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  메인화면 (다빈치!지식놀이터) :: 다빈치! 원문/전문 > 기록물 > 개인기록물 영문  수정

◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 3월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권 4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 3월 1일

1
1st. Monday. Cloudy―snow between 7-10 a.m.
 
2
Today being the 1st Anniversary of the Independence Demonstrations, the authorities seem to have left nothing to chance in the way of prevention measures. The streets are patrolled by mounted gendarmes, auto-ed police and soldiers. All the schools are required to keep the classes going. In the Y.M.C.A. little officers representing seven different offices came in turn from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. to ask questions and to watch over the techers and the boys.
3
7 p.m. entertained Brockman, Yi Kang Hyok to a Y. supper. My intention was to have an informal conference with a few Christian business man in regard to the best method of raising the subscription for the Endowment Fund but so few came that no conference was attempted.
 

2. 3월 2일

1
2nd. Tuesday. Bright. Chilly.
 
2
The first bright day in a week or so. Today being the holiday for 文姬, I took her, 恩姬 and 善姬. Took a tram-car ride to Hong Nung about 3 p.m. 劉高原 went with us. Went to 淸凉寺 and ordered supper. The children seemed to enjoy, the outing immensely. The sight of their innocent enjoyment was in itself a feast to us elder folks. Returned about 6 p.m.
3
The Preaching Band(傳道團) officers had a meeting to discuss the modes of operation. Mr. Yi Sang Chai insisted that the student members of the Band should give from two to four weeks to the work of distributing tracts etc. When some one said that the students who have examinatiors shouldn't be asked to give up their regular school work for doing the work of the Band. Mr. Yi in great heat replied: "This time last year students quit school for months. Can't they stop studying for a few weeks? Is it right for them to study when their fellow students are languishing in prison?" I was surprised to hear the old man talk such a nonsense.
 

3. 3월 3일

1
3rd. Wednesday. Bright and very cold.
 
2
About 2 p.m. Kim Dong Sung brought Mrs. Welch an American magazine writer and traveler to our home to see how Koreans live. I found her a cosmopolitan woman―as she couldn't help to be otherwise, since she is now on her fifth trip around the world. She claims to be a cousin of Admiral Schufelt who first opened Korea to American relation. She was interested in everything she saw―in the warm floor, in the children bright clothes, in the Korean etc. She intimated that the Independence Movement has done a deal of good; that, while the Koreans should never resort to violence or force, they should continue in passive protests against and injustice.
 

4. 3월 4일

1
4th. Thursday. Bright and cold.
 
2
11 a.m. with 明爕 went outside of the 彰義門 to verify the boundaries of our properties according to the official demarcations.
3
There lives an honest man, mason by trade on the right bank of the stream as you go up to 致昌's villa. His little thatched cottage and its surrounding are a picture of neatness. He cut a little foot path on the big slippery rock that lies just where people cross the stream; repairs the little road that runs along the narrow bank; strew dry dirt over the ice paved slope outside of the North Gate to prevent people from falling. His simple life is full of thoughtful kindnesses. Yet he is childless. His neighbors think that is due to some misdeeds he committed in his former existence and that the good "merits" which he has been piling up will help him his next rebirth. That is more consoling than no hope at all.
 

5. 3월 5일

1
5th. Friday. Bright-windy-cold.
 
2
A pretty day but very cold wind. With 劉高原 and 邊壎 walked out to the valley of 城北洞. The good road shaded by tall pines winding around the picturesque old wall is perhaps the best place for a quiet walk near Seoul. We enjoyed the promenade very much. Went into the 彌勤菴, a little Buddist shrine, where we ordered a luncheon. The shrew monk didn't name the price of the rice but we gave him ¥2(00/100) no doubt a good price. The thatched houses seem in better condition than in the villages outside of the North Gate.
3
In one of the rooms two portraits are hung up. The monk told us that the one in yellow royal robe represents 太祖高皇帝 or the the Founder of the Yi Dynasty. The other represents 崔將軍 or Genl. 崔瀅. Food is offered and prayers are made to them by women.
 

6. 3월 6일

1
6th. Saturday. Bright―cold wind.
 
2
Wrote 朴賢壽 of 和川里.
3
Went to 城北洞 with children. Grace seemed to enjoy the outing more than anybody else.
4
On the 1st of March the students of 培材 and 培花 are said to have shouted 萬歲. The authorities seem to make much of it. The papers say that the principals of these offending schools, Henry Appenzeller and Miss Smith have been deprived of their licenses of principalship. I don't know much about Appenzeller who is too young yet, but I am persuaded the Miss Smith lacks the essential qualities for being the head of a school. One of her chief defects is that she wouldn't consult with any Korean as to the best ways of carrying on the work.
 

