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  메인화면 (다빈치!지식놀이터) :: 다빈치! 원문/전문 > 문학 > 세계문학 > 소설 영문 

◈ The Canterbury Tales (캔터베리 이야기) ◈

◇ The Manciple’s Prologue and Tale, The Parson’s Prologue and Tale, and Chaucer’s ◇

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제프리 초서
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 1. The Manciple’s Prologue
 2. The Manciple’s Tale
 3. The Parson’s Prologue
 4. The Parson’s Tale
 5. Chaucer’s Retraction

1. The Manciple’s Prologue

0 Here follows the Prologue of the Manciple’s Tale
1 Do you all know where stands a little town
2 Which everybody calls Bob-Up-and-Down,
3 Under the Blean, down Canterbury way?
4 There our Host began to jest and play,
5 And said: ‘Sires, were stuck! Dun’s in the mire!
6 Is there no man, for prayer or for hire,
7 Will wake our friend sleeping there behind?
8 A thief as now might easily rob him blind.
9 Look at him napping! See how, God’s bones,
10 Hell tumble from his horse onto the stones!
11 Is that the London Cook, cursed mischance?
12 Make him come forth, and do his penance,
13 For he shall tell a tale too, by my faith,
14 Although it’s not worth a barrow of hay.
15 Awake, thou Cook!’ quoth he, ‘God give you sorrow!
16 What ails you to sleep this fine morrow?
17 Did fleas bite you all night? Or are you drunk?
18 Or had you a harlot all night in your bunk,
19 So youve not the strength to lift your head?’
20 The Cook, who was full pale and nothing red,
21 Said to our Host: ‘So God my soul may bless,
22 There fell upon me such a heaviness
23 I know not why – I’d rather have my sleep
24 Than the best barrel of wine in Westcheap.’
25 Well,’ quoth the Manciple, ‘it it may ease
26 Your pain, Sir Cook, and no one else displease
27 That rides among us in this company,
28 And if our Host agrees, of his courtesy,
29 I will for now excuse you of your tale.
30 For in good faith your visage is full pale.
31 Your eyes are dull as well now, methinks,
32 And I find your breath full sour it stinks;
33 It’s obvious that you are indisposed.
34 By me, for certain, you’d not be proposed!
35 See how he yawns now, this drunken knight,
36 As though he would swallow us all aright.
37 Close your mouth man, by your father’s kin!
38 The devil from Hell has set his foot therein!
39 Your cursed breath will soon infect us all.
40 Fie, stinking swine, to foulness youll fall!
41 Ah, take heed, sires, of this gallant man!
42 Now, sweet sire, will you joust at the fan?
43 It looks as if youre in perfect shape!
44 I’d say youre as drunken as an ape,
45 That’s when men suck wine out with a straw.’
46 At this speech the Cook grew wrath and raw,
47 At the Manciple he shook his head full fast
48 For lack of speech, and off the horse him cast,
49 Where he lay a-sprawling, till someone took
50 Him up: this was a fair horseman of a cook!
51 Alas, he couldn’t hold on by his ladle!
52 And, ere he was once more in the saddle,
53 There was much shoving, both to and fro,
54 To get him up, a deal of care and woe,
55 So helpless was this sorry pallid ghost.
56 And to the Manciple then spoke our Host:
57 Because drink has the domination
58 Of this poor man, by my salvation,
59 I think but poorly he’d tell his tale.
60 Whether it’s wine or old or fresh-brewed ale
61 That he’s drunk, he’s speaking through his nose,
62 And wheezing hard, and like to have a cold.
63 He’s more than enough to do right now
64 To keep him and his horse from the slough;
65 And if he falls from his horse a time or two,
66 Then we shall all have enough to do
67 In lifting of his heavy drunken carcase.
68 Tell on your tale; he’s nothing to the purpose.
69 Yet, Manciple, it’s hardly my advice
70 To openly reprove him for his vice.
71 Another day, he will, peradventure,
72 Reclaim you, and call you to the lure.
73 I mean, hell chatter about little things,
74 Such as small errors in your reckonings,
75 All not quite honest, if it came to proof.’
76 What,’ quoth the Manciple, ‘is that the truth!
77 So might he easily catch me in a snare.
78 Well now, I’d rather pay him for the mare
79 He rides on, than have him with me strive.
80 I’ll not anger him so, as I would thrive!
81 Whatever I spoke, I said but jesting word.
82 And know you now I have here in a gourd
83 A draught of wine, yea, of a ripened grape,
84 And right anon youll see a merry jape.
85 The Cook must drink thereof, indeed, I say;
86 On pain of death, he shall not say me nay.’
87 And certainly, to tell this as it was,
88 The Cook drank from it fast enoughalas!
89 What need, since he’d been drunk all the morn?
90 And when he had tooted on this merry horn,
91 To the Manciple he gave the gourd again;
92 And with that drink the Cook was free of pain,
93 And thanked him, best as he could, and bowed.
94 Then our Host began to laugh wondrous loud,
95 And said: ‘I see now, that it’s necessary,
96 When we go abroad, good drink to carry,
97 For it will turn all rancour and distress
98 To peace and love, and many a wrong redress.
99 O Bacchus, now thus blessed be your name,
100 That can so make of earnestness a game!
101 Worship and thanks be to your deity!
102 Of all that now youll get no more of me;
103 Tell on your tale, sir Manciple, I pray.’
104 Well, sire,’ quoth he, ‘now hark to what I say.’

