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◈ 윤치호일기 (1940년) ◈

◇ 5월 ◇

해설목차  1권  2권  3권  4권  5권 6권  7권  8권  9권  10권  11권  12권  윤치호

1. 5월 1일

1
1st. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. 11 a.m. had an interview with the Government General. I told him something as follows: As a man who approves of the adoption of Japanese style of names by the Koreans as a means of perfecting the unification of the two races(內鮮一體) . I desire to tell you that there are three reasons which the opponents of the policy advance. First: they say it is disapproved by Tokyo. I don't think that is a sound reason for the simple fact that the Government General can't shape its far reaching policies in Korea by the opinions of certain people in Tokyo. Second: Those who are opposed to the policy of Japanizing the Korean names contend that the Japanese residents in Korea disapprove of the movement because it would obliterate the distinction of the Japanese and the Korean. In other words certain Japanese fear they might lose their superiority complex if all Koreans adopt Japanese name. I think we Koreans ought to thank you for efforts to abolish this superiority complex on the part of certain Japanese. Third: Koreans say we have kept the Korean names for centuries why couldn't we be loyal Japanese citizens as Kim's and Yi's.
3
I think this is very good reason. I suggest that at least six or ten months be extended from the 11th August to give ample time to Koreans to consider the matter before they decide.
 

2. 5월 2일

1
2nd. Thursday. Cloudy a.m.
 
2
Seoul home. Between 4 and 6 p.m. a little passing shower―just to remind as that there is such a thing as rain.
 

3. 5월 3일

1
3rd. Friday. Cloudy a.m.
 
2
Seoul home. (Interview with General Minami continued) When I got through the General put down my remarks on paper and thanked me for my suggestions. (May 1st) Returning home from the General's office I called on Mr. Matsuoka, Chief of the Jong No Police Station, and told him what I had said to General Minami, suggesting to the Chief that he might propose the extension of the time limit (Aug. 11th) to April or Aug. (1941) . The Chief seemed to agree with me that the time limit (Feb. 11-Aug. 11) was too short. He promised he would propose the extension of the time limit at the next General Meeting of the Chiefs of Police Stations to be held sometime in May.
 

4. 5월 4일

1
4th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home.
 

5. 5월 5일

1
5th. Sunday. Beautiful. Cool.
 
2
Seoul home. Invited 尹基鶴 to a Chinese lunch at A-Dong Lu. 6 p.m. went to Chosun Hotel where Mr. Choi Chang Hak, the Mining "Narikin," gave a swell dinner to celebrate his daughter's wedding. For the first time I saw champaign served in Chosun Hotel at a private banquet.
 

6. 5월 6일

1
6th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. Mr. 曺秉鶴 celebrated his son's marriage at Chosun Hotel by giving a costly dinner party to near hundred guests. No champaign, though.
3
On a warm day in the month of May 1910, I saw a negro with white gloves on at the Station of Springfield Mass. He couldn't have them to keep his hands from being tanned by the sun nor to keep them warm. In the streets of Seoul I see many a Korean man and woman too, who have gloves on in hot sweating weather. Are they any better than the negro?
 

7. 5월 7일

1
7th. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. When it was rumored that Hitler planned to invade Poland, Barnhart, in his spread-eagle way said there were two hundred thousand British troops amassed somewhere who would swoop down on Germany (Berlin) the moment Hitler declared war against Poland. Hitler not only declared war against Poland, but he gobbled up Poland in no time and has since smashed the Scandinavian states like a mischievous boy smash up neighbors' windows right and left, yet there is no sign of 200,000 British troops swooping down on Berlin.
 

8. 5월 8일

1
8th. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. Our 文姬 is doing well at the Hospital. Lunch at Mitsukoshi Restaurant with wife entertaining 光鉉's mother, wife's sister 洪珠□'s wife. 光鉉's mother is his step mother.
3
But she has shown herself a good woman by being kind and generous to her worthless step-son.
 

9. 5월 9일

1
9th. Thursday. Beautiful. Very hot.
 
2
Seoul home. Real summer day―very hot. Our 璋善's letter from Tokyo tells me that the great city is suffering from shortage of water supply so that water is cut off from the upper stores of high buildings. Thus the Metropolitan city of Japan is short of water, coal and electricity. Add to this the shortage in charcoal, sugar, soap, paper and hundred other commodities which the great population must have not as luxuries but as necessities―one may well imagine the hardships of the people. Loyalty and patriotism have kept up the courage and patience of the great Japanese nation magnificently. I do hope peace may come before this courage and patience give out.
 

