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◈ 윤치호일기 (1919년) ◈

◇ 2월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권 3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 2월 1일

1
1st. Saturday. Pale―cold. 8℃.
 
2
Praise God from whom All Blessing Flow!
3
Stayed at home recieving visitors. Had refresning bath at Y. Called on Mr. 宇佐美 about 5 p.m.
4
Mr. Yi Sang Cha insists on not coming to Y.M.C.A. Mr. 陸 and I have tried our best to persuade him to come but to no effect. He should tender a formal resignation, if he is serious about it. But how is he going to live without the monthly salary?
 

2. 2월 2일

1
2nd. Sunday. Pale a.m. Beautiful p.m. Cold. 8℃.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual. 4 p.m. went to Pierson Memorial to see Bishop Welch to talk about 玄牧師's going to Siberia with the Japanese Y. war-workers. The Bishop seemed to be more than half willing to let 玄 go. Stayed to the foreign service.
3
Very little hope there is that foreigners would conduct schools and other institutions to suit the Korean. They are too proud to do so. Koreans ought to start their own institutions to suit themselves―then the foreigners will follow.
4
The 官立女子普通學校 is better than the So. Methodist Girl School in that 1. the former teaches fewer subjects 8 to 12 in 培花; 2. teach each subject more thoroughly; 3. more close supervision over the children; 4. sewing lessons twice a week while 培花 has none, 5. better discipline; 6. more teachers.
 

3. 2월 3일

1
3rd. Monday. Bright―cold. Wind storm in p.m. 8℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Prof. James says that to be converted or regenerated is to turn from being consciously wrong, inferior and unhappy to being consciously right, superior and happy. But is a real bad man conscious of being wrong? It would be practically impossible to convince wife, for example, that she is wrong and hellishly vile-tempered.
3
Went to 飯塚 to treat my teeth, 4 p.m.
4
A social meeting for those young men who signified their desire to become members of the Y. Nearly eighty of them turned out inspite of the cold night.
 

4. 2월 4일

1
4th. Tuesday. Pale―bitter cold, 13℃.
 
2
Went to the Japanese dentist this morning again. A few minutes' treatment and then was told to come tomorrow. 30 sen every time. I am afraid this fellow intends to multiply days to make money out of me.
3
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Bitterly cold.
4
7:30 p.m. Mr. 石鎭衡 spoke to a fairly good audience on self-reliance. His tone and manner were so Japanized and his thoughts so rambling that most people were disappointed.
 

5. 2월 5일

1
5th. Wednesday. Bright. Very cold. 15℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 4 p.m. called on Mr. 李商在 trying to persuade him not to resign. He said he feels too cheeky to draw salary for doing nothing and that, he being suspected by the police as anti-J. he doesn't think wise to teach anything in the Y. Mr. 李 told me that some people expressed to him their surprise and dissatisfaction that I wouldn't go to Paris to make known to the world's great leaders there assembled, the true condition of the Koreans!
3
On the way home stopped at the 女子普通學校 to see 文姬 studying.
 

6. 2월 6일

1
6th. Thursday. Gloomy―cold―snow. 7℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 邊壎 told me this morning that 鄭華基 the medical student whom I have been helping by giving him free board and who, in return, has been teaching 文姬 some Chinese in the evening, is marked in the police record as a dangerous anti-J. young man!
3
2:30-5 p.m. attended the Annual Meeting of the B. of Managers of the Severance Medical School. Well, Dr. Avison has done a good piece of work. Whenever he leaves this world he will have the satisfaction to know that he leaves it better than he found it. Unquestionably he is one of the greatest benefactors to the Korean people.
4
7:30 p.m. Mr. 秋山, the agricultural expert in 東拓會社, gave a talk on his impressions of South America.
 

7. 2월 7일

1
7th. Friday. Pale―cold. 4℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 11-12 a.m. a talk with Dr. Schofield. He is anxious to start a temperance movement in Korea. He thinks it is best to consult the authorities first about it. I suggested that a well-known Japanese temperance man be invited over to give a series of lectures on the subject―and then start a temperance league among the Christian school boys in Seoul.
3
The Japanese teachers in public schools, girls' schools not excepted, carry long sword as part of their duty. Isn't that militarism gone crazy?
4
Dr. Schofield told me that in a street in Edinburgh, soldiers stood in a long file in front of houses of ill fame to wait for their turn of admission. Just a few blocks from the scene stands a military hospital to cure the diseases contracted in the bad houses.
 

