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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 4월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권 5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 4월 1일

1
1st. Thursday. Showers.
 
2
For a whole week―weather cloudy with intermittent showers. Going to be a wet Spring?
3
Went to Y. about 3 p.m. Felt weak. 7 p.m. went to Station to see Dr. Schoffield off. A few foreigners and a number of Koreans―young men mostly―kept him busy to the last minutes. I gave him a little souvenir with a note saying: "You are leaving Seoul without regret and our love. Wherever you go, dear Doctor, rest assured that your name will live long in the grateful memory of the Korean people―especially of the young for the fearless and tireless efforts which you have made to promote the cause of justice and humanity in this agitated Peninsula. May God be with you till we meet again." Not a single Japanese to bid Dr. S. good-bye!
 

2. 4월 2일

1
2nd. Friday. Rain.
 
2
Rain all day long. Lunch at Y. Hear that all the schools in the city are so crowded with applicants that hundreds of them are turned away for want of accommodations. A good sign; a significant fact.
3
The Primary School authorities have to resort to the novel plan of selecting the pupils by means of examination,―making them count or asking them their ages, addresses, their father's names etc. This sudden influx of scholars being an unexpected phenomenon, we can't blame the authorities for lack of sufficient accommodations.
 

3. 4월 3일

1
3rd. Saturday. Gloomy, showery.
 
2
Feel unwell. Stayed at home.
3
A little pamphlet issued by the Materialists Association, in America, gives some intereting statements. One of them is: "We must permit nothing, not even God Himself, to come between us and reason." I say: Nor should we permit anything, even Reason itself come between us, our Faith, and God. Where Reason ends Faith begins. These two great faculties should be complementary and not contradictory, to each other. Each should be supreme in its own sphere, just as the governments of England and Japan are supreme with in their respective countries. That doesn't prevent them from cooprating in a defensive and offensive alliance.
 

4. 4월 4일

1
4th. Sunday. Shower a.m. Sunshine p.m.
 
2
明姬 has been sick of cough and fever for the last five days. My cough still bad. Stayed at home. Sunshine in the afternoon―a welcome change!
3
The Materialists Association pamphlet further says: "Science has progressed majestically during the last century, but it has not discovered a single proof of a God of a heaven or hill." What science has discovered in the wonders of heaven and earth―or in the infinite universe, are in themselves proop enough of a God. The great and wanton war of 1914-18, has taught us that science divorced (continued next page)
 

5. 4월 5일

1
5th. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
明姬 still sick.
3
from religion is in itself a hell. Religion alone and not science, can convert a sinners' heart and home into a heaven. No wonder that science, which can't change a bigoted soul into a Christian Paul, hasn't been able to find a heaven.
4
Reverently I may say: If there were no God, we must invent one. This is actually what has happened in the history of mankind in the absence of the knowledge of the One True God, the Creator of the Infinite Universe, innumerable gods have been invented.
 

6. 4월 6일

1
6th. Tuesday. Pretty.
 
2
No rest last night. Three children sick at the same time!
3
When a little girl was asked to state the difference between an animal and a man, this was her answer: "An animal is an imperfect beast, and a man is a perfect beast." Certainly a man is a perfect beast, all right. What makes him such? Sin. What is sin? Nothing but the abuse or pervertion of pervertion of God given appetites and passions which are all innocent in themselves. What is intemperance? The perverse use of the appetite for a stimulant. (To be continued next page)
 

7. 4월 7일

1
7th. Wednesday. Pretty.
 
2
Children sick still.
3
What is licentiousness? The abuse of the instinctive love of the fair or opposite sex. What is stealing? The pervertion of the passion for possession. What is idolatry? The pervertion of the instinct of worship. In short, we are virtuous when conscience and reason keep appetites and passions within their legitimate bounds, while we become sinful when appetites and passions get mastery over conscience and reason, It looks easy enough to be virtuous!!! (To be continued next page.)
 

