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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 11월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권 12권  윤치호

1. 11월 1일

1
1st. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
In a article which Mr. Hara, the Japanese premier is credited to have written―undoubtedly for foreign consumption―some funny things are said to prove that the Japanese nation has always been peace loving and democratic. He actually says "There is no record of a Japanese invasion of a foreign country or conquest of a foreign nation." When Mr. Hara wrote this, his memory must have played him very false―for no Japanese could have forgotten the Hiteyoshi invasion of Korea 300 or so years ago.
 

2. 11월 2일

1
2nd. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Again Hara says: The battles in history (Jap) are all conflicts between political factions such as we can find in the history of any civilized country. Moreover, it must be noticed that in Japan even those struggles were party conflicts in which those lost prestige among the people were replaced by more popular ones; this proves that we had democracy in reality though in form it is so different from the modern politics."
3
What's the difference between the battles fought between factions and battles fought between nations? Belliconseness or warlikeness motivates the one as the other. If supplanting one dynasty or party by another is democracy, then China, Korea, India, Persia, Russia etc. had been most democratic nations in history!!!
 

3. 11월 3일

1
3rd. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Mr. Hara, as seen in his article just quoted, seems to share the singular weakness of the Japanese writers in that he is very sensitive to the charge of being warlike. I firmly believe that a people should rather be proud, than be ashamed, of being warlike for the simple reason that no people has done a thing worth mentioning who is not warlike. All the great men and great things China ever produced, were the direct or indirect products of her warlike ages.
3
I believe the Japanese are more than warlike. They are blood thirsty as a people. They love to kill or be killed. The Japanese history amply proves this.
 

4. 11월 4일

1
4th. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
The 琿春 massacre of a hundred or more Japanese by a band of robbers composed of the Chinese, the Korean and not a few Russian outlaws, had given Japan the desired pretext to clean out the headquarters of the Korean malcontents.
3
The people most to be pitied, are the innocent korean farmers who are scraping up a precarious living in the wilds of 間島. They are defdnseless victims to the triple cruelties of the Chinese bandits, the Korean agitators and the Japanese soldiers.
4
If the Koreans are sensible, they ought to quit the armed demonstrations―so called. They hurt nobody but the Korean people.
 

5. 11월 5일

1
5th. Friday. Pretty. Cold.
 
2
Some 26 years ago, I called on Prince Pak Yong Hyo in his new home which had been built and occupied by the notorious 閔泳雨 or Min Mang Nani (Min the Hangman) . I was amused to read a Chinese couplet engraved on a pair of wooden tablets adorning two of the pillars. It ran: 讀聖賢書 行仁義事(Read the books of the holy and wise men and practice the deeds of love and justice) . The sentiment was such a contrast to what Min Mang Nani was noted for―a cruel extortioner. When I read the jingoistic boastings of the Japanese that they are the most peace loving and democratic nation in the world I can't help smiling as I did at the incongruity between the moral couplet and the life of Min Mang Nani.
 

6. 11월 6일

1
6th. Saturday. Pale.
 
2
3 p.m. went to the Chung Dong M.E. Church to attend the wedding ceremonies of Miss 金德成 and 朴寧根. The bride is a really pretty girl while the bridegroom is one of the best looking men in Seoul. They are both well educated―in Japan―and both well to do. I have seldom seen a bride and a bridegroom so well matched. May happiness attend their union always. Went to the wedding banquet given at 京城 Hotel. Nearly 200 guests present. The hotel seems to have spent thousands of Yen in constructing the overartificial and overtortuous garden. Had they invested some of the money in cuisine and furniture the hotel might have been more popular.
 

7. 11월 7일

1
7th. Sunday. Pale.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. This being the 77th birthday of mother we had family reunion. To have a little celebration of this kind the female members of the family work day and night―for 3 or 4 days―often causing sickness when the weather happen to be very hot or very cold. A Korean feast, preparing so much food for so many guests―each little table loaded with food enough for several persons―if properly served―is necessarily expensive, in elegant and barbarous. Eating, eating, eating all day.
 

8. 11월 8일

1
8th. Monday. Rain. Warm.
 
2
Son Pyong Hui and his fellow independence agitators have lately been sentenced to varying terms of penal servitude―from 1 to 3 years. Son is undergoing medical treatment at his own home―having been released on bail.
3
By the way Son P.H. is looked up to with almost adoration by hundreds of thousands of poor benighted followers as the Chief of Chun Do Kyo. They give him yearly several hundreds of thousands Yen―to be used in a life of unbridled dissipation and luxury and idleness. They are building a magnificent temple for the so called religion. A people so simple, so gullible and so superstitious―nead years of stern education and discipline to be ready for real independence.
 