10. 5월 10일

1
10th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. With wife had picnic at our new home―翠雲亭.
3
Mr. Hong Bum Ik told me this afternoon that the Dong-A-Il-Po is again in trouble with the police, the charge being that the Business Director of the newspaper has sold rims of paper to other publishers, at prices not allowed by the legal-price standard. I am afraid the Police will show no mercy to the Dong-A just to get even with Song Jin Woo who appealed to Tokyo against the policy of the Government General which had ordered it to close down last November.
 

11. 5월 11일

1
11th. Saturday. Dull sun a.m.
 
2
Seoul home. This morning's papers report that Germany captured the Hague, capital of Holland; that Holland has declared war against Germany; that German air squadrons composed of couple of hundred war-planes have bombed the aerodromes at Brussels; that the German airplanes have begun lightening attacks on France and England. It looks as if England and France are helpless wasting their time in conferences parliamentary interpretations and debates. These two shylock-nations feeling secure behind the League of Nations and numerous peace treaties and packs―which they had created to keep other robbers off their extensive premises―neglected war-like preparations. Their selfishness and meanness are served right. Yet I can't help abhoring Hitler and Stalin for their insatiable lust for conquest and for their atrocious and wanton invasion of the little innocent states of Northern Europe.
3
6 p.m. near two hundred Koreans, fathers of the girls who have studied, and those who are studying in the Kei-ki Girls' High School, gave a farewell dinner to Principal Komoto who has been transferred to the new Normal School in Peking. He served as Principal of the High School for 15 years. He is typical Japanese gentleman.
 

12. 5월 12일

1
12th. Sunday. Rain.
 
2
Seoul home. From midnight rain began to fall till 11 a.m. Mr. Komoto invited me and about 20 other friends to lunch at 京城ホテル.
 

13. 5월 13일

1
13th. Monday. Beautiful. Cool.
 
2
Seoul home. Yesterday at the lunch table, Mr. Komoto told us that his ancestor was a Dr. Ri(李) a Korean, whom General Hosogawa had taken to his feudal state to be his court physician. The name Komoto was adopted later by the descendant of Dr. Ri. "When I came to Korea 21 years ago, I felt I was returning to my ancestral homeland."
3
Went to Station to see Principal Komoto and his family leave for Nagasaki by 4:00 p.m. Express. We all felt sorry to part with him.
 

14. 5월 14일

1
14th. Tuesday. Sun a.m. Cloudy p.m.
 
2
Seoul home. "Security" (from Germany) has been the aim and end of French policies and diplomatic efforts. England made the "Balance of Power" the goal of her international dealings. For these ends or goals, these two "Grab-all and keep-all" nations tried to keep Germany helpless for generations by saddling her with impossible and humiliating terms of indemnity and of disarmament. For these ends and goals the two Shylock nations invented the League of Nations and numerous peace treaties and disarmament conferences to keep other but "have-not" nations from disturbing the status quo. Where is the security? Where is the Balance of power? France and England might have been safe had they distributed some of their spoils with the other Robber nations.
 

15. 5월 15일

1
15th. Wednesday. Cloudy―Cool a.m.
 
2
Seoul home. Little spray of rain in the afternoon. The Volunteer Supporting Association(志願兵後援會) in the name of the Mayor, of the Chief of the Keiki Provincial Police Bureau and of the President of the Association, invited hundred well-to-do men living in the Chong-No Police District, to a conference at Chosun Hotel 5:30 p.m. The program was a simple one: (1) I, as the President, gave a little welcome address. (2) Major Yi Dai-Yung explained the raison―d'etre of the Association, its work etc., (3) followed by an eloquent appeal by Mr. Jo Byong Sang to the patriotism and generosity of the Public to give at least ¥500.00 each to make up the total of ¥200,000.00 to be used for various purposes for the sake of the volunteers. Of this sum ¥100,000.00 is to be given to the Provincial Police Bureau and the balance to be used for the coming 5 or 6 years by the Association. Of course, nobody dared to say "No." A substantial dinner was served to the guests who in reality had to pay ¥500.00 or more for his dinner.
 

16. 5월 16일

1
16th. Thursday. Dull sun. Cool.
 
2
Seoul home. 4 p.m. the Sung Jai Student Helping Association held its Annual Meeting at Keijo Hotel to select 10 out of 68 applicants for help. Among others I gave my votes to 3 girl students, one in the Tokyo Women's Medical College; one in a Tokyo Pharmaceutical School, and the 3rd Jung Soon Wha a pretty and bright classmate of our 寶姬, the Tokyo Normal School.
 

