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◈ 윤치호일기 (1920년) ◈

◇ 12월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권  6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권 윤치호

1. 12월 1일

1
1st. Wednesday. Beautiful. 33℉. 8 a.m.
 
2
No rest last night. 璋善 fretful and 恩姬 feverish. Worse than either the temper and tongue of wife unbearably vicious. For the sake of the precious little children I bear with this woman's wickedness patiently but how long, Oh God!
3
The expenses of U.S. Government for 128 years(1789-1916) were36,034,145,335.23. Add to this the sum of54,850,167,473.58, the expenses of Wilson's second term(1914-1920) , you have the grand total of90,884,312,808.81. What interests me most is the fact that the white man has drawn this immense treasure and more from identically the same territory in a century or two which used to be nothing better than a hunting ground for the redman for thousands of years.
 

2. 12월 2일

1
2nd. Thursday. Little rain afternoon.
 
2
恩姬 still sick.
3
The Japanese word "Namaiki" has so corresponding term in English or in Korean so far as I know. A namaiki is a fellow who puts on airs or manners which belong to his superiors. He is a namaiki who claims priviledge or considerations to which he has no right. Examples: Cho Nam Bok was helped by the International Committee of New York to get through the Y.M.C.A. training school Springfield, Mass. some years ago. Then he demanded that he should be treated exactly like an American―even including furlough every seventh year―in case he was sent back to Korea as a secretary. Dr. Kim, a brother of Rev. Kim Yu Soon, whom the Southern Methodist Church of America helped to educate, and whom the Board of Missions tried to send out last year, acted pretty much like Cho Nam Bok. Now I call these fellows "namaikis." Merely to have been educated in America doesn't make a Korean an American. The world of commonsense will not, simply will not, recognize such a claim. Sorry, namaikism is a ruling weakness of Korean young men.
 

3. 12월 3일

1
3rd. Friday. Pale.
 
2
恩姬 a little better. At the request of Mr. Niwa I called on Baron □村 at 天眞樓. He is a member of the House of Peers. He wanted to hear the opinion of a Korean concerning the Japanese regime.
 

4. 12월 4일

1
4th. Saturday. Gloomy. Chilly.
 
2
恩姬 still sick. Dr. Jan. Herben, a noted writer of Czecho-Slovakia says that a new state, in order to gain admission into the society of old states, must prove to their satisfaction that "its culture entitles it to become a lawful member" and that "it can command economically and otherwise, the respect a sovereign state is entitled to." "The old states make inquiries as to whether the new born child has the capacity of becoming a member on equal terms and especially whether it does not bring with it the germs of future disturbance. According to Dr. Herben his country meets all these conditions to the satisfaction of all parties. What most interests me is the question: Can we Koreans answer these inquiries as satisfactorily? Culturally are we equal to our neighbors? Economically―what have we to show? Left to ourselves shall we be able to build railways, exploit mines, develop industries and commerce in a way and to a degree that would command the respect of the old states? The independence agitators say "Yes." Do facts sustain them?
 

5. 12월 5일

1
5th. Sunday. Gloomy. Chilly.
 
2
恩姬 still sick. The precious child is so emaciated and weakened by the sickness that she is hardly able turn herself about in the bed.
 

6. 12월 6일

1
6th. Monday. Cloudy.
 
2
恩姬 still sick.
3
Under the auspices of the 經濟會 I spoke to a full audience on "Dangerous Thoughts Old and New." I warned the young men not to fool with Bolshevism giving 3 reasons for it. 1st. We, being economically weak beyond comparison would be reduced to starvation in no time should Bolshevism get the upper hand among us. 2nd. Russia having a tremendously big country and a great warlike population have succeeded, so far and so long in keeping the strong nations out of its borders. But we shall be crushed out by our neighbors the moment we get into the chaotic condition which Bolshevism is sure to land us in. 3rd. Bolshevism or extreme socialism in being tried out by Russia in fire and blood. If it is good England, France, Japan will all adopt it. Let us Koreans, wait until then. In the meantime let us learn and improve our economic conditions by industry and thrift. I was surprised to hear some fellows say No! No! when I spoke against Bolshevism.
 