2. The Manciple’s Tale

0 Here begins the Manciple’s Tale of the Crow
1 When Phoebus had on earth his habitation,
2 As the ancient books are pleased to mention,
3 He was the most gallant of bachelors
4 In all this world, and the best of archers.
5 He slew Python, the serpent, as he lay
6 Sleeping on the ground one sunny day.
7 And many another noble worthy deed
8 He wrought with his great bow, as men may read.
9 And every instrument of minstrelsy,
10 He could play, and sing, that a melody
11 It was merely to hear his clear voice sound.
12 In truth, the King of Thebes, Amphion,
13 Who with his singing walled a city,
14 Could never sing half so well as he.
15 And also he was the handsomest man
16 That is, or was, since all the world began.
17 What need his noble features to describe?
18 For in this world was none so fair alive,
19 He was filled full, as well, with nobleness,
20 With honour, and perfect courteousness.
21 This Phoebus, the flower of chivalry
22 And noted as well for magnanimity,
23 To sport himselfand mark his victory
24 Over Python, so runs the old story
25 Was wont to carry in his hand a bow.
26 Now Phoebus in his house he had a crow,
27 That in a cage he nurtured many a day,
28 And taught to speak, as men will teach a jay.
29 White was this crow as is a snow-white swan,
30 And counterfeited the speech of every man
31 Whenever he set out to tell a tale.
32 And too, in all this world, no nightingale
33 Could in a hundred thousandth part excel
34 In singing so wondrous sweet and well.
35 Now in his house this Phoebus had a wife,
36 Whom he loved more than his very life,
37 And night and day he showed his diligence
38 In pleasing her, and doing her reverence;
39 Except for the fact that, truth to say,
40 He was jealous, and in a gilded cage
41 Would have kept her, and live undeceived.
42 And so is every man to some degree;
43 But all in vain, for it avails us naught.
44 A good wife who’s chaste in deed and thought,
45 Should not be spied upon, that’s for certain;
46 And truly it is labour all in vain
47 To keep watch on a bad one, can’t succeed.
48 This I hold as foolishness indeed,
49 To waste labour keeping watch on wives.
50 Thus the ancients wrote throughout their lives.
51 Now to my purpose, as I first began:
52 This noble Phoebus does the best he can
53 To please her, thinking to dance attendance,
54 And that with his courtesy and governance,
55 No man would eclipse him from her grace.
56 But, God knows, no man can embrace
57 With restraints anything that nature
58 Has naturally implanted in a creature.
59 Take a bird: imprison him in a cage,
60 And all your care and your intent engage
61 On feeding him tenderly with meat and drink,
62 And every dainty of which you can think,
63 And keep him there as tidily as you may,
64 Although his gilded cage be never so gay,
65 Yet would the bird twenty thousand fold
66 Prefer his forest, however harsh and cold,
67 A diet of worms, and other nastiness.
68 Forever this bird will be about the business
69 Of escaping from his cage, if he may;
70 His liberty the bird desires, I say.
71 Or take a cat, and nurture it well on milk
72 And tender flesh, and make his bed of silk,
73 Let him but see a mouse by the wall
74 Anon he abandons milk and flesh and all,
75 And every dainty thing that’s in the house,
76 Such is his appetite to eat a mouse!
77 Lo, here has desire its domination,
78 And appetite banishes discretion.
79 She-wolves too are of the baser kind:
80 The coarsest wolf that she may find,
81 Or least in reputation, will she take,
82 When the time comes to find a mate.
83 All these examples are aimed at men
84 Who prove untrue, in no way at women.
85 For men have ever a lecherous appetite
86 On lower things to perform their delight
87 Than on their wives, be they ever so fair,