8. 2월 8일

1
8th. Saturday. Cloudy―chilly. 6℃.
 
2
Stayed home, this being the first birthday of 明姬. She was given a 돌床 or first birthday table with rice, dates, threads, 국수, book, cakes, etc. She is a lovely and sweet child. God bless her now and always!
3
Went to Y.M.C.A. about 2 p.m. After bath, went to 舊龍山 to see uncle 李通津. What a difference between his former state in Song Do and his present condition of poverty! I once thought, of all men, he would be the last one who might fall in such a destitute condition of life. Such is the risk of 靈慾 or inordinate lust for wealth. he let go one bird in the hand to catch two in the bush. His elder son 時雨 have married or gotten five wives, two Korean and three Japanese in succession only to send them away one after another after cruel treatment. He is only about 23 now, but a regular brute in matter of woman.
 

9. 2월 9일

1
9th. Sunday. Pale―chilly. 5℃.
 
2
11 a.m. went to Mr. 趙秉澤's home to take breakfast on his 61st birthday. He has a fine Korean home―spoiled by too garish paints. By the way 趙秉澤 is one of the handsomest Korean I have seen.
3
鄭華基 moved to a boarding house, as I feel it uneasy for him to stay in my home.
4
Look at that old woman 興瑞's mother-in-law. She has been serving him as no slave would have done. She has literally brought up his numerous children on her back, cooking, washing, sewing for them for last 15 years. Yet her son-in-law scolds her and orders her about as he would a slave. What pleasure has she? Only a pipe! Would any one be so heartless to tell her it is sin to smoke?
 

10. 2월 10일

1
10th. Monday. Bright―A little snow on the ground. 6℃.
 
2
Stayed home until 2 p.m. Went to Severance Hospital to get tooth fixed. 3 to 5 p.m. Y.M.C.A. as usual.
3
7:30 p.m. went to Y. with 文姬 and 善姬 to see moving picture entertainment. Mr. 洪秉璇 tells me that some of the girls in the 女子高等普通學校 are reported to be planning some agitation to take place during the funeral procession. I wonder who is fooling these simple sweet creatures!
4
Mr. Cynn's going to Pyong Yang for treatment of certain ailment has given rise to two conjectures; 1. He is going there to manipulate some patriotic scheme; 2. He has been sent there by the authorities to find out what is going on there. If one of these conjectures must be true, the latter is more likely than the former.
 

11. 2월 11일

1
11th. Tuesday. Cloudy―Big snow on the ground about an inch. 5℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual from 11 a.m. 洪◉ on the authority of 閔泳徽 reported that the Ex-Emperor took a cup of Koran medicine―養胃湯. An hour or less later he complained of dizziness and contortion in the stomach. He soon was so paraized that when Mr. 閔 reached him he could not speak a word. The dying Prince clinched his both hands so tight the 羅世煥 the eunuch had a time in straightening them out.
3
After supper called on Mr. 神崎. He told me that in 閔 somebody's house an explosion of gun powder took place the other day destroying a part of the house and killing 閔.
4
陸完洙 told me this evening that there is rumor that Yi Sung Man was assassinated somewhere in America. I hope it is not true.
 

12. 2월 12일

1
12th. Wednesday. Cloudy―cold. 10℃.
 
2
Left Seoul by 11:30 a.m. train for 平澤. Arrived 2:30 p.m. After lunch at 尹亨一's place walked to 新村 home. All well. Uncle is just recovering from a spell of cold.
3
On the train a Japanese woman who sat opposite me showed a great deal of shrewdness in her talk with a Japanese man who sat by me. Among what she said I was amused or interested to hear that coral bead is used to detect poison in food, that even now a coral bead is employed to test every dish of food to be taken by the imperial Majesties; that when thing gets into the eye a pearl should be put in the sore eye and the eye be shut for a while; that the pearl will draw the offending object to itself without hurting the eye; that a ruby has the power of changing its color to dark hues when the wearer is to die.
 