7. 12월 7일

1
7th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
11-12 went to the 宗橋 Church to interpret for Mr. Steward who addressed the newly organized Women's Missionary Society of the Korea Conference. Mr. Steward is a fine speaker but his far fetched illustrations and moralizing and rhetorical flourishes are hard to be translated.
 

8. 12월 8일

1
8th. Wednesday. Beautiful 22℉.
 
2
11-12 interpreted for Mr. Steward at the 宗橋 Church. 7 p.m. went to the church again to interpret for Bishop Welch.
3
These meetings or societies are great educative agencies for the Korean women. Yet as these agencies are organized and directed by foreigners, they lack naturalness and hence genuineness. The Korean members seem to act and talk under certain artificial constraint. Why is this so? May be explained thus: 1. The Korean women not having thoroughly mastered the methods newly imported from America feel awkward in them. 2. The manners and language of the foreigners don't fit in with those of the Koreans as a drop of oil with another drop of oil. 3. The difference of racial traits and of standards of living seem to have built an impassable wall between the Korean and the foreigner. Practically there is no social intercourse between them. There are no exchange of social calls. Missionaries have given and are giving much invaluable service to the Korean people, but one always feels that
4
"Not what we give but what we share
5
For the gift without the giver is bare"
6
The social aloofness is one of the (natural) mistakes of a missionary which nullify his usefulness, to the extent of 50 per cent.
 

9. 12월 9일

1
9th. Thursday. Very cold. Bright.
 
2
Letter and Bill to 致旺.
3
Mailed a letter and a bill of exchange for £240 to 致旺. Cost ¥1,672.60 plus fee 50 sen.
 

10. 12월 10일

1
10th. Friday. Pale.
 
2
First snow of the winter early morning.
3
About 3 p.m. called on Mr. 山懸悌三郞. He told me that in spite of his disinterested service for the Anglo-Korean School (松都高譜) , 李萬珪 suborned the boys of the advanced class to strike with the object of dismissing him (山懸) and of supplying his place with a Korean; that by adopting a firm attitude, on the part of Mr. Cram, the Acting Principal, the boys were made to apologize to 山懸 for their rude behavior; and that there are two factions in the school, Yi Man Kyu being the ruling spirit of the anti-J. faction etc.
4
Certainly it would be folly either for the teachers or the boys to indulge in anti-J. plots. Study! Study! Study! Learn! Learn! Learn! The Koreans are neither intellectually nor economically ready to kick against the powers that be.
 

11. 12월 11일

1
11th. Saturday. Pale.
 
2
Precious 恩姬 much better―thank God.
3
Went to Chin Ko Kai to buy some toys for children. 文姬 and 明姬 were naturally delighted with the gay displays in the Japanese stores. But I was depressed with the thought that Korea was helplessly dependent on Japan even to the extent of toys and matches in the realm of economy. Koreans disdain to make toys because they are little things which do not realize large profits. They (Koreans) dare not undertake great enterprises because simply they can't. So between what they "Don't" and what they "Can't," the world slips away from them.
 

12. 12월 12일

1
12th. Sunday. Beautiful.
 
2
Worshipped at 宗橋 Church. After the service, visited Mr. Cynn. Had lost three children inside ten days―a terrible blow. The night we entertained Mr. Kelly of Ohio, Cynn told us that his children had cold in turn, that he hadn't thought it worthwhile to consult a doctors about each child to clean up the system. How utterly helpless human wisdom or human confidence is! The human words have no power to give any consolation to a sorrow like Cynn's.
 

13. 12월 13일

1
13th. Monday. Pale. Cold. Windy.
 