7. 3월 7일

1
7th. Sunday. Pretty.
 
2
Missing the Church hour I tried to make. The best of the day by taking children to 城北洞 for a walk from 12:30 to 5 p.m. The path winding along the base of the gray old wall with pines growing in the crevices of the wall here there awakens thoughts sad and tender. The famous Chinese couplet comes to mind almost unconsciously: 家在故城下 時登故城下 故城那疇告 今人自來往. Took lunch on the rock in the stream enjoying the music of many waters.
3
The Chinese poetry seems to be well adapted to giving expressions to the sad and solemn sentiment of 懷古心(historical memories) . Take for instance: 山田故國週遭在 潮打空城寂寞回 Again 傷心花問前朝事 惟欠江流去不□ Again 草綠王孫歸去地 花紅宮女□□□. Every word applicable to the scenes in and around the ancient palaces and walls.
 

8. 3월 8일

1
8th. Monday. Gloomy―bright p.m.
 
2
At home. 5 p.m. took a walk to 城北洞 and back―7 p.m.
3
In the hands of the Japanese or of the American what a beautiful place 城北洞 would have become during the last five centuries! The Korean has not only left the natural beauties unimproved but they have actually disfigured them. The only means of living of the villagers are laundry and villa keepership. When they need money they betake themselves to the easiest method―that will cost them no effort or labor―viz.; pawing their little homes. I hear very few of these wretched people own their own houses. Oh the cruelty of the Confucian system of state craft―that has crushed out every noble impulse in the Korean; but has developed parasitic habits to an abnormal degree. Office mania is nothing more or less than parasitism in a fine disguise.
4
Attended 理事會 at Mr. Brockman' home 8-10 p.m.
 

9. 3월 9일

1
9th. Tuesday. Bright.
 
2
At home. The Japanese retort that America, which insists on assimilating everybody who goes there has no right to criticize the Japanese policy of assimilation in Korea. I heard even such sensible man like 山上昌保 saying this. But it must be remembered that nobody is obliged to go to America and that whoever goes there to enjoy the privileges and opportunities of an American citizenship must be willing to accept the condition vix: Assimilation. That's a very different proposition from the Korean's situation. He was by force annexed to an uncongenial neighbor and is by force put thru the will of assimilation. You can no more assimilate a people by force than the big fish could Jonas.
 

10. 3월 10일

1
10th. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Stayed home until 3:30 p.m. Then went to Ryongsan to attend the Army Day celebration at the Army Headquarters. Ryongsan which the Japanese has made during the last ten years, a model settlement was under the Korean regime nothing but a shapeless wilderness of barren hills covered with graves. Theoretically the land in Ryongsan should never have been taken from the grave owners. But the fact is that the Japanese has transformed a hideous graveyard into a beautiful townsite. It is facts and not theories that rule this world. The sooner we Koreans realize this truth, the wiser we shall be.
 

11. 3월 11일

1
11th. Thursday. Cloudy-chilly.
 
2
Left Seoul on the 10 a.m. train for Song Do. Arrived Song Do about 11:45 and went straight to Mr. Wasson's home for lunch. The Board of Director for the Song Do High Common School met after lunch. Members: Revs. Weems, Wasson, Anderson, Ryang, Miss Tinsley and myself, Questions: (1) The Budget for 1920. (2) The election of teachers. (3) Nomination of the pro-tempore Principal during the absence of Mr. Wasson. The Board recommended Dr. Ross of Wonsan for the last named position.
3
Came to our home about 4 p.m. Candler being away the place is quite lonesome.
 

12. 3월 12일

1
12th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Am very much vexed at the thoughtless way in which the servants have trimmed the pine trees. Inspite of my repeated orders these fellows have cut off the branches so that the trees look like sticks with a few green boughs at their tops. When a Korean sees a tree he can think of nothing but his kitchen. He is not happy unless he cuts down the branches or barks off the bark. There seems to be a fatal enmity between a Korean and a good tree. The Koreans may howl for independence until the dooms day, yet they will never get it or never deserve it until they have learned to love beautiful and useful trees.
 