8. 4월 8일

1
8th. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
Children sick still.
3
Then why aren't we virtuous? Because own appetites and passions are often so overwhelmingly strong that reason, conscience, law, religion, lectures, sermons are simply powerless against them. Indeed my own experience and that of others testify that it is oftener the fear of man than the fear of God that barely keeps us from committing actual sins. That's shameful but it is a solemn fact. Hence the importance of building up an intelligent, wholesome and strong public opinion.
 

9. 4월 9일

1
9th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
No rest last night. Wife sick in addition to the night-long restless and suffering of the little children.
3
Fletcher Brockman being expected to be in Seoul on the 14th to 16th inst. The two Ys in the town are arranging a program for him. The Japanese desire to give a reception at the Chosen Hotel by the citizens of Seoul. The central Y.M.C.A. is to invite from 20 to 30 Koreans to the function. In the matter of the invitation cards I suggested two things 1st she quality of the cards shouldn't noticeably finer than that of the cards used by the Jap. Y. lest we might be accused of being extravagant. 2d. Plain cards and not gilt edged ones be used. But Mr. Cynn insisted that the gilt edged cards should be used because appearance makes difference in the mind of the invited. Others supported Cynn. The love of appearance and grand phrases is a sad defect in the make up of the Korean character.
 

10. 4월 10일

1
10th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
恩姬 and 明姬 still cough. So does little baby. 恩姬 complains of ear ache. Dr. 元德常 was called in who found nothing wrong in the ear or in the throat of 恩姬. Thank God for that.
3
Whether a little child in Korea suffers from influenza or a great nation writhes in the life and death struggle of civil commotions; all the plagues, political, physical, moral and economic, that are cursing the entire world today owe their origin, directly or indirectly to the selfishness and pride of the dethroned Kaiser. What a gigantic illustration of the truth that a sinner.
 

11. 4월 11일

1
11th. Sunday. Hazy, warm.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. Mr. 洪秉璇 gave fine and forcible talk on Christ being the real foundation of the reconstruction which is the talk the world over.
3
Koo Ja Ok, the Social Secretary of the Korean Y. tells me that the 理事's or Directors of the Central Y. complain that they are not treated with consideration enough. I know many of these Directors are so deeply interested in the Y.M.C.A. that they don't pay even the petty sum of ¥3.00 per annum for their membership. If Koreans were as anxious to help others as they are to be helped they would not have been reduced to their present plight.
 

12. 4월 12일

1
12th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Since a man will not see his own faults it is a wise provision of Nature to make others watch and see and criticize them. The English (some of them at least) criticize the Japs' doings in Korea while the Japs grow eloquent when they talk about the wrongs of the Irish.
3
Therefore inconsistency is not altogether a vice. But for inconsistency nobody would have the cheek to throw the first stone at another. Yet without these throwing first stones at each other, vice and meanness in individuals and nations would have had no cheeks whatsoever. If consistency is a jewel, inconsistency is a necessity.
 

13. 4월 13일

1
13th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
From the Japan Advertiser I learn that in the night of the 4th inst. the Japanese troops in Vladivostock took a forcible possession of the city by a coup; that this has famed the anti-Japanese sentiment of the Russian to a white heat degree; that this is one of the biggest errors that the militaristic party of Japan has ever committed.
3
I wonder what the Japanese mean to do. They are focussing on themselves the hatred of everybody. Has the uninterrupted success of the last 60 years blinded the Japaness? Do they think they can play the part of the fallen Kaiser without his defeat?
 

14. 4월 14일

1
14th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Went to the South Gate Station at 6 a.m. to meet Mr. Fletcher S. Brockman from China. Met his brother, Frank B, who told me that his brother had gotten in last night. So we, Mr. Cynn and I, went to the home of Mr. F.M.B. to have an interview with the honored guest. I was glad indeed to see him for I had last seen him in Tokyo in 1907.
3
Lunch at the official residence of Dr. 水野公Administrative Chief 政務總監, who entertained Mr. F.S.B.
4
Tea at the Chosen Hotel given by the leading(?) citizens, Japanese and Korean, of Seoul.
 