88 Or be they ever so true, and debonair.
89 Flesh is so fond of noveltysad mischance! –
90 Newfangledness finds nothing in the glance
91 That’s in accord with virtue, for any while.
92 This Phoebus, who was innocent of guile,
93 Was deceived, despite that he was comely,
94 For under him another man had she,
95 He a man of little reputation,
96 Not worth Phoebus in comparison.
97 More is the harm, it happens often so,
98 From which there comes much harm and woe.
99 So it befell, when Phoebus was absent,
100 His wife anon for her cocksman sent.
101 Her cocksman? Indeed, a knavish speech!
102 Forgive me the term, I do beseech
103 Plato, the wise, says this, as you may read:
104 The word should ever accord with the deed.
105 If a man would speak rightly of a thing,
106 The word must be cousin to the doing.
107 I’m a blunt man, and right thus say I:
108 There is no difference, to my eye,
109 Between a wife who is of high degree,
110 If with her body she dishonest be,
111 And a poor wench, lower than all this
112 If it so be they both do go amiss
113 Except that the gentlewoman above,
114 Will be called his lady, as in love,
115 But the other who’s a poor woman,
116 Shall be called his wench or his lemman.
117 Yet God knows, my own dear brother,
118 Men lay the one as low as lies the other.
119 Just as between a usurping tyrant
120 And an outlaw or a thief arrant,
121 The same appertains; there’s no difference.
122 Alexander the Great heard just this sentence:
123 That because a tyrant has great might,
124 By force of armies to slay outright,
125 And burn house and home, and scorch the plain,
126 Lo he’s a mighty general, men explain;
127 But the outlaw with a tiny company,
128 Who may not do as great harm as he,
129 Nor bring a country to such great mischief,
130 Men label him an outlaw or a thief.
131 But as I am unlearned, not textual,
132 Never a word of texts shall I tell;
133 I’ll return to the tale that I began.
134 When Phoebuswife had sent for her man,
135 Anon they wrought their lust to assuage.
136 The white crow, who hung there in his cage
137 Beheld the work, but spoke never a word.
138 But when home was come Phoebus his lord,
139 The crow sang out: ‘Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo!’
140 What, bird?’ quoth Phoebus, ‘What song sing you?
141 Were you not wont so merrily to sing
142 That to my heart it was all rejoicing
143 To hear your voice? Alas, what song is this?’
144 By God,’ quoth he, I sing naught amiss!
145 Phoebus, ‘quoth he, ‘for all your worthiness,
146 For all your beauty and your nobleness,
147 For all your song and all your minstrelsy,
148 For all your watching, your eye’s deceived
149 By a man of little reputation,
150 One not worth you, in comparison,
151 Not even worth a gnat, by my life!
152 For on your bed I saw him have your wife.’
153 What more do you wish? The crow anon told,
154 With serious proof and with words bold,
155 How his wife had indulged in lechery,
156 Bringing him to great shame and misery,
157 Said he’d often seen it with his own eyes.
158 Then Phoebus turned away, his thoughts awry,
159 And felt his sorrowful heart might break in two;
160 His bow he bent, and set therein an arrow,
161 And in his anger then his wife did slay
162 That was the outcome: there’s no more to say.
163 For sorrow he broke his tools of minstrelsy,
164 His harp and lute, gittern and psaltery,
165 And then he broke his arrows and his bow.
166 And after that thus spoke he to the crow:
167 Traitor,’ quoth he, ‘with tongue of scorpion,
168 You have brought me to my confusion!
169 Alas that I was born! Would I were dead!
170 O dear wife, O gem of joy now sped,
171 Who were to me so constant and so true,
172 Now you lie dead with face pale of hue,
173 All guiltlessthat I dare swear, of this!
174 O reckless hand, to strike so far amiss!