9. 11월 9일

1
9th. Tuesday. Cloudy a.m. Bright p.m.
 
2
Whatever may have been the faults of the Terauchi regime―and they were many―one good thing was its stern discipline. Under it, sorcerers, fortune tellers, political scoundrels (挾雜輩) of various type and description made themselves scarce to the great satisfaction of law abiding people. But since the so called reform under Baron Saito, all these social pests have come back to the infinite harm of the people. Religions(?) of all sorts are exploiting the simple hearted people especially women. One of them 太乙敎 which professes to enable its devotees to see 玉皇上帝 in seven days, is driving a profitable business by fooling women pretending that all kinds of ailments can be cured by chanting certain formulas. Many a family has been wrecked by this devilish cult…by the seduction of women and by the squeezing of money. The police which formerly exercised a strict supervision over such evils, pay no attention to them now. I suppose the Japanese have adopted this attitude for fear that the ignorant people might all join the Christian church.
 

10. 11월 10일

1
10th. Wednesday. Bright. Cool.
 
 

11. 11월 11일

1
11th. Thursday. Cloudy.
 
2
Mailed letters to 致昌 and 永善.
3
Faith uncontrolled and unbalanced by reason is superstition and there is no telling what superstition may do. Mr. 永野 once told me that in a Japanese village he actually saw people drinking the water in which a Buddist priest had bathed hoping or believing that they would go to Paradise by so doing. Some three years ago, a 蔡同知 pretended that his spittle had the power of curing diseases and even of making barren women to conceive. He sold little rice cakes covered with his saliva and his shanty outside of the West Gate near the Independence Arch was daily crowded with women who offered money, trinkets, clothing to the dirty rascal for his spittle covered cakes!
 

12. 11월 12일

1
12th. Friday. Pretty.
 
2
At 7:30 p.m. went to Y.M.C.A. to preside over the reception meeting for the new members who had recently joined the Y. The membership campaign proved a great success, over 700 young men having become members.
3
A Mr. Vilodaki, said to be an American citizen, came to the Y. seeking interview with Mr. Yi Sang Chai, Jang Duk Soo and me. Hearing that he was from Shanghai I gave him no chance for a long chat. He said something about the Shanghai crowed needing money. But we need money here more than they do there for education, religion and enterprises of all sorts―more important just now than howling manseis with empty heads and emptier pockets!
 

13. 11월 13일

1
13th. Saturday. Prett.
 
2
Left Seoul by 10 a.m. train for 金郊 Station. Arrived about 2 p.m. Met by a couple of young men from the 市邊里 Church. After a nice lunch, started for 市邊里 in a rickshaw, 2 men power. Covered the distance of 70 li in 3 1/2 hours. Met with a hearty welcome from the Christians of the town. Put up at the parsonage Mr. Yun Ja Hak being in charge of the work. Spoke in the Church at 8 p.m.
3
Si Pyon Ri is the popularly known market of ꟙ山場. Almost all the Song Do merchants began their career at this market. Song Do men are the Jews and Japanese in one, in this part of the country. They make their fortune by usury. People say "Grass would not grow where a Song Do man sat. "松都사람 안젓던 데난 풀도 못난다.
 

14. 11월 14일

1
14th. Sunday. Pretty. Rain in the night.
 
2
Spoke in the Church, both morning and night.
3
Kim Yung Chan whom I taught in the Anglo-Korean School years ago, is a prominent man of the town. He is a level headed man. I told him not to do be fooled by any independence agitators. For a weak nation to regain its political independence, two things are absolutely necessary viz.: 1st The preparedness of the nation in intelligence, in wealth, in public spirit. 2nd Opportunity. The Czecho-slovaks were thoroughly prepared mentally, physically and morally but they would have remained an Austrian Province for nobody knows how long yet, but for the great world war which set them free.
 

15. 11월 15일

1
15th. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
Up early. At the request of Dr. 印□洙, we, he and I, left 市邊里 about 8 a.m. for the former country seat of ꟙ山 magistracy. The ride was refreshing, the shower last night having laid the dust. Arrived at the 古邑內 a little after 10. Spoke in the church. Lunch at. Dr. 印's home.
3
By the way Dr. 印 is a remarkable young man. He graduated in the Government Medical School 3 years ago. While in Seoul he joined the church. He started or revived the church in his native village 古邑內 which has a population of 200 souls. He is an earnest and conscientious Christian.
4
Spoke in the 天道敎 靑年會 at the request of its president. Left 古邑內 about 2 p.m. for 金郊 Station. Having rested an hour at 市邊里, reached Station about 8:30 very cold and tired.
 