15. 4월 15일

1
15th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
Breakfast at F.M.B.'s to meet Mr. F.S.B.
3
About 11 a.m. with the B. brothers, Messrs. Yi Sang Chai and Cynn, called on Vis-Count Min Pyong Suk, who had invited Mr. F.S.B. When I told Mr. Min that he, as well as some of the prominent business men in Seoul, should lay themselves out to show courtesies to distinguished foreign visitors instead of letting the Japanese monopolize the business of welcoming outsiders, he said: "You know we couldn't do that because the Japanese would not tolerate it. This freedom of receiving a foreign visitor this morning I owe to the Mansei people."
4
I entertained F.S.B. to a tea at the 沈's villa in 城北洞 between 2:30 abd 5 p.m. At 8 p.m. F.S.B. addressed an immense crowd on Three Kinds of Freedom.
 

16. 4월 16일

1
16th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
12 M. lunch at Mr. Kubo 沈's home, the Chief of the S. Manchurian R.R. Bureau in Korea. He seems to be a nice man. Of course the lunch was given in honor of Mr. F.S.B.
3
Accepting an invitation of Viscount Min Pyong Suk, we, the B. brothers, Messrs. Yi Sang Chai and Cynn and I, went to Mr. M.'s villa at 荒花峰 at 3:30 p.m. Mr. 尹德榮 and 閔泳瓚 were present. We were treated to a Korean refreshment. From there to the tea given by Mrs. Miller, the wife of the American Consul.
4
I told Mr. F.S.B. the difficulty of raising ¥50,000.00 from among the Koreans and asked him if he could get the Internat. Committee to offer a dollar for dollar condition. I would start the list with ¥10,000.00. Mr. F.S.B. promised eh would think of the matter. He thought he might persuade Baron Saito to give ¥10,000.00
 

17. 4월 17일

1
17th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Went to the South Gate Station to see Mr. F.S. Brockman off per 9:50 a.m. train.
3
At 3 p.m. entertained about 10 former students of the Anglo-Korean School to a tea. Most of them are studying in the Chosen Christian Coll.
4
It is a very fashionable thing to anti-Japanese nowadays. However to hate an alien is not in itself a merit or a virtue. Any dog or chicken may do that. We must raise our intellectual and economic standard at least as high as that of the Japanese before we can afford to hate them. As long as we run to the Japanese shop to buy such little things like a box of matches or a toy, mere hatred will hurt rather than help us.
 

18. 4월 18일

1
18th. Sunday. Cloudy, warm.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church.
3
At 1 p.m. took lunch at Mr. Brockman's to meet Mr. Wilcox from California. He is a great friend of Mr. Eddy. I repeated to him what I told Mr. F.S.B. about the endowment Fund for the Central Y. Mr. Wilcox suggested that some American might be persuaded to give money to build a dormitory on condition that Koreans give ¥50,000.00.
4
Mr. W. said in passing that what he saw the Japanese doing in Cal. had made him more or less an anti-Japanese, but that what he has learned about the Japanese in Manchuria and Korea has only confusion to his former opinion in regard to them.
 

19. 4월 19일

1
19th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
In the morning went to Y.M.C.A. at the request of Mr. F.M. B. to take a picture with Mr. Wilcox.
3
Supper at 明月館支店 in honor of 白南薰 and 崔八龍. The former is the Genl. Secretary of the Korean Y.M.C.A. in Tokyo while the latter is herofied for having served a term in a Tokyo preson for having played a part in the independance agitations. Mr. 白 criticized the Directors of the Tokyo Korean Y. for having ever elected a Japanese, Dr. Notabe,―a Director. He also thought it strang that Japanese should have been elected honorary Directors for the Seoul Y.M.C.A. The most ugly thing I saw was the anti-Japanese attitude of Mr. Cynn in agreeing in everything that Mr. Paik said on these subjects―giving me the impression that Cynn is an unscrupulous politician. He seemed to forget completely what he did with 培材學堂 to worm himself into the good graces of the Japanese.
 