13. 3월 13일

1
13th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Song Do home. Receiving a telegram informing me of the serious sickness of Mr. 李熙稙 the father-in-law of 致旺, I went to the station to catch the 6:20 p.m. train. But that train having been taken off the schedule, I had to return home.
3
A young man 李根洙 now teaching in the Primary School here, wishes to go to Tokyo to get a commercial education. His plan is to work his way through the school―be the work what it may even to the extent of pulling the "rickshaw." I liked his face and his spirit better. So I gave him gladly what he asked for viz.:¥50.00 to start him on his way.
 

14. 3월 14일

1
14th. Sunday. Pretty.
 
2
Worshipped at 北部禮拜堂. Han Do Su preached a good sermon―hitting hard on the growing evil of divorce among the youngmen. Han is a little bombastic in his delivery, yet he is a forceful speaker. If he keeps on like that, he will become a fine orator when he comes back from America―where he is expecting to go to get an suitable education.
3
While divorce is a great evil working hardships on innocent women and often on more innocent children. The greater evil of early marriage ought to be first done away with. The old people of Korea seem to be possessed with the demon of early marriage. They are so selfish about their own pleasure that they don't care anything for the future domestic peace of their children. Yet these old people want to see Korea independent!
 

15. 3월 15일

1
15th. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
Left Song Do by the 7:20 a.m. train. Arrived Seoul about 10:30. Called on Mr. 宮岡恒次郞 at the Chosen Hotel. Had a pleasant chat about the ancient days of 40 years ago.
3
The authorities left no stone unturned to prevent any demonstration on the 1st March, the anniversary of the birthday of the Korean Independence Movement. There was a little demonstration in 培材 School and 培花 School. Had the police passed by the incident, nobody would have been wiser. But by torturing the little boys in 培材 classrooms by dismissing the Principals; by arresting and imprisoning the girls of the Boarding House of 培花 School, the authorities have helped the agitators to commemorate the Anniversary better than they could have done themselves!
 

16. 3월 16일

1
16th. Tuesday. Pretty.
 
2
At home. With Grace恩姬 and 劉高原 took walk to 城北洞.
3
8 p.m. went to Dr. Avison's home to attend a meeting of the Board of Driectors of the Chosen Christian College. Mr. Lucas presented his scheme of an Industrial Department in the College. It was a carefully thoughtout plan. But the general drift of the opinion seemed to be against establishing such a department, lest it might transform the College into a trade-school.
4
Dr. Avison expects to go to America soon in the interest of the Hospital and the College.
 

17. 3월 17일

1
17th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
9:30 a.m. Dr. Avison, Revs. Blair, Billings and Goons, Mr. Cynn and I met at Y.M.C.A. to discuss the ways and means of securing the co―operation of the Korean public in the affairs of the Chosen Christian Coll. The first thing decided on was the publication of a College Bulletin 3 or 4 times a year to inform the churches and the public of the actual condition and progress of the work. I recommended that all reasonable efforts be made to train Korean young men for the professorships of the College! As long as the faculty is of necessity made of foreigners and Japanese the Koreans will always look upon the College as an alien institution.
 

18. 3월 18일

1
18th. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
Lunch at Y.M.C.A. In the afternoon called on 山縣 brothers. Mr. 山縣悌三郞 told me that in the C.C.C. catalogue, his position, an Associate Professor, has been translated 助敎授 or sub―teacher; that he had called the attention of Dr. Avison to this derogatory title but that the Dorctor wouldn't consent to change the character 助 to 淮 which he (Mr. Yamagata) prefers; that Dr. Avison seems to dislike any show of independent spirit favoring those only tho bow their heads before him. At the request of Mr. 山縣 I promised to call Dr. A's attention to the matter.
3
The officers of the Preaching Band met at Y. at 7:30 p.m. to hear the reports of the Committee of arrangements etc.
 

19. 3월 19일

1
19th. Friday. Pretty warm.
 
2
Lunch at Y.M.C.A. Heard that someone had given ¥500,00 to the Preaching Band Fund! I didn't care to ask who he was; but whoever he may be, he must be very far sighted man.
3
This morning I asked Mr. Koons to call the attention of Dr. Avison to the mistranslation of which Mr. 山縣悌三郞 complained yesterday. Mr. K. agreed with me that it's needless and unwise to hurt the feeling of a teacher with such a trivial matter.
4
In the afternoon took children to 城北洞 for a walk. The weather was warm, the road dusty and we were all tired. The Spring has come sure enough.
 

20. 3월 20일

1
20th. Saturday. Cloudy.
 