16. 11월 16일

1
16th. Tuesday. Pretty.
 
2
Up at 3:30. Left 金郊 Station at 4 a.m. Surprised that the 天道敎 people bought the ticket for me. Arrived Seoul home about 8 a.m.
3
2 p.m. the funeral service for Mrs. Campbell was solemnized at the Chong Kyo Church. I had first met her as early as 1894 in China. When I saw her then who would ever have dreamt that her funeral service would be held in a church in the capital of Korea. Well, a useful and busy life is over. She must be now with those who were dearer to her than her own life, her husband and children who had preceded her. She now sleeps peacefully next to my departed angel wife in the Yang Wha Chin Cemetery.
 

17. 11월 17일

1
17th. Wednesday. Rain.
 
2
About 11 a.m. three Japanese M.P.s called to know or hear what a Korean has to say about the Korea-Japanese relations. I gave him my usual opinions.
3
Some of the gleanings of my country; impressions; 1. The conditions of life in the scattered villages can be expressed in one English word―wretchedness. Centuries of Confucian absolutism have left Korea a land of mountains without trees, streams without bridges, distances without roads, homes without comforts, flowers and women without names and a people without freedom. 2. The prices of agricultural products have fallen so low that the people are literally moneyless. A farmer who borrowed ¥2.50 last Spring to buy a bag or "mal" of Chinese millet a ¥2.20 has to sell five "mals" of Korean(good) millet at 60 sen per "mal" to pay back the debt of ¥2.50 plus interest of ¥300. 3. The Myen Jangs (面長) tell me that the people have not paid in the 2d term house tax yet.
 

18. 11월 18일

1
18th. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
T.M.B. tells me that a card from Rev. Foote to a friend says that in Kanto the Japanese soldiers have burnt over 1,000 Korean houses, killed over 200 people and destroyed 20 church buildings. The Japanese seem to have decided to stamp out the independence movement by German method of terrorism. Wherever and whenever a pretext is found. They will wipe out villages and lives without mercy.
 

19. 11월 19일

1
19th. Friday. Pretty.
 
2
A Mr. Peffer(?) according to a statement of Mr. Brockman. who had written a very sympathetic book on the Korean movement last year, in a reply to a friend who invited him to visit Seoul once more said that he would like to do so to "renew his faith in the Koreans." For whatever good impressions he had gotten of the Koreans in Seoul had been dissipated by the unpatriotic conducts of the members of the Provisional Government go called in Shanghai. They waste the money which the Koreans send at the risk of their lives in banqueting and their time in factional strifes. That confirms what I have been hearing about the P.G. Koreans. That's too bad.
 

20. 11월 20일

1
20th. Saturday. Rain a.m.
 
2
Went to Nam Tai-Moon 普通小學校 at 8 a.m. to throw my vote for a candidate for a member of the new city Council (府協議會會員) .
3
12:30 went to the Chosen Hotel at the invitation of Mr. Zumoto to lunch with him. Mr. Yamagata 悌三郞 also present. When I told Mr. Z. that the colonization policy of Japan must be changed so as to remove the impression on the mind of the Korean that what Japan wants is Korea and not the Koreans, he said that he had been opposed to the Oriental Development Co. from the start. I also told him that the sudden increase of taxes from 22 to 60 fold is a cause of much discontent among the Koreans.
 

21. 11월 21일

1
21th. Sunday. Pale.
 
2
Stayed at home. There is no denying that the American woman is becoming entirely too masculine―in manners. Feminine modesty, gentleness and sweetness are being supplanted by manly aggressiveness, roughness and brusqueness. The loss of distinctly feminine graces in the American womanhood is certainly a loss to the American civilization. If effeminacy is contemptible in a man is masculinity any more tolerable in a woman? An American belle spares neither powder nor purse to enhance and to preserve her womanly beauty, why then should she be so ambitious to imitate men in loudness of speech and rudeness of manners?
 

22. 11월 22일

1
22nd. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
Left Seoul by the 7:20 a.m. train with 劉高原 and 尹明燮 for 果川. From the An Yang Station to one of our family cemeteries. The distance is about 20 li. Took two good hours for the walk. Lunch at the grave keeper's home.
3
明燮 tells me that the chestnut trees in 果川 have flowered four times this year, the fruit having actually matured twice.
4
Smoking and drinking may be bad habits but take away tobacco and makkuli from a Korean farmer or coolie and what have you left him for pleasure and refreshment?
 

23. 11월 23일

1
23th. Tuesday. Pretty.
 