2
3 p.m. went to the new orphanage near the old Independence Hall. Dr. 吳競善 deserves the lion's share of the credit for having created this institution. The orphanage association of which I have been the President, tried all kinds of ways and means to get a piece of vacant lot outside of the East Gate opposite the Kwan Wan temple for the orphanage but the Japanese officials withheld the permit now with one excuse and then with another. Fortunately Mr. Underwood let the association have the use of his property near the Independence Hall for the rent of 30 Yen per month. The old Korean houses on the lot have been repaired so as to accommodate about 30 orphans. The Jap. Bureaucrats have given another proof that they don't know how to win the Korean's heart.
 

14. 12월 14일

1
14th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
With Mr. F.M. Brockman, left Seoul by 9:30 a.m. train for Ham Hung. Saw snow from Wonsan on. Reached Ham Hung 9:30 in the night. Was met by a number of friends. Among whom were 許辨護士 and Yi Soon Kui whom I had known for some years. The latter is the General Secretary of the Ham HungY.M.C.A.
3
Rev. Robb drove us in his buggy through winding streets to his home. His good wife awaited us with hot chocolate and comfortable room. Nearly 17 years have passed since I last visited the city of Ham Hung. What a change! The walls and the gates all gone, not a stone on another. The Canadian mission has lovely homes on the very sites where Provincial 社稷 stood, commanding a magnificent view over the city and the immense plain.
 

15. 12월 15일

1
15th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Had a nice rest. Found Mrs. Robb a charming hostess. Callers from early morning. At the tiffin table I had the pleasure of meeting all the Canadian missionaries in Ham Hung besides the Robbs, Mr. and Mrs. McDonald, Miss F. both the ladies being remarkably good looking. 3 p.m. went to the Ham HungY.M.C.A. building to attend the 3d Anniversary of the establishment of the Y. The room was packed to its last limit. Mr. F.M.B. and I spoke. Supper at a Korean restaurant. 7:30 p.m. a big mass meeting at the church―over a thousand people. I addressed them.
 

16. 12월 16일

1
16th. Thursday. Pretty.
 
2
Up at 5 a.m. Breakfast at 6:30. Left Ham Hung Station by the 7 a.m. train for Seoul. In spite of the early and cold hours, many friends came to see us off.
3
The Japanese atrocities in the Kantos (Chien taos) have affected the Canadian mission most directly. The Canadian missionaries are justly indignant, and are making themselves heard or read abroad. The Japanese Government have issued a statement to the effect that the burning of villages etc. was due to an accident. Such a lie couldn't pass in the mouth of a weak nation; but the world is ready to swallow any quantity of lies if they are backed by a strong enough navy and an army that can fight. Weakness is the greatest of all lies.
 

17. 12월 17일

1
17th. Friday. Cloudy.
 
2
About 3 p.m. Mr. 弓削 of the Education Bureau called and asked me to become one of the 3 Korean members of Committee of Investigation (調査委員) who will draft the Educational Ordinance 敎育令. He intimated that Count Yi Wan Yong might be one of the members. Told him that I would answer in a day or two.
3
7 p.m. called on 山縣悌三郞 and frankly told him that I could not serve on the Committee side by side with Yi Wan Yong and that would be a mistake on the part of the Government to put Yi on the Committee as the Korean people would look on with suspicion and dislike any measure that has the name of Yi Wan Yong connected with it. Mr. 山縣 agreed with me in everything I said and regretted that officials didn't have a better understanding of the Korean psychology.
 

18. 12월 18일

1
18th. Saturday. Pretty.
 
2
Abnormally warm for winter. 具滋玉 left Seoul for America 7:20 night train. He is one of the nicest young Koreans I have known. He has been very reliable in money matters. He is perhaps the best Social Secretary the SeoulY.M.C.A. has ever had. Mr. Brockman has gotten somebody interested in Koo, in America so he goes with expectation of staying there for who years studying Y.M.C.A. work. Judge Watanabe helped 具 to get his passport. The judge is undoubtedly one of the finest Christian characters in Seoul―all races and nationalities included.
 

19. 12월 19일

1
19th. Sunday. Windy-Snappy cold.
 