17. 5월 17일

1
17th. Friday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. By his appointment I had an interview with General Minami at 2:30 p.m. He said he had talk with the Director of Law Bureau about extending the time limit for the adoption of the Japanese style of name but that he found there were three difficulties in the way of so doing. 1st. the application for the extension of the time-limit has to be submitted to the Cabinet in Tokyo. 2nd, in order to present or before presenting the application for the sanction of the Imperial Majesty; third, it has to pass the examination of the Privy Council. The authorities of the Government General oppose to taking the matter to Tokyo considering the difficulties in getting the Imperial Sanction. The General said he would see to it that even after the present time-limit expires on the 11th August, those who desire to Japanize their names shall be given all the facilities which are enjoyed by those who change their names before that date.
3
3 p.m. went to C.C.C. to make a little speech on the 25th anniversary of its foundation. Returned to Chosun Hotel 5:30 where the people (about 25) living in the Ryong San Police District were invited to go through the same program as was given to the Chong No people.
 

18. 5월 18일

1
18th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. 1 p.m. went to the last farewell ceremony of Hon. Yu Hyok No who died 5 days ago. 2 p.m. went to cousin Chi-Soh's home where the clan's committee met and decided to adopt the Japanese surname of Ito.
 

19. 5월 19일

1
19th. Sunday. Beautiful. West wind.
 
2
Seoul home. Yesterday afternoon at 5:30 the people living in the East Gate Police District were invited to Chosun Hotel on the Volunteer Supporting Program.
3
This afternoon 5:30 the people living in the Yedoho Police District were invited. Only about a score guests present many of them being Japanese connected with the Kanevo and Kyong Sung Weaving factories
 

20. 5월 20일

1
20th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. 5:30 p.m. about 40 or more very substantial looking people mostly Koreans living in Hon Machi Police District were invited to go through the Volunteer Supporting Program, the same speeches, the same appeals, the same sort of dinner. Mr. Kim Han Kyu broke the monotony of the stereo typed program by saying that the volunteers being Koreans, the Japanese guests shouldn't be asked to subscribe to the fund solicited and that the association should not have given such expensive dinners spending the hard-won money not for volunteers but for needless entertainment. He subscribed ¥1,000.00 on the spot.
 

21. 5월 21일

1
21st. Tuesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. 12 morning about 20 Koreans gave a welcome luncheon at Chosun Hotel in honor of Mr. Yasu-oka 安岡, the brilliant Chinese scholar who has a large following among the leaders in Tokyo political circles.
3
With wife, Myong Hie, Sun Hie's grandmother visited the Duk-soo Palace. The peonies are almost all gone but the shades the lake and the lawns are a great relief to the dust and noise of the streets.
4
This morning's Keijo Nippo printed a report that I had decided to adopt the Japanese style of surname.
 

22. 5월 22일

1
22nd. Wednesday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. 9:30 over 30 thousand Middle School and College students were gathered on the East side Square on the Kyong Bok Palace ground to celebrate the 2nd anniversary of the day on which H.I. Majesty gave a Rescript to the Youths of the Nation exhorting them to be Loyal and Patriotic. The Governor General read the Rescript. At 10:30 the boys had a march―past before the Governor General at the end of the Ko-ka-mon Dori.
3
This afternoon I was surprised to receive a present of a box containing 6 bottles of Tuljuk juice. The first time a Governor-General ever sent me a present. May it be that General Minami was pleased to read the announcement that I had decided to adopt the Japanese name?
 

23. 5월 23일

1
23rd. Thursday. Beautiful―Pleasant.
 
2
Seoul home. Yesterday afternoon 5:30 the people living in the West Gate Police District were invited on the same program for the same purpose for which the people of the other five Police Districts had been invited. The program is finished and no doubt most of the people invited will give from ¥500.00 to ¥1,000.00.
3
By 12:15 train went to Pal-Dang-Ri with Mr. and Mrs. Hong P.S., Mrs. Hong Esther, and (formerly) Mrs. Ju Yo Han. I didn't enjoy the excursion very much. Returned to city about 7:30.
 

24. 5월 24일

1
24th. Friday. Cloudy.
 