2
The love of outward show and display is a racial weakness of the Korean. Cousin 致昭 tells me that when he called on 黃祐永 some years ago, his (黃's) little straw thatched but leaked so badly that the whole family was huddled in a single room. Yet Whang was dressed in brocaded silk that might have done credit to a prince. High sounding titles minus real power; showy apparels with empty pockets; grandiose phrases without meaning were the characteristics of the last days of the Yi Dynasty. That dynasty is gone for good but the characteristics cling to the race with hateful and contemptible tenacity.
 

24. 11월 24일

1
24th. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Stayed at home. Visited the Poor Students' Boarding House between 5-6 p.m. About 30 of them (苦學生) in a miserable dirty house 4 or 6 to a room! Most of them sell 饅頭 in the night from 7 to 1. One may easily see what a time they must have to get their school education.
3
Certainly this is one of the many worthy enterprizes for which we may well invest our money. But the great money―famine that is causing such an acute suffering to the poor as well as to the rich, makes it practically impossible for these enterprises to be properly supported.
 

25. 11월 25일

1
25th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Very warm. They say the great black spot in the sun is responsible for this warm winter so far. I wonder if the folks in the sun-world has discovered a rich coal mine.
3
Cousin 致昭 tells me that unhulled rice sells―if sold or bought at all―at 4 sen a kin or less than 1/3 of the price which prevailed in 牙山 last Spring. Yet the land tax has risen over nearly 57% of what it was last year. Thousands are reported to be dying in Shantung from famine yet Korea is suffering from low, too low―priced rice. Who is responsible for this unnatural condition of supply and demand?
 

26. 11월 26일

1
26th. Friday. Foggy a.m. Pretty p.m.
 
2
Wrote to Helen.
3
恩姬 sick 6 p.m. went to 明月館 to a Korean supper which the Y.M.C.A. gave in honor of Mr. and Mrs. Kelly of Springfield, Ohio, a fried of Y.M.C.A. work. They are a fine looking old couple. I didn't like the patronizing manner and condescending airs of the American. Well, a rich American, used to the finest things of life's comforts in his country, would be either more or less than human if he didn't unconsciously assume airs of superiority in the presence of Koreans. Mr. K. said he has a dairy farm with 200 jerseys. He astounded us by saying that he had sold sometime ago a jersey bull for65,000.00 or ¥130,000.00! Certainly America is a land of big things.
 

27. 11월 27일

1
27th. Saturday. Pretty.
 
2
In my letter to Helen I insisted once more that she should learn writing slowly distinctly and beautifully. Further I said: "You wrote me sometime ago as if you thought sewing and cooking were too far below the dignity of a refined woman. My dear child, if you were a Princess, it would rather enhance than lower your dignity to know how to sew and cook. One needs not be a sewing woman or a cook because she knew how to sew and cook, any more than she needs be a chemist because she studied chemistry. Don't lose sight of the practical side of education. Education isn't worth a row of pun if it didn't make one more useful than an uneducated person" etc.
 

28. 11월 28일

1
28th. Sunday. Pretty.
 
2
Letter from Allen dated Oct.
3
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. The churches of Korea observe a Thanksgiving Day. The Presbyterians has officially declared that the 24th of Nov. is their day of Thanksgiving. The Southern Methodists follows the American usage of observing the 3rd Thursday of Nov. as the Thanksgiving Day. The Salvation Army has its own day and so on. This is a striking illustration how Christianity in Korea lives and moves and has its being in denominational compartments. Then again the Methodist bodies are so tied to the apron string of mamma missionary that the Korean pastors have no power of initiative and independent actions. In short, the Korean Christianity ought to have one universal Thanksgiving Day of its own.
 

29. 11월 29일

1
29th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
璋善 coughing so last night, I had to take him in arms and let him sleep on my knees from 2 a.m. That seemed to give him relief. The precious child sleeping sweetly on my knees made me forget fatigue or sleepiness.
3
恩姬 sick with mumps―feverish. This unnaturally warm winter seems to be causing much sickness among the children―scarlet fever, mumps, influenza and measles. I am scared by the fact that Cynn lost one of his children yesterday with scarlet fever.
 

30. 11월 30일

1
30th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
No rest last night―璋善 coughed and 恩姬 was fretful.
3
A month ago the Mayor of an Irish town, a McSwainig(?) who had been imprisoned in England fasted himself to death as a protest against the injustice of England. Nearly 14 years or so ago the celebrated Confucian scholar, 崔益鉉 who had been exiled to the island of Tsushima by the Japanese starved himself to death rather than eating the rice of his captors. The vernacular paper of the day before yesterday reported that another Confucian scholar in Wharghai Do, who had been imprisoned for some sort of participation in the independence movement killed himself by fasting 13 days. Are the Irish imitating the Koreans or England imitating Japan?
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

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