20. 4월 20일

1
20th. Tuesday. Beautiful. Windy.
 
2
At 2 p.m. went to the silk filature factory outside of the East Gate to attend the General Meeting of the Shareholders of the Chosen Filature Co. A little over 30 persons present. What interested me most is the neatness and orderliness the factory is kept. A hundred female workers at work. A well kept dormitory houses and feeds them. The board ¥ per month at present.
3
The quality of the silk thread produced here is said to have a good reputation with the American exporters in Yokohama. This filature is entirely run by the Koreans. I hope the enterprise will prove a success.
 

21. 4월 21일

1
21st. Wednesday. Beautiful. Windy.
 
2
Prices are falling. Rice which was sold a few days ago at 90 sen or more is sold today at 70 sen or more per "toi." Imported cotten pieces are having a slump. A panic in money market is feared.
3
About 1 p.m. with 劉高原 and 恩姬 went to 城北洞 for a walk. Took lunch by the side of the stream. The fine weather neither cold nor hot; the flowers yellow, pink, red with the background of green pines and gray hills; the perfect stillness intensified by the crystal stream making music as it meanders over rocks and thru meadows―all this so restful and refreshing.
4
I have an unconquerable dislike to visit the zoo in the palace or the Namsan Park. The very sight makes me sick at heart.
 

22. 4월 22일

1
22nd. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
郭漢永 left for 任實.
3
Left Seoul per 10 a.m. train for Song Do with 劉高原 and 恩姬. Arrived Song Do Home near 12. Found all well and the place at its best of Spring attire. Thank God.
4
Felt so worn out that I put the whole afternoon into a nap―but no refreshment.
5
At the end of one year after the death of the Ex-Emperor, many a people intended to put on black hat. But the official attempt of the Japanese to make the people put away white hats had the contrary effect of making them to keep the mourning hats on. In the matters of sentiment―where no force can be used―the people simply will not do what the Japanese authorities want them do. The best way for Japan to hinder Christianity in Korea would be to show official encouragement―and vice versa.
 

23. 4월 23일

1
23rd. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Feel so tried all day long. Called on Dr. Reid at his office. He told me that he had been busy preparing a pamphlet on the Seven Cardinal Doctrines of Christianity. In his chapter on Atonement he has this strange statement: Satan, for rebellion against God was exiled bound in chain to eternal darkness with his followers. This made vacant many seats in heaven. God, in order to fill up these vacant seats created men in His image and placed them in probation etc. This kind of theological jargon will never interest the Korean young men of today. I believe the Bible is the best pamphlet to study Christianity in. Trying to peer mysteries of religion in clear cut dogmatic terms destroys the beauties of these mysteries.
 

24. 4월 24일

1
24th. Saturday. Cloudy.
 
2
Up early. Left Song Do per 7:50 a.m. train for Seoul.
3
Cloudy but no rain. Farmers are waiting for rain anxiously. On a rock lying in the bed of a small stream back of our Song Do property, some fellow―or a bunch of fools―cut the Chinese verse describing a famous waterfall: 飛流直下三千尺. Of course the original was a typical Chinese exaggeration. But exaggeration gone to craziness itself can not apply that verse to the little fall of about a foot which the stream makes in summer in running over the rock in question. The Koreans have suffered much by applying high sounding Chinese names and phrases to little things. Example the Ex-Emperor calling himself 大皇帝 or Grand Emperor!
 