2
A little rain in the early morning. The plentiful snow last winter made the farmer's heart glad; but the moon rising too far toward the South on the 15th day of the 1st month (according to the Lunar Calendar) gives uneasiness to the old farming experts. My uncle himself thinks that this year's crops will be insatisfactory.
3
7:30 p.m. the directors and members of the Preaching Band met to talk about the program of the Evangelistic campaign. The police having forbidden a procession, Mr. 李商在 proposed to make a big demonstration with band and automobiles permit or no permit. Pastor Kim and I and a few others succeeded in persuading the meeting to follow the wiser and saner course of not having the procession until a permit was secured. A committee of two was appointed to negotiate with the higher police authorities for official permit for procession etc.
 

21. 3월 21일

1
21st. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Called on 山縣五十雄 about 9 a.m. Asked him to persuade the authorities to let the Preaching Band have the procession. I said: Restlessness is the fashion of the world today. This spirit is venting itself in various ways in different countries. In Japan the popular restlessness has found its voice in universal suffrage movement. In Korea it seeks its channel of expression in independent movement. Now if the authorities stop this means of ventilation, they ought to guide the new spirit to find a safer outlet. Why not encourage the Korean young men to devote their energe to religious expansion? Mr. Y. agreed with me and regretted that the police is too narrow minded etc.
 

22. 3월 22일

1
22nd. Monday. Fine showers all day long.
 
2
Lunch at Y. 8 p.m. went to Severance Med. Coll. Chapel to hear Dr. Hardlicker, an American anthropologist, on the origin of the Oriental races. Among other things he said: (1) The natural history of man extends as far back as 350 thousand years ago. (2) The human races first peopled the Western half of Europe from whence the spread to the East and South. (3) No discovery has been made in the Continents of Asia and of America which tends to prove the existence of man further back than 20 thousand years ago. (4) The yellow brown race which people the Far East belonged to the white race. (5) The Korean is neither Japanese nor Chinese. He belongs to the Tartar branch. The distinguishing mark of the Korean is the brown beard where as black beard is general among the J. and the Chinese.
3
Attended 女子高普卒業式 at 2 p.m. The Ceremony all neat and orderly but so dry and cold, and mechanical.
 

23. 3월 23일

1
23rd. Tuesday. Gloomy-chilly.
 
2
Lunch at Y.M.C.A. Dr. Hardlicker's remarks continued. (6) The Ainu race is a later emigration to the East from the common white race in Europe. (7) The Ainu race was conquered by the yellow brown people who peopled central Japan from Korea. The Ainu is a strong and fine race and their mixture with the yellow brown race of Japan have been beneficial to the Japanese. By the way he said that the Korean dress is ridiculous and that he hoped that the Koreans would get rid of it as soon as possible―a funny thing for a scientist to say. For to the eyes of a scientist no costume should be otherwise than interesting. Moreover the Korean dress is certainly far less ridiculous than the fashionable dress of the European woman. If the Ainu was such a fine race how is it that it didn't surviving?
 

24. 3월 24일

1
24th. Wednesday. Gloomy, chilly. (TABLE)
 
2
==田 or Dry field :==55,900 餘町步==
3
==畓 or Paddy fields :==43,100 餘町步==
4
==垈 or House lots :==3,800 餘町步==
5
==池沼 and 雜種地 :==6,500 餘町步 Total 909,300==
 
6
來信 : A card from 致旺
7
發信 : Wrote 禹仁亨 about the News of 白雲◉
8
Raindrops now and then. Received a card from a young man in Tokyo asking me to send him ¥30.00 a month for 5 years! 崔東舜 is his name and an entire stranger to me. What a cheek! 4 p.m. went to the Bankers' Club to attend the tea given by the two Ys' of the town to Messrs. Jorgensen Saito and Hatfield all from Tokyo on their way to China.
9
The 驛屯土 or state lands present area―as follows.
10
小作人員 or tenants (大正七年 1918末, 257,000 餘人
11
貸付料 or rent ¥1,860,000.00 or average per person ¥7.10 or more.
 

25. 3월 25일

1
25th. Thursday. Pretty. chilly.
 
2
Sent 郭漢永 to 烏山 to find out the whereaboutis of 白雲◉. The date on which Mr. 白 was expected to be back being past and hearing nothing of or from him I feel very uneasy. I wonder if he is laid up somewhere with a bad cold. What makes me most anxious is that for the past three weeks he has been going about from one place to another to dispose of the rice; that he might have carelessly carried a large sum of money on his body―or, which is the same thing, suspected to the danger of being robbed or kidnapped or even worse.
 