13. 2월 13일

1
13th. Thursday. Pale―mild. (TABLE)
 
2
==1) Rice(unhulled) was sold for ¥2 cash per bag. :==¥18==
3
==2) A of cotten cloth was bought at ¥2 or ¥2.50 cash.====
4
==3) A small cow was bought at about 4 or 5 Yen. :==¥150==
5
==4) 갈비 at 20 cash. :==¥6==
6
==5) Coolie hire per day 10 cash. :==¥.40==
7
==6) Chair coolie per ten li 7 cash. :==¥.50==
8
==7) A table of rice, at inns 3 or 4 cash. :==¥.25==
9
==8) 靑魚 one string of 206 cash. :==¥1.80 Feel so tired that I don't feel like taking a walk even.==
 
10
Slept from 1 to 4 p.m.!
11
When uncle was 12 or 15 years old―In this district; Now
12
Uncle says that for those who have rice to dispose of are better off today than then in spite of the rise in price.
13
A  of 갈비 which cost me 80 sen less than 3 years ago can't be bought now for less than ¥7 or ¥8.
 

14. 2월 14일

1
14th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Feel a little refreshed today. After breakfast, with Mr. 劉高原 and 白雲◉ went to 道谷 on foot to visit the tombs of my grandfather and grandmother. On our way home I called on the 憲兵所長 and the 普通學校校長. Reached home rather tired. Took a long nap.
3
My uncle's character is a puzzle to me. As a maigstrate and military official, he showed to a remarkable degree courage, integrity, devotion, diligence and great presence of mind. But as a private individual he is indolent, timid and too much of laissez-faire nature toward his children and servants. He also believes in many of the old superstitions. At any rate, he is a good man and fortunate.
 

15. 2월 15일

1
15th. Saturday. Beautiful most of the day.
 
2
After breakfast went to 薪谷 to see the new hillside that has been recently bought for ¥150 or so. The friends who accompanied me think it a good bargain. On the way home, went into the village to see 趙重晳. He said that his village began to be poor when the hill opposite it (案山) became 沙汰 or land slidden. The fact is that the village of 薪谷 is notorious for its yangbanism and laziness. It is this laziness and do-nothing yangbanism that have ruined the village and not the sliding of the opposite hillside.
3
禹仁享's mother has an earthern 火爐 which she has been using for the last 35 years!
 

16. 2월 16일

1
16th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
In the morning had a talk with 白樂俊 who had sometime ago written me informing me of his desire to resign his 舍音-ship. He has been my general 舍音 for the last 8 or 9 years. He is ignorant to the extent of not being able to write his own name even in 諺文. However he is an expert in dealing with farms. He has been comparatively honest, though he being dependent on others for bookkeeping made many mistakes. He seems to have gotten into a fit of jealousy as 白雲◉ has of late taken most of his work of superintending my estates in this district. I finally consented to his resignation and cancelled his indebtedness to me, viz.; 43石 of rice, about ¥100 in money. In addition I gave him 20石 of rice as working fund. He seemed to be satisfied.
3
Mr. 白樂俊 can not be accused of extravagancy in his mode of living. He is industrious. Yet he is always in debt, in spite of his year by earning of 70 to 80 bags of rice. His wife is said to be the laziest and dirtiest woman in the village. She is his ruin.
 

17. 2월 17일

1
17th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
After breakfast, with 劉高原 and 兪主事 went to 文才洞 to visit 韓藝南. He is a scholar and gentleman. Instead of sponging on his friends, like so many old yangbans in this neighborhood, he is bravely working with his own hands day and night to keep the wolf off the door. He seems to have a good wife and he talks about her always in tenderness. We four walked up to the top of 月柱山 stopping very few minutes to enjoy the panorama of extended fields, manyfolded mountains, distant seas, scattered hamlets―all peacefully basking in the spring sunshine. Mr. 韓 brought a plateful of delicious 豆餠 to which we did full justice.
3
Returned home late afternoon.
 

18. 2월 18일

1
18th. Tuesday. Dense fog in the morning until 12.
 