25. 4월 25일

1
25th. Sunday. Beautiful. A shower in p.m.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋禮拜堂 as usual. I spoke. On a beautiful Spring day like this the benches full with young men―who prefer more or less dry talk on religious theme to the seductive sights and sounds in places of amusement is certainly as remarkable phenomenon. Oh for a Whitfield or a Moody just at this juncture!
3
Self control keeping the presence of mind in time of danger of excitement of any kind―subjecting emotions to the control of reason and cool will―self mastery is most needed in times like this for individuals and nations. But this great virtue or quality is a product of long and conscientious discipline.
 

26. 4월 26일

1
26th. Monday. Beautiful. Cool.
 
2
Lunch at Y. 8 p.m. went to the An Dong 安洞 Church to speak under the auspices of the Evangelistic Band. The room was fairly crowded but the people sitting flat on the floor made the speaking seem harder than on Two Kinds of Life as portrayed in the 14th Chapter of Mathew Herod, representing selfishness and Christ embodying altruism. This text is capable of a splendid and profitable development.
3
I am too consistent to be a good preacher.
 

27. 4월 27일

1
27th. Tuesday. Beautiful. (TABLE)
 
2
==27,026 Households. Pop. Jap. :==67,644==
3
==Kor. :==178,907==
4
==Chi. :==1,704==
5
==Foreign. :==368==
6
==Total :==248,623==
 
7
Lunch at Y. The population of Seoul, at the end of 1919, is reported as follow.
8
A fool signing himself a lover of justice(?) in comparing the British brutality at Armitsar with the Japanese cruelty at Suwon said in today's Seoul Press: "As compared with this atrocity (killing 500 Indians by machine guns) the Suwon incident in which less than 30 dirty, lawbreaking, rebellious Koreans guilty of murder were killed by your soldiers was a mild affair." Both incidents should have been condemmed if the writer were a real lover of justice. He must be a dirty Indian or a German of dirty-Baljan type.
 

28. 4월 28일

1
28th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
來信 From 致昌.
3
Through the introduction of Mr. F.M.B. called on Mr. and Mrs. Plimpton of New York at the Chosen Hotel and took luncheon with them. Found Mrs. P. a very, handsome woman and her husband a through typical American business man mellowed by age and religion. He is interested in education and publication.
4
Today the wedding ceremonies of Prince Yi Kun and Princess Nashimoto are celebrated in Tokyo. The Japanese Government has taken this opportunity to show its magnanimity by releasing hundreds of the political or mansei prisoners throughout Korea. Something like 2,000 persons are to be benefited by this pardon. Went to West Gate Tramway Station to meet some of the released men whom I know.
 

29. 4월 29일

1
29th. Thursday. Beautiful.
 
2
After breakfast, mother, wife and children including our new born baby 璋善, and I went to 城北洞 to enjoy the peach blossoms at their best. Took lunch under the flowers. Returned home about 5:30 p.m. very tired.
3
The Koreans seem to think and act as if patriotism covers a multitude of sins. After all patriotism is an enlarged selfishness. Like any other virtue it may be abused―thus defeating the very purpose or essence of patriotism viz.: the real happiness of the people. Economic and moral independence and self-reliance are of greater importance to the Korean than mere political independence. Without the former, the latter would be practically useless.
 

30. 4월 30일

1
30th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
There are now three daily papers run by the Koreans in the city: The Dong-A-Il-Po of the Independence type; the Sisa Sin Mun of the assimilation policy; the Chosen Il-Po representing the moderate opinion. Among the Korean readers the first named is the most popular. The faults common to all these Korean papers is the everlasting 論說 or argumentative articles to the exclusion of news. Another paper is being planned to be published in Tokyo. The Pan Do Sin Mun is starting a stock company with the capitalization of ¥2,000,000(00/100) . A couple of hopefuls pester me to act as a promoter for a stock company capitalized at ¥500,000.00 to establish a paper in An Dong. They ignore the fact that the Koreans will not and can not support so many dailies.
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

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