding of the Prince Yi's Band is the saddest I have seen them doing."
 

29. 10월 29일

1
29th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
9:30 a.m. to 10:30 Mr. Burt had another conference with the office staff of Y.M.C.A. 3 p.m. Mr. B. was invited to take tea with the Directors and Members of Standing Committees. But most of the Directors were conspicuous by their absence. 3 o'clock p.m. is not the ideal hour for tea anyway.
3
Next Friday, the 31st of Oct. being the Anniversary of the birthday of the Emperor of Japan, the schools in Seoul resort to various means to avoid any possible collision between the Korean students and the enforced observance of the day.
4
Ewha Hak Tang, for instance, gave a week of holidays for Kimchi making. Our Mary surprised me by telling me that the larger girls of her school call the Japanese teachers "beggars", that they hate to sing the "Kimiga Yo"; that a bunch of the little girls have set up an image back of the school praying to it to restore the independence of Korea; that these little girls secretly call mansei every chance they have in the class rooms; that they sing Kor. patriotic songs out of the hearing of the Japanese teachers.
 

30. 10월 30일

1
30th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. To put up the Japanese flag tomorrow or not to put it up is the burning question of these last few days. I say: if we commit suicide like Min Yong Whan or leave Korea like Yi Sung Man, that's another question. But as long as we are, willy nilly, under the protection of the Japanese law―as long as we are willing, or obliged, to that law for security of life and property, doesn't it stand to reason to observe the requirements of that law? The Japanese flag is to the Korean, simply a sign that we live under the Japanese law to whose protection we are willing to appeal. Unless we make up our mind not to appeal to that law no matter under what circumstances or provocation, we should not refuse to put up the sign―the flag when we are so requested. 邊 told me that an attempt at the life of 閔元植 was made today by a girl.
 

31. 10월 31일

1
31st. Friday. Beautiful-frosty and cold.
 
2
Very few private houses had the flags up this morning. In our street our house was the only one that had it. However policemen were seen busy going about to make the shops and houses to put up the flag. King Frederick once beat a fellow saying: "You must not be afraid of me, you must love me."
3
One of the most absurd things that the Japanese are doing in Korea is their attempt to transplant in the heart of the Korean the Japanese type of loyalty and Shindoism. These two are the ethnic characteristics peculiar to the soil of Japan. Outside of the historical surroundings of Japan they can't live, just as a tropical flower can't thrive in any Korean garden.
4
From 2 to 4, the garden party in the official residence of the Gov. General.
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