175 O troubled mind! O anger heedless,
176 Thoughtlessly to smite the guiltless!
177 O mistrust, full of false suspicion!
178 Where was your reason and discretion?
179 O, every man, now, beware of rashness!
180 Believe nothing without strong witness.
181 Smite not too soon, ere you know why,
182 And take thought, with a sober eye,
183 Ere you indulge in execution,
184 In anger, born of mere suspicion.
185 Alas, a thousand folk has reckless ire
186 Destroyed, and hurled them in the mire!
187 Alas, of sorrow I’ll perish utterly!’
188 And to the crow: ‘O, false thief!’ said he,
189 ‘I will repay you now for your false tale.
190 Once you sang like to the nightingale;
191 Now shall you, false thief, your song forgo,
192 And all your white feathers, shall lose also,
193 Never through all your life shall you speak.
194 Thus shall we on a traitor vengeance wreak!
195 You and your offspring ever shall be black,
196 With no sweet sound shall you answer back,
197 But ever croak, foretelling storm and rain,
198 As sign that through you my wife was slain.’
199 And to the crow he went, and that anon,
200 And pulled out his white feathers every one,
201 And made him black, and took away his song,
202 And his speech too, and out of doors he’s gone
203 To the devil: that he might take him back.
204 And for this reason so are all crows black.
205 Lordings, of this example I you pray,
206 Beware, and be careful what you say:
207 And never tell a man, thus, on your life,
208 That another man has been with his wife.
209 He will hate you mortally, for certain.
210 King Solomon, as the clerks explain,
211 Teaches a man to guard his tongue well
212 Though as I said, I am not textual
213 Nevertheless, thus taught to me, my dame:
214 My son, think of the crow, in God’s name!
215 My son, keep your counsel and keep your friend.
216 A wicked tongue is one the fiend doth send;
217 My son, against the fiend a man may bless!
218 My son, God, of his eternal goodness,
219 Walled the tongue too with lips and teeth,
220 For a man should be careful what he speaks.
221 My son, full often by a careless speech
222 Has many a man been ruined, clerks do teach,
223 But by saying little, and advisedly,
224 No man is ruined, speaking generally.
225 My son, your tongue you should restrain
226 At all times, except when you take pain
227 To speak of God in honour and prayer.
228 The first virtue, son, be you aware,
229 Is to restrain, and guard well your tongue;
230 So children learn when they are young.
231 My son, from much speaking, ill-advised,
232 Where less speech would have sufficed,
233 Comes much harm: so I was told and taught.
234 Too much speaking of sin lacks naught.
235 Know you not how a reckless tongue serves?
236 As a sword that slashes about and swerves,
237 Slicing an arm or two, my son, just so
238 A tongue severs friendship at a blow.
239 A chatterer is to God abominable.
240 Read Solomon, the wise and honourable;
241 Read David in his Psalms; read Seneca.
242 My son, speak not at all but be a nodder.
243 Feign to be deaf, if you but chance to hear
244 A gossip speaking of some dangerous matter.
245 The Flemings sayand note it if you please
246 That lack of gossip is a source of peace.
247 My son, if you no wicked speech have made,
248 You need never fear youll be betrayed;
249 And he that speaks ill, I should explain,
250 He may never recall his words again.
251 A thing that’s said is said, and forth it goes,
252 Though regretted, like as not, I’d suppose.
253 He is a thrall to one to whom he’s said
254 Words he now regrets: speak not, instead.
255 My son: be wary, be not the author new
256 Of tidings, whether they are false or true.
257 Wherever you are, among the high or low,
258 Guard your tongue, and think about the crow.
259 Here is ended the Manciple’s Tale of the Crow