2
Left 新村 at 1 p.m. with Mr. 劉. Paid respect to the 浚川 tombs. The 山直's folks drink the dirty water of a ditch. Last November I told the old fellow he would get 土疾 or lung trouble if he didn't quit drinking from that foul ditch. Today I found him already coughing like his predecessor did. I again insisted that he should dig a well as soon as the ground permitted or else he would die. The old fellow said: 그전에는 그럿치 안터니 身數인지, 어 여거 온후붓터 土疾기침을 해오. I was disgusted to hear him talk about fate.
3
Arrived at 溫泉 about 5 p.m. Put up at Korean inn.
4
Met 李潤羲 a Song Do young aman who had studied in the Anglo-Korean Primary School when I was there.
 

19. 2월 19일

1
19th. Wednesday. Foggy in the early morning. Bright rest of the day.
 
2
Up at 6 p.m. with 兪主事 visited Father's tomb. Returning to the inn at 8:30, took a refreshing bath. Left 溫泉 at 9:30 a.m. by auto and arrived at 天安 at 10. By the way the inn keeper at 溫泉 charged me ¥1. for 1st class (so called) table of rice and 60 sen for a common table.
3
Called on sister. She asked me to buy for her a field in 安城 worth ¥4,200. Her boy is no good. She married her grandson of 14 to a girl 3 years older than him. What can you do to help a person who complains of poverty while he or she does those things only which, by necessity, tend to poverty.
4
White hat is becoming universal in the country. A real new one costs ¥5 to ¥6. Some have black hats pasted over with white paper while others have a round piece of white paper on the top of the crown of a black hat.
 

20. 2월 20일

1
20th. Thursday. Foggy and chilly in the morning. Bright and warm in the p.m. a.m. 3℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 9:30 a.m. as usual.
3
2 p.m. went to Dr. Avisions to attend the meeting of the B. of Trustees.
4
梁柱三 came to see me about 7 p.m. and asked me to advance him about ¥ 3000 to buy a house. He fears that there may be some disturbance during the big funeral.
5
One of the funniest follies of the Japanese police is the attempt at forcing the Shinto shrines upon the Koreans! You can't impose a local and clannish cult of one race upon another―especially, if the latter is a conquered race. You can no more ask Koreans worship the Shinto deities of Japan than you can ask the Japanese to weep at the death of the Ex-Emperor of Korea or of China. The Japanese think the Koreans all such fools that they can force them to do any thing. Of course you can force a fellow to do anything, but is that the wisest way of making the Korean to love Japanese rule?
 

21. 2월 21일

1
21st. Friday. Foggy in the early a.m. Beautiful day―a.m. 3℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual whole day.
3
It is harder to be an out-and-out atheist than to be a thorough-going believer in God.
4
It is harder to be a moderate drinker than a teetotaler.
5
It is harder to believe some and reject others of the miracles in the life of Christ than to believe in one and all of them. Dr. Hardie who has charge of the Pierson Memorial Bible School is so unpopular with the boys that one of them actually assulted him with a slipper. The idea! A missionary―in a Bible School―theologues―coming to blows. Isn't that sheer waste of money?
 

22. 2월 22일

1
22nd. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 4 p.m. entertained Rev. 渡瀨恒吉 at a Sukiyaki supper at the Pagoda Restaurant. Mr. 金貞植 also present.
3
Enjoyed reading Mr. 內村鑑三's diary. I admire his simplicity of faith in Christ and his fearlessness in declaring the same. I believe he is the greatest man among the Christians of the Far East. By the way, a Paul, a Livingstone, a Lincoln or a 內村 is possible only in a war-like race.
4
The Yi Dynasty bent its entire energy, for 500 in glorious years, to crush out the martial spirit of the people and it succeeded only too well. Now the spirit of fight is as matured to a man as any other instinct. This spirit abused and perverted makes a man a brute, a Kaiser; but well educated and disciplined and consecrated. The spirit makes a man a hero, a saint, a son of God.
 

23. 2월 23일

1
23rd. Sunday. Beautiful. From 永善
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church as usual.
3
Sent 郭漢永 to 楊根 to look into the report that someone had cut more than 60 trees from our forest.
4
3:30 p.m. 萬國學生基督敎學生會同盟 prayer meeting was held in the Y. auditorium. There must have been at least 1600 people, mostly students and young men present. Mr. Fisher from Tokio gave a talk and I interpreted for him. These young men see to be hungry to hear something in the line of patriotism and politics. They are ready to catch fire at the least provocation. They all talk about 機會 or opportunity―as of this were an opportunity for something good or great for them―and they see nothing good or great except in political independance. Too bad.
5
Mr. 近藤範治 my old 元山 friend took supper with me at our home. Delightful to talk about old days that will never return. Pastor 玄楯 came to Y. this afternoon and told me that he had definitely decided not to go to Siberia for the war work among the Japanese troops.
 