26. 3월 26일

1
26th. Friday. Dull-chilly.
 
2
This morning 金相卨 called on me and gave me some information about the origin and motive of the new relligious oganization called 靑林敎. He said: 崔濟愚, the Founder of the Tong Hark Sect. prophecied 61 years ago that one of his followers would start a 靑林 branch of his religion(?) ; that Baron 李根澔 attempted to organize a 靑林三聖無極敎, a religion that would embrace all the religions know in the world; that Baron Yi, interviews with Genl. 宇都宮, tried to convince the Japanese Commander that such a conglomerate system would attract all the restless spirits in the Korea thus diverting them from political agitations; that he (金相卨) told Baron Yi that since a religion was too mixed to be of any good. On the last ground 金 has separated from Yi and established the 靑林敎 with a 韓東洙 for 敎主. 金 thinks he will be able to form an organization that will bring in all the disaffected Koreans is Korea and in Manchuria into a "net," for some future national movement.
3
郭漢永 returned reporting that 白雲◉ was found safe and sound in 牙山. Thank Good!
 

27. 3월 27일

1
27th. Saturday. Pretty.
 
2
2 p.m. went to 石橋 Church to give a talk to the children of the Primary School.
3
7 p.m. with 1st cousin went to the new restaurant 金剛園 to attend the banquet given by the promoters of 靑林敎 to celebrate its formal organization. I found the large room filled with guests busy with cigarette-smoking. I could not stand the smoke not only but also I didn't like the corwd. So I left the room after having paid my respect to the host―金相卨.
4
The temperance society had a meeting in Y.―what a contrast between the Y.M.C.A. people and the 靑林敎 crowds!
 

28. 3월 28일

1
28th. Sunday. Bright.
 
2
Laid up with a bad cold and worse cough. The awful cigarette smoke which I had to inhale for a few minutes in the restaurant last evening is the main cause of this convulsive cough.
3
My cousin told me this afternoon that he had stayed through the banquet last night; that there were sake and "Kisaing,"; the 敎主 or the Head of the Sect drank like a whale and behaved like a hog.
4
The other night the Korean Buddist Association held a meeting in 團成社 at which speakers magnified the glories and benefits of Buddism. As soon as the speeches were over a fellow jumped on the platform and gave three "Manseis" for the Republic of Korea. The big crowd joined this fun and shouted 萬歲 with all their might!
 

29. 3월 29일

1
29th. Monday. Dull Chilly.
 
2
Stayed in bed. Tonight 申鴻求 whom I have asked to teach Mary some Chinese, told me that the man who persuaded Baron 李根澔 to organize the 三聖無極敎 or the Conglomerated Religion is 李鳴來. At first they wanted to name the new religion(?) 靑林三聖無極敎. Thus including the 東學 sect in the movement. But 金相卨 whom Baron 李 used as interpreter in his interviews with the Japanese commander forstalled the Yi's by starting the 靑林 sect as a distinct organization. 申 said that the main object of the Japanese in encouraging these so called religious sects is to turn the Koreans away from the Christian churches. Of course that's an open secret.
 

30. 3월 30일

1
30th. Tuesday. Cloudy.
 
2
Cold and cough still bad. Kept in bed. 金東浩 (a notorious character to whom I wouldn't confide a nickel) called and volunteered the information that a band of 1,000 assassins are on their way to Seoul from the West and the North; that they are determined to kill the Koreans who hold the magistrates' offices in the Province; that the marked man; that the Senate of America had voted for the independence of Korea; that some great events are soon to happen in Korea.
3
The Japanese reverses in Siberia; the anti-Japanese tide in China; the tardiness and half heartedness of the reforms in Korea; the famine and the high cost of living; the evils of spyism;―all these added to the Koreans' natural love of politics, make every Korean restless, uneasy and unsettled.
 

31. 3월 31일

1
31st. Wednesday. Cloudy.
 
2
Cold a little better. Rain drops coming and going.
3
Where our intellect or reason ends there our faith begins or should begin. The problems which our finite mind can never solve this side of eternity should be assigned to the realm of faith. We may wind our watch to a certain limit but the moment we pass that limit the watch spring will snap. Our mind can go to certain extent in the way of explaining the mystries of life. But if we insist on going further our mind snaps―we go crazy. What good will a watch do to fume and fret that it wasn't made to be wound to go on for ever?
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