3. The Parson’s Prologue

0 Here follows the Prologue to the Parson’s Tale
1 With that the Manciple his tale ended,
2 The sun from the meridian descended
3 So low that he was no more, to my sight,
4 Than nine and twenty degrees in height.
5 Four of the clock it was, or so I guess,
6 For eleven feet or so, no more no less,
7 My shadow at that moment lay there,
8 Marking a foot as if my length were
9 Of six equal feet, in due proportion;
10 And the sign of Saturn’s exaltation
11 I mean Librabeginning to ascend,
12 As we were entering a hamlet’s end.
13 Upon which our Host, as he was pleased
14 To govern, as now, our jolly company,
15 Spoke in this wise: ‘Lordings every one,
16 Now of tales we lack no more than one.
17 Fulfilled is my pronouncement and decree;
18 Weve had a tale from each in their degree.
19 Almost fulfilled is all my ordinance.
20 I pray God brings him what of best may chance,
21 Who tells this last tale entertainingly!
22 Sir priest,’ quoth he, ‘– a vicar now art thee,
23 Or a parson? The truth now by your faith! –
24 Whatever you are, spoil you not our play,
25 For every man save you has told his tale.
26 Unbuckle now, and show what’s in your bale,
27 For truly, your face is of such cheer
28 You con mighty matter it would appear.
29 Tell us a fable anon, by cock’s bones!’
30 The Parson then answered him at once:
31 Youll get no fable that’s told by me.
32 For Paul, in writing there to Timothy,
33 Reproves those who swerve from truthfulness,
34 Relating fables and such sinfulness.
35 Why should I sow chaff from my fist,
36 When I can sow wheat, as I would wish?
37 So I will say, that if you wish to hear
38 Of morality and virtuous things here,
39 And grant me of my speech an audience,
40 I will gladly do Christ full reverence,
41 Giving you lawful pleasure, as I can.
42 But in truth I am a southern man;
43 I cannot give yourum, ram, rufby letter,
44 And, God knows, I hold rhyme little better.
45 Rhyme and alliteration I’ll dispose
46 With, and tell you a merry tale in prose,
47 To knit up all this game and make an end.
48 And Jesus, of his grace, may wit me send
49 To show you the manner, in this passage
50 Of that perfect glorious pilgrimage
51 That’s called Jerusalem the celestial.
52 And if you all agree, anon I shall
53 Begin my tale, on which now I pray
54 Give your opinion; I can no better say.
55 Yet nonetheless, this meditation
56 I submit it always for correction
57 By clerics, for I am not textual.
58 I take but the moral, trust me well.
59 Therefore I make this protestation
60 That what I say may stand correction.’
61 These words of his we all assented to;
62 For, it seemed to us, fit thing to do
63 To end with some virtuous sentence,
64 And to grant him space and audience.
65 And bade our Host he should then say
66 That to tell his tale we did him pray.
67 Our Host spoke the words for us all:
68 Sir priest,’ quoth he, ‘good luck you befall!
69 Say what you will, and we will gladly hear.’
70 And with that he added in manner here:
71 Tell us,’ quoth he,’ all your meditation,
72 But haste you, for the sun’s in declination.
73 Be fruitful now in a little space,
74 And to tell it well God send you grace.’