24. 2월 24일

1
24th. Monday. A little shower early morning. Bright p.m. 35℉.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 邊壎 volunteered the following yarns (1) the 宇佐美 has given a fishery concession worth ¥30,000 a year to Cynn H. Woo, as a reward for pro-Japanese propaganda which Mr. Cynn is to undertake in Paris with Bish. Harris. (2) The students now gathered in Seoul are maturing a plot to produce some disturbance during the funeral procession―they plan to use bombs. The plotters know that they will gain no immediate benefit from the movement, but they believe it will help Korea by showing the International Assembly now in Paris that the Korean people are not contented with the Japanese regime.
3
Met 李世稙 at Y. Bdg. about 7 p.m. He told me that 李承晩 had been shot at by a Japanese in America; that Mr. Gillet is helping the Korean movement; that He, 李世稙, can read and speak English, French, Russian though he for a good reasons pretends ignorance of them! What a cheek!
 

25. 2월 25일

1
25th. Tuesday. Beautiful. 9 a.m. 3℃.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. Had an interview with Mr. Fisher of Tokyo. In answer to his inquiry as to what the Korean Y.M.C.A. needs for the coming five years I suggested (1) that the endowment fund should be increased to ¥100,000 to give the institution an assured income of say ¥7,000 a year. (2) That if the N.Y. Committee is willing to give two more Americans to help Mr. Gregg in his industrial work the cost of supporting one of them should be given to Gregg in money so that he could employ competent Korean teachers at such salary as would make them satisfied to stay. (3) That a suitable athletic ground be secured to be used by both Korean and Japanese Associations.
 

26. 2월 26일

1
26th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. 鄭華基 told me this afternoon that the students of all the 高等 grade of schools in the city have decided to strike a day or two before the day of funeral; that some man of standing and reputation is back of this conspiracy; that his word is to be given as a signal for uprising; that no violence is contemplated; that I am reported among students to have refused to sign the Declaration of Independence; that the plotters actually believe that Korea will be given independence in three months(!) ; and that the 天道敎 people are planning for some political demonstration. It is impossible that the police would be caught napping by any of these well meaningful misguided young men. I fear this foolish agitation will only give a good pretext to the Japanese militarists to be harsher to the Korean people. 洪秉璇 informed me that some of the Korean preachers are planning to use the Y. auditorium next Sunday for certain kind of agitation. That will never do.
 

27. 2월 27일

1
27th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. as usual. The streets are thronged with men and women from the country―to see the Funeral procession. It is an exceedingly interesting study―this national or racial instinct or solidarity. Look at Bohemia. Only about 2 million Checkoslovaks, hemmed in on all sides by three of the greatest powers in Europe, have kept the fire of racial integrity burning under deep layers of ash for centuries until an opportune time came for it to burst into flames. This racial instinct―one may thaw it out but can't crush it out. Because Koreans are patient, stolid and unwarlike, one may think that they have no racial instinct. But recent events―the popular mourning for the departed Ex-Emperor and the agitations of Korean students in Tokyo―are a conclusive proof that racial instinct is as immortal in the Korean's heart as it is in every other race. Japan ought to conciliate this instinct by kindness and generosity, for the sake of both races.
3
In the Secretaries meeting this afternoon I had it decided to stop all kinds of public gatherings in the Y. building during 3 days begining from next Sunday.
 

28. 2월 28일

1
28th. Friday. Foggy morning.
 
2
Y.M.C.A. from 8 a.m. with family and see the Funeral rehearsal 習儀. All the windows facing the street were taken possession of by parties of women sightseers. The rituals and dresses used in the Funeral Ceremonies are picturesque but childish. These were formulated and fixed 20 or more centuries ago when the human society was in infancy or crawling stage. The idea of sticking to these absurd formalities when other people are flying―actually flying like birds―nay better than birds. How dare we speak about independance when we only crawl while our neighbors fly? We who can't run a bath house talk about running a modern state!
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