2
Worshipped at the 宗橋 Church.
3
Mr. 元 of the Song Do High School called. He told me that he had resigned his position in that school to teach in the Seventh Day Baptist school at 順安. He seemed rather pessimistic about the Song Do School. Of the 16 teachers the only one who cares to stay is 白, the teacher of Chinese. He thinks that paying all the teachers alike is a mistake as it makes better qualified men discontented while the expenditure of the school runs up higher.
4
Wanted! A missionary―managed school that gives satisfaction to all!
 

20. 12월 20일

1
20th. Monday. A little snow.
 
2
Early in the afternoon, Mr. 山縣悌三郞 called and reported the result of his interview with Mr. Yuge (弓削) about the Education Investigation Committee. According to Mr. 山縣the Government General is anxious to put Yi Wan Yong on the Committee in the firm belief that, the Educational Ordinance which will surely please the Koreans may make them reconsider or modify their hatred of Yi. I am to be chosen as a representative of the neutral party. Mr. 山縣 tells me that Mr. 弓削 himself doesn't approve of associating the name of Yi Wan Yong with the Ordinance.
 

21. 12월 21일

1
21st. Tuesday. Pretty. Cold.
 
2
Snow last night―the biggest we have had so far in Seoul. 12 morning went to Keijo Hotel, having been invited by Mr. Shibata, the Educational Director, to lunch. Messrs. Yuge and Yamagata were also present. After lunch, Mr. Shibata approached me with the question of my serving on the Educational Ordinance, Committee. I told him, in as soft worlds as I could command, that I couldn't afford to have my name coupled with that of Yi Wan Yong and that it would be a poor policy on the part of the Government General to associate the Ordinance with name of Yi Wan Yong who is so much hated by Koreans of every type and grade.
 

22. 12월 22일

1
22nd. Wednesday. Beautiful. Cold. 22℉. 9 a.m.
 
2
Paik Woon Sang wrote me a few days ago that it takes 13 bags of unhulled rice to pay the taxes which he could have paid with 2 bags. 郭在明 and 李 from my 牙山 farms tell me that the farmers are actually worse off today than they were last winter. The reason 1. The fall of the price of the agricultural products―less than 1/3 of the ruling price of last Spring. 2. The sudden rise of taxes. 3. Private debts at usurious interest compelling a poor farmer to sell one "sum"(20mals) of rice to pay back the debt of 1 "mal." 4. To pay back the relief rice or money which the local authorities distributed among the starving villages last Winter and Spring. What was intended to be a relief has become a crushing debt to the poor. 5. Last year being a noted famine year everybody talked about relieving the poor etc. But this being a year of plenty, so far as farm products are concerned, nobody thinks about relieving the debt oppressed and tax-ridden poor. Whole villages go bankrupt. Police is being empoyed for the collection of taxes. In a village of 30 houses, 15 families had to break up homes. Mencius said of the people under a bad Government: “□歲終身憂凶平不知死亡.” This only faintly describes the actual condition of the Korean.
 

23. 12월 23일

1
23rd. Thursday. Pretty a.m. Gloomy p.m.
 
 

24. 12월 24일

1
24th. Friday. Snow. 28℉F. Noon. (TABLE)
 
2
== ==1919大正八年==1920大正九年==increase==
3
==地稅一期==¥203.58==¥205.90====
4
==附加稅一期==¥18.32==¥61.66==More than 3 times.==
5
==地稅割一二期==¥97.67==¥185.30==Nearly double.==
6
==附加==¥8.14==¥61.77==More than 7 1/2 times.==
 
7
Big snow all the a.m. an ideal Christmas season (to the foreign children) . Stopped snow 4 p.m. Mr. 白雲◉ reports from Asan (屯浦面) . The rise of taxes as follows:
8
For ten years after the annexation farmers have had comparatively easy time with good prices and low taxes. Now that taxes are rising by leaps and bounds while prices of agricultural products are on the down warp march, the eyes of the poor farmers are wide open to their desperate future. Discontentment with the Japanese rule was formerly confined to the student class; but it is now spreading among the farmers like a wild fire. Is this a part of Japan's set policy? Of course taxes are bound to rise but is it wise to raise them so suddenly and so much as to break the paying power of the farmer?
 