2
Seoul home. Cloudy but too cool for rain.
3
Stayed in bed. It seems the lunch I had yesterday didn't suit me or the nap I had just after the lunch gave me a little indigestion.
4
Rumors are rife to the effect that General Minami, who left Seoul for Tokyo yesterday, will be relieved of his Governor Generalship this time and that General Hayashi will very likely be appointed his successor. I don't know how much of the wish is the father of the rumor; but it is certain Minami has hurt the feeling of the mass of Koreans by using indirect pressure through local police, schools and country officials to urge them adopt Japanese names.
 

25. 5월 25일

1
25th. Saturday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. Stayed in bed―being still indisposed.
3
內鮮一體 or Oneness or Unification of Japan and Korea into One―inseparable unit, has been the aim or hobby of General Minami. So much so that he has said in writing and in speaking that the ultimate success of making the Orientals' Orient lies in the perfection of the Unification of Japan and Korea. A Japanese writer says that the Unification of Japan and Korea is a matter of life and death to the Japanese nation. One can easily understand what these far seeing men say when he understands what will happen to Japan if a hostile power occupied Korea. Hence they resort to every possible means to consummated the Unification. To encourage or even press the Koreans to adopt the Japanese names is one of the means and ways to grab the Korean race into or onto the trunk-race of Japan. Having so decided, the authorities will see to it that Koreans shall adopt the Japanese names. They will black-list any prominent Korean who refuses to do so as being anti-Japanese. I can't afford to make my boys black-listed. Hence my decision. Besides, under circumstances it will be best for the Korean race to be unified with the Japanese race as Scotland was unified with England for the good of both.
 

26. 5월 26일

1
26th. Sunday. Beautiful. Pleasant.
 
2
Seoul home. Stayed in bed.
 

27. 5월 27일

1
27th. Monday. Beautiful.
 
2
Seoul home. These beautiful days and nights would have been such a boon to us all had there been plenty of water reserves last fall and this spring for the requirements of the rice fields. But all the fields in Central and Southern Korea so dry and cracked that farmers hardly find water enough for their seed-beds. If this dreadful drought continues another three weeks or at most one month from now, another famine is certain and few there will be those who can survive the famine.
3
5 p.m. went to the Volunteers' Training School with Messrs. 曺秉相, 李大永, 朴勝武 and others to give the boys a substantial supper and also to the officers. Each boy was given some little token our regards and good wishes. They are to leave the school in a few days. Returned home about 10:30
 

28. 5월 28일

1
28th. Tuesday. Pale sun.
 
2
Seoul home. The papers report that the German troops captured Calais on the 26th. If so Dover on the English side of the Channel is within the range of German long distance guns. England and France so far have shown themselves as helpless against the lightening onslaught of the Nazis as a bunch of school baseball players pitted against a professional veteran team. The balloon of the Anglo-Saxon pride and their intolerable racial arrogance seems to be on the point of being bursted.
 

29. 5월 29일

1
29th. Wednesday. Cloudy.
 
2
Seoul home. Cloudy from early morning giving some promise of a good rain.
3
By 9:15 a.m. train went to the Volunteers Training School to attend the graduation exercises of 4th group of volunteers―296 in all. The volunteers who went to the front two years ago made a fine record. The Government is going to increase the number to 3,000 boys giving to a group of 1,000 boys each, 4 months' training instead of 6 months. Many fear that the time is too short for training so many boys at a time.
4
A mere sprinkling of rain 11:10 to 12:00. Papers report that King Leopold Ⅲ of Belgium ordered his army of 500,000 men to surrender unconditionally to Hitler. The King must have come to the conclusion that the Allies are doomed to certain defeat.
 

30. 5월 30일

1
30th. Thursday. Cloudy. Cool.
 
2
Seoul home. In the country strong pressure is being used by the local police, magistrate and "myon jang"(面長) to make the folks to adopt Japanese names. They refuse to grant deeds to houses built or bought unless the applicant has adopted a Japanese name. Children who want to enter the primary schools are in some places unable to get their census certificates until their names are Japanized.
 

31. 5월 31일

1
31st. Friday. Rain from 2 a.m.
 
2
Seoul home. Real rain from early morning to 1 p.m. We are grateful even for this much rain, but wish it had kept up at least for two or three days.
3
Went to Keijo Y.M.C.A. at 6 p.m. to a supper given by the Korea branch of National Y. Council in honor of Mr. Barnet of the New York Y.M.C.A. He is on a flying tour in the East and gives only a night's stop over in Seoul.
4
Yu Uk Kyum who is dead against Japanization of names told me that Yi Kwang Soo dares not go to Japan because the Koreans there threaten to mob him for having adopted a Japanese name.
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◈ 윤치호일기 (1940년) ◈

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