4. The Parson’s Tale

0 Translator’s note: The following extract is provided to illustrate the style of this lengthy prose sermon on the right preparation for Confession, and the nature of the Seven Deadly Sins. The sermon discusses Penitence and Contrition, and then the seven sins. Freely willed Confession leads to Satisfaction in alms-giving, penance, fasting and bodily pain. Its fruit is heavenly bliss.
1 Here begins the Parson’s Tale
2 Jeremiah 6:16. State super vias et videte et interrogate de viis antiquis que sit via bona et ambulate in ea et invenietis refrigerium animabus vestris
3 Our sweet lord God of Heaven, in order that no man shall perish, and that we all come to knowledge of Him and the blissful life everlasting, admonishes us through the prophet Jeremiah in this wise: ‘Stand in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein and you shall find rest for your souls…’ many are the spiritual ways that lead folk to our lord Jesus Christ and to the reign of glory; of which ways, there is a full noble and fitting way, which may not fail man or woman who through sin has wandered from the true way of Jerusalem celestial, and this way is called penitence, of which man should gladly hearken and enquire with all his heart, to whit what is penitence, and whence it is called penitence, and of how many kinds are the actions and workings of penitence, and how many sorts of penitence there are, and what things appertain and are fitting to penitence and what things disturb penitence.
4 Saint Ambrose says that penitence is the wailing of man over the guilt he has done, and the resolution that he will no longer do anything that he may lament. And some Doctor said: ‘Penitence is the lamentation of a man that sorrows for his sin and pines for his misdeeds.’ Penitence, in given circumstances, is the true repentance of a man who is in sorrow and pain for his guilt; and in order that he shall be truly penitent, he must first bewail the sins he has committed, and resolve steadfastly in his heart to confess verbally and give satisfaction, and never do anything more that he may bewail or lament, and to continue in good works, or else his repentance is of no avail. For as Saint Isidore says: ‘he is a trifler and an idle talker and no true penitent, who again does things which he must repent.’ Weeping without ceasing from sin is of no avail. Yet, nonetheless, men may hope that every time man falls, be it ever so often, he may arise through penitence, if he has grace, but certainly there is great doubt; for, as says Saint Gregory, he arises only with difficulty from his sin who is charged with the charge of evil usage. And therefore repentant folk, who cease from sin, and renounce sin before sin renounces them, Holy Church holds them more secure of their salvation. And he that sins and truly repents him at the last, Holy Church yet hopes for his salvation, through the great mercy of our lord Jesus Christ, for his repentance; yet take the safer way…….

5. Chaucer’s Retraction

0 Here taketh the maker leave of his book
1 Now I pray all those that hearken to this little treatise or read, that if there be anything in it that pleases them, they thank Our Lord Jesus Christ, from whom proceeds all wit and all goodness. And if there be anything that displeases them, I pray them also to blame it upon my lack of skill, who would full gladly have spoken better if I had that skill. For our Book says: ‘all that is written is written for our doctrine,’ and that is my intent. Wherefore I beseech you meekly, for the mercy of God, that you pay for me, that Christ may have mercy upon me and forgive me my sins; and namely for my translations and writing on worldly vanities, which I revoke in my retraction: as are the Book of Troilus, the Book also of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, the Book of the Duchess; the Book of Saint Valentine’s Day of the Parliament of Fowls, The Tales of Canterbury, those conducive to sin, the Book of the Lion; and many another book, if they were in my remembrance, and many a song and many a lecherous lay; that Christ in his great mercy may forgive me the sin.
2 But the translation of BoethiusDe Consolatione, and other books of legends of Saints, and homilies and morality and devotion, for them I thank Our Lord Jesus Christ and His Blissful Mother, and all the Saints of Heaven; beseeching them that they from henceforth unto my life’s end send me grace to bewail my sins, and to study the salvation of my soul, and grant me the grace of true penitence, confession and satisfaction, to perform in this present life, through the benign grace of Him that is King of kings and Priest over all priests, who bought us with the precious blood of His heart, so that I may be one of those at the day of doom that shall be saved. Qui cum patre etc.
【 】The Manciple’s Prologue and Tale, The Parson’s Prologue and Tale, and Chaucer’s
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