25. 12월 25일

1
25th. Saturday. Pretty. 14℉.
 
2
Stayed home on account of a cold.
3
Our 璋善 is our great joy. When we tell him 讚頌해라 “Sing a hymn," he opens his mouth wide and says Ah! Ah!, raising his hand or swinging his arms.
 

26. 12월 26일

1
26th. Sunday. Big snow.
 
2
Stayed home with a cold.
3
Men like Son Pyong Hui and Song Pyong Joon whose lives are steeped in dissipation and undisguised unmorality actually enjoy the following of tens of thousands of simple hearted people as great religious Leaders or 大敎主! These reverend Abbots spend their lives in unsurpassed licentious luxury with the money which their benighted followers contribute with amazing sacrifice.
4
The Japanese would suppress Chun Do Kyo of which Son is the Abbot, so called, but for the fear that they (the Chun Do Kyo people) might swell the ranks of Christians.
5
The Japanese authorities in country places leave no stone unturned to discourage the people from joining the Christian Churches. The Principal of the Primary School at ꟙ山場 forbade the Korean assistant teacher from becoming a member of the Epworth League. In Ham Hung when a Korean Christian begged the magistrate, a Japanese, to sell to the mission school a patch of ground back of the school which belongs to the local government, the magistrate said in so many words that he would not do so because the mission school is anti-Japanese.
 

27. 12월 27일

1
27th. Monday. Pretty.
 
2
Wife sick.
 

28. 12월 28일

1
28th. Tuesday. Pretty. Bitter cold.
 
2
Wife sick. No rest last night.
3
The Japanese budget for 1921 gives for expenditure ¥1,562,542,799(00/100) Two remarkable things: 1. The Foreign Office has nearly as much expenditure as the War Office, the Ordinary Expenses for the former being 181 million Yen compared to 183 million Yen for the latter. 2. The Army and Navy are granted for ordinary and extraordinary expenses. The high sum of nearly 761 million Yen while the Education Office is paid for both purposes 54 1/2 million Yen. Until these figures are reversed viz.: 54 1/2 million Yen for the Army and Navy and 762 million Yen for Education, there is no hope of people being relieved of their crushing burdens of taxation.
4
The copper and silver coins bearing the reign titles of 光武 and 隆熙 are to be demonetized, from the 1st Jan. 1921. If this measure is taken to bring out the hoard of these coins from their hiding places into circulation―why, that's all right. But if these coins are condemned in order to destroy the last sign of Korea's lost independence, I pity the pettiness of the Japanese soul.
 

29. 12월 29일

1
29th. Wednesday. Beautiful. Very cold.
 
2
Wife sick. No rest last night.
 

30. 12월 30일

1
30th. Thursday. Cloudy. Warmer.
 
2
Wife up but still weak.
3
Count Yi Wan Yong has been made Marquis and Viscount Song Pyung Joon, a Count. The Japanese Government want to remind the Koreans that those who serve Japan faithfully, are rewarded handsomely. The trouble is, however, that the Koreans are reminded, everytime these renegades get rewarded, of their (the renegades) baseness, and of the sad condition of the Korean race. To remind 17 millions of their humiliation and wretchedness to gratify the vanity of a couple of ignoble men can't be the wisest policy.
 

31. 12월 31일

1
31th. Friday. Cloudy. Thawing.
 
2
Went to Dr. Hardie's with Mary Abbe to see Miss Gaines, before noon.
3
Mailed letter to Allen with a bill of exchange for500(00/100) U.S. gold=¥1,025.64+.50 fee.
4
During the year just closing I have given away for charity and for public contributions more than ¥6,500(00/100) . Of this amount the Yen 300(00/100) which I gave to 金相敎 the son of my old teacher, Mr 金正浩 to whom I owe my early education in Chinese gives me the greatest satisfaction.
5
Praise God from Whom all Blessing flow!
6
Praise Father, Sen and Hely Ghost!
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